This study examined generational, ethnic, and gender differences in conflict behaviors during interactions between adults and their parents. We considered associations between observed conflict engagement and conflict disengagement behaviors and participant-rated relationship quality.
Participants included 155 African American and European American women and men (aged 22–49 years), their mothers and their fathers (N = 465). Adult children were videotaped separately with their mother and their father discussing relationship problems. Independent raters coded the conversations for conflict engagement (e.g., pressuring for change) and disengagement (e.g., withdrawing) behaviors.
In African American families, parents displayed more conflict engagement and adult children displayed more conflict disengagement, whereas European American parents and adult children did not differ in their conflict behaviors. Mothers, fathers, and adult children reported poorer relationship quality when they engaged in more conflict engagement behaviors. Adult children also reported poorer quality relationships when their mothers displayed more conflict engagement behaviors. Mothers reported poorer quality relationships when their adult children engaged in more conflict disengagement.
Findings suggest that even as adults, parents and children in poorer quality relationships may engage in potentially ineffective behaviors to resolve conflicts.
Conflict; Ethnicity; Observations; Parent–adult child relationships
To track the course of age-related changes in emotional and tangible support given and received by older adults in the context of their religious congregations.
Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to data from a national sample of 1,192 White and African American older adults who attended church regularly, and they were interviewed up to four times over a period of seven years.
Changes were found in six measures of support. Participants increased in terms of the amount of emotional support that they both gave and received, whereas decreased in the amount of tangible support they gave and received. Satisfaction increased with age for both emotional and tangible support. There were large race-related differences, with African Americans being more engaged in support relationships of all types. Religious factors, including frequency of attendance, commitment, and the congregational cohesiveness were strong predictors of between-person differences.
This study is the first to demonstrate within-person change in church-based support relationships during the course of older adulthood. Patterns of increasing quantity and quality of emotional ties, but decreasing tangible support, partially contrast with previous findings regarding secular support networks but are consistent with the socioemotional selectivity perspective.
Religion; Social support; Longitudinal methods.
Guided by the transtheoretical model of health behavior change, this study sought to explain why (a) rates of advance care planning remain low in the general population and (b) surrogate decision makers are often inaccurate about patients’ end-of-life preferences.
The study used quantitative data from a cross-sectional internet survey conducted between July and October 2010. The 2,150 participants aged 18–64 belonged to 1,075 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples. Participants included members of a nationally representative internet panel and a convenience sample from online advertisements.
Older age was associated with a greater likelihood of having executed a living will and/or appointed a durable power of attorney for health care. Both older age and poorer health were independently associated with a greater likelihood of having discussed end-of-life health care treatment preferences. Completion of one’s own end-of-life planning was unrelated to one’s ability to accurately report one’s partner’s treatment preferences.
Readiness to plan for end of life appears to differ across planning behaviors. Age and health are related to aspects of one’s own advance care planning, but none of these factors are related to accuracy as a partner’s surrogate.
Advance care planning; Death and dying; Dyadic data; Medical decision making
Although self-rated health (SRH) is recognized as a strong and consistent predictor of mortality and functional health decline, there are relatively few studies examining SRH as a predictor of morbidity. This study examines the capacity of SRH to predict the onset of chronic disease among the late midlife population (ages 51–61 years).
Utilizing the first 9 waves (1992–2008) of the Health and Retirement Study, event history analysis was used to estimate the effect of SRH on incidence of 6 major chronic diseases (coronary heart disease, diabetes, stroke, lung disease, arthritis, and cancer) among those who reported none of these conditions at baseline (N = 4,770).
SRH was a significant predictor of onset of any chronic condition and all specific chronic conditions excluding cancer. The effect was particularly pronounced for stroke.
This research provides the strongest and most comprehensive evidence to date of the relationship between SRH and incident morbidity.
Morbidity; Chronic disease; Self-rated health (SRH); The Health and Retirement Study
To track within-individual change during late life in the sense of personal control and God-mediated control (the belief that one can work collaboratively with God to achieve one’s goals and exercise control over life events) and to evaluate the hypothesis that this element of religion is related to declining personal control.
A longitudinal survey representative of older White and Black adults in the United States tracked changes in personal and God-mediated control in four waves over the course of 7 years.
Growth curve analysis found that the pattern of change differed by race. White adults had less sense of God-mediated control at younger ages, which increased among those who were highly religious but decreased among those who were less religious. Black adults had higher God-mediated control, which increased over time among those with low personal control.
These results indicate that God-mediated control generally increases during older adulthood, but that its relationships with personal control and religious commitment are complex and differ between Black and White adults.
Growth curve analysis; Religion; Sense of control.; Growth curve analysis; Growth curve analysis
To examine whether perceptions of generativity predict the likelihood of increases in
levels of impairment in activities of daily living (ADLs) or of dying over a 10-year
period in older adults aged 60–75 from the Study of Midlife in the United States
Perceptions of generativity and current generative contributions as well as select
sociodemographic, health status, health behavior, and psychosocial factors, assessed at
a baseline exam, were examined as predictors of change in ADL disability level or
mortality over the 10-year period between the baseline and follow-up waves of the MIDUS
Greater levels of generativity and generative contributions at baseline predicted lower
odds of experiencing increases in ADL disability (2 or more new domains of impairment;
generativity odds ratio [OR] = 0.93 and generative contributions OR =
0.87), or of dying (generativity OR = 0.94 and generative contributions OR
= 0.88), over the 10-year follow-up in models adjusted for sociodemographics and
baseline health and disability. Associations remained relatively unchanged with the
inclusion of different sets of health behavior and psychosocial variables in analytic
Findings indicate that greater perceptions of generativity are associated with more
favorable trajectories of physical functioning and longevity over time in older
Aging; Disability; Generativity; Mortality; Usefulness
The objective of this study was to explore the associations between openness to
experience and conscientiousness, two dimensions of the five-factor model of
personality, and usual gait speed and gait speed decline.
Baseline analyses were conducted on 907 men and women aged 71–82 years
participating in the Cognitive Vitality substudy of the Health, Aging, and Body
Composition study. The longitudinal analytic sample consisted of 740 participants who
had walking speed assessed 3 years later.
At baseline, gait speed averaged 1.2 m/s, and an average decline of 5% over the 3-year
follow-up period was observed. Higher conscientiousness was associated with faster
initial walking speed and less decline in walking speed over the study period,
independent of sociodemographic characteristics. Lifestyle factors and disease status
appear to play a role in the baseline but not the longitudinal association between
conscientiousness and gait speed. Openness was not associated with either initial or
decline in gait speed.
These findings extend the body of evidence suggesting a protective association between
conscientiousness and physical function to performance-based assessment of gait speed.
Future studies are needed to confirm these associations and to explore mechanisms that
underlie the conscientiousness mobility connection in aging adults.
Chronic conditions; Conscientiousness; Lifestyle factors; Openness to experience; Walking speed
There is little research on the effects of stressors and social support on frailty.
Older Mexican Americans, in particular, are at higher risk of medical conditions, such
as diabetes, that could contribute to frailty. Given that the Mexican American
population is rapidly growing in the United States, it is important to determine whether
there are modifiable social factors related to frailty in this older group.
To address the influence of social support and stressors on frailty among older Mexican
Americans, we utilized five waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for the
Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (Hispanic EPESE) to examine the impact of stressors
and social support on frailty over a 12-year period. Using a modified version of the
Fried and Walston Frailty Index, we estimated the effects of social support and
stressors on frailty over time using trajectory modeling (SAS 9.2, PROC TRAJ).
We first grouped respondents according to one of three trajectories: low, progressive
moderate, and progressive high frailty. Second, we found that the effects of stressors
and social support on frailty varied by trajectory and by type of stressor.
Health-related stressors and financial strain were related to increases in frailty over
time, whereas social support was related to less-steep increases in frailty.
Frailty has been hypothesized to reflect age-related physiological vulnerability to
stressors, and the analyses presented indicate partial support for this hypothesis in an
older sample of Mexican Americans. Future research needs to incorporate measures of
stressors and social support in examining those who become frail, especially in minority
Functional health status; Minority aging (race/ethnicity); Social support; Stress
This study examined the longitudinal association between a prior history of sexual
assault (SA), typically in youth, and decreasing executive functioning (EF) in old age
and whether the apolipoprotein (APOE) ϵ4 allele modifies this relationship.
In this longitudinal study, 846 community-dwelling older adults at baseline completed
questions about SA history and two tests of EF. Over the 10 years following this
baseline visit, participants completed up to 3 follow-up cognitive assessments.
Mixed-effects models first examined the longitudinal association between SA and EF
performance. Last, preplanned analyses examined whether the APOE ϵ4 allele modified
A single SA exposure was not associated with EF declines. Repeated SA exposure was
associated with steeper declines in both EF measures. For Trails B, there was a
significant interaction between any SA exposure and the APOE ϵ4 allele, such that
having either repeated or isolated SA as well as APOE ϵ4 was associated with faster
SA exposure earlier in life may increase risk for declines in EF 50–60 years
later in old age, particularly in the context of the APOE ϵ4 allele. These results
generally support a diathesis-stress model of decreased cognitive reserve.
Aging; APOE; Executive functioning; Trauma
The Nun Study showed that lower linguistic ability in young adulthood, measured by idea density (ID), increased the risk of dementia in late life. The present study examined whether ID measured in late life continues to predict the trajectory of cognitive change.
ID was measured in 81 older adults who were followed longitudinally for an average of 4.3 years. Changes in global cognition and 4 specific neuropsychological domains (episodic memory, semantic memory, spatial abilities, and executive function) were examined as outcomes. Separate random effects models tested the effect of ID on longitudinal change in outcomes, adjusted for age and education.
Lower ID was associated with greater subsequent decline in global cognition, semantic memory, episodic memory, and spatial abilities. When analysis was restricted to only participants without dementia at the time ID was collected, results were similar.
Linguistic ability in young adulthood, as measured by ID, has been previously proposed as an index of neurocognitive development and/or cognitive reserve. The present study provides evidence that even when ID is measured in old age, it continues to be associated with subsequent cognitive decline and as such may continue to provide a marker of cognitive reserve.
Cognitive aging; Cognitive reserve; Idea density; Linguistic ability
Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed
between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among
today’s middle-aged and older adults.
Design and Method.
We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community
Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed
to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce.
The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly
1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic
characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the
risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in
remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital
The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to
include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and
older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of
divorces that occur during middle and later life.
Cohort; Demographic characteristics; Divorce rate; Economic resources; Marital duration; Marriage order
To examine the association between openness to experience and conscientiousness and
incident reported walking limitation.
The study population consisted of 786 men and women aged 71–81 years
(M = 75 years, SD
= 2.7) participating in the Health, Aging, and Body
Composition—Cognitive Vitality Substudy.
Nearly 20% of participants (155/786) developed walking limitation during 6 years of
follow-up. High openness was associated with a reduced risk of walking limitation
(hazard ratio [HR] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] =
0.69–0.98), independent of sociodemographic factors, health conditions, and
conscientiousness. This association was not mediated by lifestyle factors and was not
substantially modified by other risk factors for functional disability.
Conscientiousness was not associated with risk of walking limitation (HR = 0.91,
95% CI = 0.77–1.07).
Findings suggest that personality dimensions, specifically higher openness to
experience, may contribute to functional resilience in late life.
Conscientiousness; Functional limitations; Openness to experience; Personality
To compare the prediction of cognitive functioning by formal education and self-rated literacy and the differences in prediction across younger and older cohorts.
Data on 28,535 respondents were drawn from a cross-sectional representative sample of community-dwelling older individuals (≥50), participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. Education level was classified according to the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 (ISCED-1997) self-rated literacy was determined by having respondents rate their reading and writing on 1–5 scales. Cognitive functioning was measured by verbal recall, word fluency, and arithmetic ability.
Structural equation modeling demonstrated that self-rated literacy was more strongly associated with cognitive functioning than was education level, with or without additional exogenous variables (age, sex, household income, medical conditions, activities of daily living, reading eyesight, and country). The association between education level and cognitive functioning was weaker in older than in younger age groups, whereas the association between self-rated literacy and cognitive functioning showed the opposite trend.
Self-rated literacy was found to be a better predictor of late-life cognitive functioning than was the level of formal education. The results have implications for studies of age-related differences in which education level is taken into account.
Aging; Cognitive functioning; Education; Literacy; Reading and writing
This study examined speed of processing, executive functioning, and psychomotor speed as independent prospective predictors of falls and recurrent falls across 3 years.
The participants were 509 community-dwelling older adults. Measures of speed of processing, executive function, psychomotor speed, and known risk factors of falling were included in correlation and logistic regression analyses.
Poor executive function (Trail Making Test), slower speed of processing (Digit Symbol Substitution [DSS] Test), and slower psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Copy Test) were significantly associated with falls. Poor executive function and speed of processing performance (Stroop Test, Trail Making Test, and DSS Test) as well as slower psychomotor speed were significantly related to recurrent falls. Logistic regression results indicated that only medication use, far visual acuity, and psychomotor speed were significant independent predictors of falls. Regarding recurrent falls, being white, medication use, and balance were significant predictors.
Although cognitive measures at baseline were significantly associated with falls and recurrent falls at follow-up, these measures did not predict falling after considering known risk factors of falls and psychomotor speed. Thus, it may be that simple measures of psychomotor speed are more salient predictors of falls than cognitive measures.
Falls; Processing speed; Executive function; Psychomotor speed; Falls; Falls
To investigate whether number of children and, among parents, having a daughter is associated with older people’s likelihood of at least weekly face-to-face social contact and later receipt of help if needed.
Multivariate analysis of data from Waves 1 and 2 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA).
Older parents in England had higher chances of at least weekly face-to-face social contact than their childless counterparts but larger family size had only a slight additional effect. For parents, having at least one daughter was more important than number of children. Larger family size was positively associated with receipt of help from a child by parents with activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) limitations. Childless women were more likely than mothers to receive help from friends but even so had lower odds of receiving help from any informal source. Contact with a child in 2002 predicted receipt of help 2 years later.
These results show some advantages for older parents compared with childless individuals in terms of social contact and receipt of help and, among parents, an additional effect of having a daughter. Changes in family size distributions have implications for the support of older people and for planners of formal services.
Children; Older women and men; Receipt of help; Social contacts; England
We take a biopsychosocial perspective on age-related diseases by examining
psychological correlates of having multiple chronic conditions and determining whether
positive psychological functioning predicts advantageous profiles of biological risk
Respondents to the national survey of Midlife in the United States who participated in
clinical assessments of health and biological processes (n =
998) provided information on chronic medical conditions and multiple domains of
psychological functioning. Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive
protein (CRP) were determined from fasting blood samples.
Life satisfaction declined with increasing comorbidity while negative affect increased.
In contrast, positive affect, purpose in life, and positive relations with others were
unrelated to comorbidity status. Significant interactions showed that although IL-6 and
CRP increased with increasing number of chronic conditions, respondents with higher
levels of purpose in life, positive relations with others, and (in the case of CRP)
positive affect had lower levels of inflammation compared with those with lower
The results suggest that many older adults with medical comorbidities maintain high
levels of positive psychological functioning that are in turn linked to better profiles
of biological disease risk.
Chronic conditions; Inflammation; Successful aging; Well-being;
Although personality is relatively stable over time, there are individual differences
in the patterns and magnitude of change. There is some evidence that personality change
in adulthood is related to physical health and longevity. The present study expanded
this work to consider whether personality stability or change would be associated with
better cognitive functioning, especially in later adulthood.
A total of 4,974 individuals participated in two waves of The Midlife in the United
States Study (MIDUS) in 1994–1995 and 2004–2005. Participants completed the
MIDUS personality inventory at both times and the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by
Telephone cognitive battery at Time 2.
Multiple regression and analysis of covariance analyses showed that, consistent with
predictions, individuals remaining stable in openness to experience and neuroticism had
faster reaction times and better inductive reasoning than those who changed. Among older
adults, those who remained stable or decreased in neuroticism had significantly faster
reaction times than those who increased.
As predicted, personality stability on some traits was associated with more adaptive
cognitive performance on reasoning and reaction time. Personality is discussed as a
possible resource for protecting against or minimizing age-related declines in
Aging; Cognitive performance; Personality change
Prior research found age invariance in accuracy of delayed judgments of learning
accuracy (Eakin, D. K., & Hertzog, C. . Release from implicit interference in
memory and metamemory: Older adults know that they can’t let go. The
Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social
Sciences, 61, 340–347). We tested whether aging affects accuracy of
feeling of knowing (FOK) predictions under implicit interference. Discrepancies in the
literature suggest that FOKs sometimes are and sometimes are not affected by aging. In
addition, because the effects of implicit interference are different on recognition than
on recall, older adults may have difficulty ignoring the impact of interference on
recall in order to accurately predict the lack of interference effects on
Younger and older adults studied cue-target pairs and cue set size varied. After a cued
recall test, they made FOKs about future recognition of the target given the cue and
then took a recognition test.
Neither younger nor older adults were able to predict recognition of unrecalled items.
FOKs were more correlated with recall than with recognition for both age groups.
Although both recall and recognition varied with age, no age differences were obtained
in FOK accuracy.
FOK accuracy was not impaired with age, even when memory was. FOKs of both younger and
older adults reflected implicit interference effects in recall, not recognition.
Associate set size; Feeling of knowing; Interference; Metamemory
Individuals’ perceptions of their own age(ing) are important correlates of
well-being and health. The goals of the present study were to (a) examine indicators of
self-perceptions of aging across adulthood and (b) experimentally test whether age
stereotypes influence self-perceptions of aging.
Adults 18–92 years of age were presented with positive, negative, or no age
stereotypes. Before and after the stereotype activation, aging satisfaction and
subjective age were measured.
The activation of positive age stereotypes did not positively influence
self-perceptions of aging. Quite the contrary, priming middle-aged and older adults in
good health with positive age stereotypes made them feel older. After the activation of
negative age stereotypes, older adults in good health felt older and those in bad health
wanted to be younger than before the priming. Even younger and middle-aged adults
reported younger desired ages after the negative age stereotype priming. Persons in bad
health also thought they looked older after being primed with negative age
Taken together, although we find some support for contrast effects, most of our results
can be interpreted in terms of assimilation effects, suggesting that individuals
integrate stereotypical information into their self-evaluations of age(ing) when
confronted with stereotypes.
Age stereotypes; Aging satisfaction; Labeling theory; Resilience theory; Self-perceptions of aging; Social comparison; Subjective age
Among adults, slower and more variable reaction times are associated with worse
cognitive function and increased mortality risk. Therefore, it is important to elucidate
risk factors for reaction time change over the life course.
Data from the Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS) were used to examine predictors of
7-year decline in reaction time (N = 4,260). Regression-derived
factor scores were used to summarize general change across 4 reaction time variables:
simple mean, 4-choice mean, simple variability, and 4-choice variability (53.52% of
Age (B = .02, p < .001) and HALS1 baseline
reaction time (B = −.10, p = .001)
were significant risk factors for males (N = 1,899). In addition
to these variables, in females (N = 2,361), neuroticism was
significant and interacted synergistically with baseline reaction time
(B = .06, p = .04). Adjustment for
physiological variables explained the interaction with neuroticism, suggesting that
candidate mechanisms had been identified.
A priority for future research is to replicate interactions between personality and
reaction time in other samples and find specific mechanisms. Stratification of
population data on cognitive health by personality and reaction time could improve
strategies for identifying those at greater risk of cognitive decline.
Cognition; Life course and developmental change; Neuroticism; Personality
This study explores the reasons for gender differences in self-reported physical limitation among older adults in Ismailia, Egypt.
435 women and 448 men, 50 years and older in Ismailia, Egypt, participated in a social survey and tests of physical performance. Ordered logit models were estimated to compare unadjusted gender differences in reported disability with these differences adjusted sequentially for (a) age and objective measures of physical performance, (b) self-reported morbidities and health care use, and (c) social and economic attributes.
Compared with men, women more often reported higher levels of limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs), upper-extremity range of motion (ROM), and lower-extremity gross mobility (GM). Adjusting for age and objective measures of physical performance, women and men had similar odds of self-reporting difficulty with ADLs. With sequential adjustments for the remaining variables, women maintained significantly higher odds of self-reported difficulty with upper-extremity ROM and lower-extremity GM.
Cross-culturally, gender differences in self-reported disability may arise from objective and subjective perceptions of disability. Collectively, these results and those from prior studies in Bangladesh and the United States suggest that gender gaps in self-reported physical limitation may be associated with the degree of gender equality in society.
Self reported health; Physical limitation; Gender differences; Egypt.
To examine family caregiver involvement for long-term care (LTC) residents during the
last month of life. Researchers examined direct (personal care and meals) and indirect
(management and monitoring) types of caregiver involvement and the relationship between
the type of involvement and predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics.
Researchers also examined whether the frequency of involvement changed during the
end-of-life (EOL) period.
Researchers used an expanded version of Andersen’s Behavioral Model to
conceptualize predictors of family involvement for 438 residents in 125 residential
care/assisted living and nursing home settings. Bivariate and multivariate analyses
examined relationships among variables.
More than one-half of family caregivers monitored, managed care and assisted with
meals, and 40% assisted with personal care tasks. The enabling characteristic of days
visited and the need characteristic of caregiver role strain were related to each of the
4 types of involvement. However, the other correlates were distinct to the type of
Families are involved in EOL care in LTC settings. Higher role strain is related to
more involvement in each of the 4 types of involvement, suggesting that whether
involvement is by desire, perceived need, or both, there is cause to more critically
examine the family caregiver’s desired role and need for support.
Long-term care facilities; Family caregiver involvement; End of life.
To prospectively examine the relationship between body weight, frailty, and the
Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (1998–2006) were used to
examine the relationship between being underweight, overweight, or obese (compared with
normal weight) and the onset and progression of functional limitations and disabilities
in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL)
among a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults (aged 50 and
older) with characteristics of frailty (n = 11,491).
Nonlinear multilevel models additionally adjusted for demographic characteristics and
intra-individual changes in body weight, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and
health conditions over the course of 8 years.
Compared with their nonfrail normal weight counterparts, prefrail obese respondents
have a 16% (p ≤ 0.001) reduction in the expected functional limitations rate and
frail overweight and obese respondents have a 10% (p ≤ 0.01) and
36% (p ≤ 0.001) reduction in the expected functional limitations
rate, respectively. In addition, frail obese respondents have a 27% (p
≤ 0.05) reduction in the expected ADL disability rate.
This study’s findings suggest that underweight, overweight, and obese status
differentially affect the risk for functional limitations and disabilities in IADL and
ADL. Among prefrail and frail adults, some excess body weight in later life may be
beneficial, reducing the rate of functional limitations and disability.
Sarcopenia; Obesity; Disease
Studies of intergenerational relationship quality often include one or two generations.
This study examined within-family differences and similarities or transmission of
positive and negative relationship quality across three generations.
Participants included 633 middle-aged individuals (G2; 52% women, ages 40–60
years), 592 of their offspring (G3; 53% daughters; ages 18–41 years), and 337 of
their parents (i.e., grandparents; G1; 69% women; ages 59–96 years).
Multilevel models revealed differences and similarities in relationship quality across
generations. The oldest generation (G1) reported greater positive and less negative
quality relationships than the middle (G2) and the younger (G3) generations. There was
limited evidence of transmission. Middle-aged respondents who reported more positive and
less negative ties with their parents (G1) reported more positive and less negative ties
with their own children (G3). Grandmother (G1) reports of more positive relationship
quality were associated with G3 reports of more positive relationship quality with
Findings are consistent with the intergenerational stake hypothesis and only partially
consistent with the theory of intergenerational transmission. Overall, this study
suggests that there is greater within-family variability than similarities in how family
members feel about one another.
Children; Intergenerational relationship quality; Generation; parents
Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this research examines how accumulated financial strain affects women’s self-rated health in middle and later life.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967–2003), we employ random-coefficient growth curve models to examine whether recurring financial strain influences women’s health, above and beyond several measures of objective social status. Predicted probabilities of poor health were estimated by the frequency of financial strain.
Financial strain is associated with rapid declines in women’s health during middle and later life, especially for those women who reported recurrent strain. Changes in household income and household wealth were also associated with women’s health but did not eliminate the effects due to accumulated financial strain.
Accumulated financial strain has long-term effects on women’s health during middle and later life. The findings demonstrate the importance of measuring life course exposure to stressors in studies of health trajectories.
Cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory; Multi-level models; Economic hardship; Stress; Cumulative Inequality Theory; Life course.