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1.  Current electroconvulsive therapy practice and research in the geriatric population 
Neuropsychiatry  2014;4(1):33-54.
SUMMARY
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is utilized worldwide for various severe and treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders. Research studies have shown that ECT is the most effective and rapid treatment available for elderly patients with depression, bipolar disorder and psychosis. For patients who suffer from intractable catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, ECT can be life saving. For elderly patients who cannot tolerate or respond poorly to medications and who are at a high risk for drug-induced toxicity or toxic drug interactions, ECT is the safest treatment option. Organic causes are frequently associated with late-life onset of neuropsychiatric conditions, such as parkinsonism, dementia and stroke. ECT has proven to be efficacious even when these conditions are present. During the next decade, research studies should focus on the use of ECT as a synergistic therapy, to enhance other biological and psychological treatments, and prevent symptom relapse and recurrence.
doi:10.2217/npy.14.3
PMCID: PMC4000084  PMID: 24778709
2.  Changes in the Definition of ADHD in DSM-5: Subtle but Important 
Neuropsychiatry  2013;3(5):455-458.
doi:10.2217/npy.13.59
PMCID: PMC3955126  PMID: 24644516
3.  Aging changes and medical complexity in late-life bipolar disorder: emerging research findings that may help advance care 
Neuropsychiatry  2013;3(6):621-633.
SUMMARY
Demographic trends globally point in the direction of increasing numbers of older people with serious and chronic mental disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD). While there has been growing sophistication and understanding in treatments for BD generally, data specific to older people with BD are limited. Recent reviews, secondary analyses and some new research confirm complexity and aging-related issues relevant to later-life BD. Confounding variables that must be considered when studying older BD individuals include clinical heterogeneity, medical comorbidity, cognitive impairment and concomitant psychotropic medication. This article will review current and emerging data on aging- and disease-related issues that complicate assessment and treatment of older individuals with BD. We will discuss common comorbid medical conditions that affect BD elders, how aging may affect cognition and treatment, including the effects of lithium and other psychotropic drugs on the aging brain, and recent research using neuroimaging techniques that may shed light on understanding the mechanisms of illness progression and on treatment response. Finally, we will discuss implications for future work in geriatric BD.
doi:10.2217/npy.13.78
PMCID: PMC4078873  PMID: 24999372
4.  Bridging neuroscience and clinical psychology: cognitive behavioral and psychophysiological models in the evaluation and treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome 
Neuropsychiatry  2013;3(1):75-87.
SUMMARY
Cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychology have long been considered to be separate disciplines. However, the phenomenon of brain plasticity in the context of a psychological intervention highlights the mechanisms of brain compensation and requires linking both clinical cognition and cognitive psychophysiology. A quantifiable normalization of brain activity seems to be correlated with an improvement of the tic symptoms after cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). This article presents broad outlines of the state of the current literature in the field of GTS. We present our clinical research model and methodology for the integration of cognitive neuroscience in the psychological evaluation and treatment of GTS to manage chronic tic symptoms.
doi:10.2217/npy.12.70
PMCID: PMC4006829  PMID: 24795782 CAMSID: cams3293
5.  Toward an exportable parent training program for disruptive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders 
Neuropsychiatry  2013;3(2):169-180.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are chronic conditions of early childhood onset characterized by profound deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behavior. The prevalence of ASD is now estimated to be 1 in 88 children. As the number of identified cases of ASD has grown, so have the challenges of serving these children and their families. Unfortunately, the empirical foundation for many interventions for this population is not firmly established. Thus, there is a pressing need to conduct trials that will expand the evidence base and guide clinical treatment. Investigators from the Research Units in Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP; Indiana University, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, Yale University) followed a treatment development model outlined by an NIMH ad hoc committee to develop and test a parent training (PT) treatment manual for children with ASD accompanied by disruptive behavior problems. This article describes the process of manual development and cross-site therapist training, establishment and maintenance of treatment integrity, assessment of treatment acceptance by families as well as primary outcomes of three trials. Results suggest the structured PT program can be delivered with a high degree of fidelity within and across therapists, is acceptable to parents and can produce significant reductions in disruptive behaviors in children with ASD.
doi:10.2217/npy.13.14
PMCID: PMC3678377  PMID: 23772233
6.  Is ‘bench-to-bedside’ realistic for autism? An integrative neuroscience approach 
Neuropsychiatry  2013;3(2):159-168.
SUMMARY
Given the prevalence and societal impact of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is an urgent need to develop innovative treatments that will improve core social deficits, for which there is currently no reliable pharmacological treatment, prevention or cure. Development of novel biological interventions will depend upon the successful translation of basic neuroscience research into safe and effective medicines. This article outlines steps to bring neuroscience research from ‘the bench’ to treatment at ‘bedside’, from phenotyping the disorder to animal models to patient treatment. Although these steps appear simplistic, this is a daunting challenge because of the inherent complexity of the human brain, our lack of understanding of disease neurobiology underlying ASD, and the incredible heterogeneity of the disorder. For ASD, perhaps more than any other neurological or psychiatric disorder, progress will depend on integrative multidisciplinary approaches between basic scientists from varying neuroscience disciplines and clinicians to make ‘bench to bedside’ treatment a reality.
doi:10.2217/npy.13.18
PMCID: PMC3757943  PMID: 24000295
7.  Clinical characteristics of high-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder and anxiety 
Neuropsychiatry  2013;3(2):10.2217/npy.13.9.
SUMMARY
Aim & methods
Clinical characteristics were examined in 108 high-functioning youth (children with a full IQ scale of at least 70) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD; aged 7–15 years) who were presenting for inclusion in one of four clinical trials examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in youth with ASD and anxiety.
Results
We present baseline characteristics of this cohort, including prevalence rates of anxiety and comorbid disorders, and correlates of anxiety (e.g., comorbid diagnoses, impairment, anxiety severity and mental health services received) as a function of age and ASD diagnosis in treatment-seeking youth. Primary anxiety disorders were: 41.7% (n = 45) social phobia, 25.9% (n = 28) generalized anxiety disorder, 15.7% (n = 17) separation anxiety disorder, 12.0% (n = 13) obsessive–compulsive disorder and 4.6% (n = 5) specific phobia. Overall, 91.6% of participants (n = 99) met criteria for two or more anxiety disorders. Parents reported considerable functional impairment as measured by the Columbia Impairment Scale and anxiety severity as measured by the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale; this did not statistically differ as a function of ASD diagnosis or age. Anxiety severity, the number of comorbid anxiety diagnoses and total comorbid diagnoses were directly associated with parent-reported child impairment. Youth with ASD and anxiety present as a heterogeneous cohort with significant impairments and complex diagnostic presentations.
Conclusion
These data provide information about the nature of anxiety in youth with ASD, which may foster the development of tailored treatment protocols.
doi:10.2217/npy.13.9
PMCID: PMC3808966  PMID: 24179485
8.  Advances in the treatment of pediatric obsessive–compulsive d-cycloserine with exposure and response prevention 
Neuropsychiatry  2012;2(4):10.2217/npy.12.38.
SUMMARY
Exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy and serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are efficacious treatment options for the management of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Despite established efficacy, many youths receiving either therapy remain symptomatic after acute treatment. Regardless of the rationale for persistent symptoms, a clear need emerges for treatment options that restore functioning efficiently to symptomatic youths. One innovative approach builds upon the identified role of NMDA receptors in the fear extinction process. Instead of breaking existing connections during fear extinction, new associations develop that eventually predominate over prior associations. Recent investigations have explored augmenting exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with the NMDA partial agonist d-cycloserine, with preliminary results demonstrating expedited treatment gains and moderately larger effects above exposure and response prevention therapy alone. A large randomized clinical trial is underway to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of this therapeutic combination in pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder. Results from this trial may translate into improved management practices.
doi:10.2217/npy.12.38
PMCID: PMC3808983  PMID: 24174993
9.  Treatment of comorbid anxiety and autism spectrum disorders 
Neuropsychiatry  2011;1(6):567-578.
Summary
Clinically significant anxiety occurs frequently among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and is linked to increased psychosocial, familial, behavioral and academic impairment beyond the core autism symptoms when present. Although efforts are underway to establish empirically supported treatments for anxiety among individuals with ASDs, this remains an emerging research area. This literature review summarizes available information on the efficacy of pharmacological and psychosocial approaches for treating anxiety and repetitive behaviors in children, adolescents and adults with ASDs. Specifically, we evaluate evidence for the use of cognitive–behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. Evidence is growing in support of using cognitive–behavioral therapy to treat anxiety in youths with ASDs; however, mixed evidence exists for its application in treating repetitive behaviors, as well as the use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors for anxiety in youths with ASDs. We conclude the article with a discussion of the strength of current information and next steps in research.
PMCID: PMC3809000  PMID: 24174992
10.  Cyclothymic disorder in youth: why is it overlooked, what do we know and where is the field headed? 
Neuropsychiatry  2012;2(6):509-519.
SUMMARY
Cyclothymic disorder is a chronic and impairing subtype of bipolar disorder, largely neglected in pediatric research. Consequently, it is rarely diagnosed clinically despite potentially being the most prevalent form of bipolar disorder. Lack of attention has added to confusion about the diagnosis and clinical presentation of cyclothymic disorder. In pediatric studies, cyclothymic disorder is commonly grouped with ‘subthreshold’ presentations of bipolar disorder under the undifferentiated label ‘bipolar disorder not otherwise specified’. However, research indicates that cyclothymic disorder can be reliably distinguished from the other forms of bipolar disorder and from other childhood disorders. Importantly, cyclothymic disorder may be a diathesis for more acute presentations of bipolar disorder, warranting a prominent role in dimensional models of mood and psychopathology. Current evidence suggests that cyclothymic disorder has the potential to make unique contributions to our understanding of the risk factors and outcomes associated with bipolar disorder. This potential has yet to be fully realized, limiting our knowledge and ability to intervene in a meaningful way with youth who are exhibiting symptoms of a major mood disorder. Including cyclothymic disorder in future research studies of children – particularly longitudinal outcome studies – is essential for understanding the developmental trajectory of bipolar spectrum disorders and learning how to accurately diagnosis and treat the full spectrum of bipolar disorders.
doi:10.2217/npy.12.64
PMCID: PMC3609426  PMID: 23544035
11.  Elevated rates of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy 
Neuropsychiatry  2012;2(5):385-391.
SUMMARY
Objectives
To describe the prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy (ADHD+E) and to compare ADHD symptoms in mothers with (Fam+) and without (Fam−) additional relative(s) with epilepsy.
Patients & methods
Mothers (n = 16) of children with ADHD+E were assessed by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children ADHD module and the ADHD Rating Scale IV. Information was collected on the presence (Fam+) or absence (Fam−) of first- or second-degree relatives with epilepsy in the sample.
Results
A total of 50% of mothers met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. ADHD was more prevalent in Fam+ mothers (80%) compared with Fam− mothers (36%; p = 0.14). Fam+ mothers had more current hyperactivity symptoms than Fam− mothers (p = 0.002), higher current ADHD severity (p = 0.02) and higher ADHD Rating Scale IV hyperactivity scores (p = 0.008).
Conclusion
The prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with ADHD+E is elevated in this pilot study, suggesting that ADHD symptoms in children with epilepsy and their mothers reflects shared familial genetic or environmental risks, potentially resulting in a higher prevalence of both disorders among family members. This is a pilot study and larger controlled studies are warranted.
doi:10.2217/NPY.12.53
PMCID: PMC3565178  PMID: 23397446
13.  Substance-use disorders in adolescents and adults with ADHD: focus on treatment 
Neuropsychiatry  2012;2(4):301-312.
SUMMARY
A high prevalence of comorbidity of ADHD and substance-use disorders (SUDs) has been shown in the literature. In this article, the literature for the treatment of adolescents and adults with co-occurring ADHD and SUD is examined. Findings from pharmacotherapy suggest mild improvement in ADHD without demonstrable changes in SUD unless the addiction was stabilized prior to treating the ADHD. No unique adverse effects, worsening of SUD, misuse or diversion of stimulants are reported in the included studies. Treating ADHD pharmacologically in individuals with ADHD plus SUD only has a modest impact on ADHD and SUD that is not observed in controlled trials. Limited data in adults with ADHD and brief abstinence of their SUD showed improvements in both ADHD and SUD with treatment. Further studies of cognitive behavioral therapy, sequencing of therapies and longer term treatment outcomes for groups with ADHD and active SUD are necessary.
doi:10.2217/npy.12.39
PMCID: PMC3480177  PMID: 23105949
14.  Psychotropic effects of antimicrobials and immune modulation by psychotropics: implications for neuroimmune disorders 
Neuropsychiatry  2012;2(4):331-343.
SUMMARY
Antimicrobial compounds and psychotropic medications often share overlapping mechanisms of actions and pharmacological effects. The immune system appears to be an important site of interaction as several antimicrobials display neurological and, at times, direct psychotropic effects, while psychotropics have shown significant immunomodulatory properties. The isoniazid class of antibiotics for example has been shown to possess monoamine oxidase activity, while selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have shown significant effects on leukocyte populations. As the importance of the immune system's role in CNS homeostasis and disease continues to move to the forefront of neuropsychiatric research, these shared pharmacological effects may provide an important insight, elucidating the complexities in neuroimmune pathophysiology and guiding the development of potential treatments.
doi:10.2217/npy.12.41
PMCID: PMC3494283  PMID: 23148142
15.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC3643295  PMID: 23646065
16.  Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD 
Neuropsychiatry  2012;2(2):163-174.
SUMMARY
The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD.
doi:10.2217/npy.12.11
PMCID: PMC3397924  PMID: 22815658
17.  Should pregnant women with substance use disorders be managed differently? 
Neuropsychiatry  2012;2(1):29-41.
Summary
Pregnant women with substance use disorders have multiple special needs, which might be best managed within a multiprofessional treatment setting involving medical, psychological and social care. Adequate treatment provision remains a challenge for healthcare professionals, who should undergo special training and education when working with this patient population. Careful assessment and screening is necessary to tailor interventions individually to the woman's needs in order to achieve beneficial clinical outcomes for mothers and newborns, whereas the choice of treatment options highly depends on the type of substance of abuse and evidence-based treatment interventions available. Economic considerations have shown that early multiprofessional treatment might yield better clinical outcomes and save healthcare costs over the lifespan.
PMCID: PMC3521595  PMID: 23243466
18.  Attenuated psychosis and the schizophrenia prodrome: current status of risk identification and psychosis prevention 
Neuropsychiatry  2012;2(4):345-353.
SUMMARY
Recent efforts in the prevention of schizophrenia have focused on defining psychosis-risk syndromes and evaluating treatments that can prevent transition to psychosis in these ultra-high risk groups. In this review, different kinds of prevention approaches are enumerated and necessary conditions for a disease-prevention strategy are summarized. The broad overlap as well as the significant difference between a schizophrenia prodrome and a ‘psychosis-risk syndrome’ is discussed and the present status of approaches to identify individuals at increased risk for developing psychosis and schizophrenia are critically examined along with evaluations on therapeutic interventions to reduce these risks. Finally, to conclude, recommendations for current best clinical practice and key questions for the future are suggested.
doi:10.2217/NPY.12.36
PMCID: PMC3483069  PMID: 23125875
19.  A perspective on the proposal for neurocognitive disorder criteria in DSM-5 as applied to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders 
Neuropsychiatry  2011;1(5):431-440.
SUMMARY
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders remain common in the current era of effective antiretroviral therapy. However, the severity at presentation of these disorders has been reduced, and the typical manifestations have changed. A revision of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria has been made on this basis, and a revision of the analogous criteria by the American Psychiatric Association will be forthcoming in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5. This article compares the relevant sets of diagnostic criteria that will be employed. It is concluded that a greater degree of integration of the revised, HIV-specific AAN criteria for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders with the criteria proposed for the DSM-5 would prove advantageous for research, clinical, educational and administrative purposes.
doi:10.2217/npy.11.57
PMCID: PMC3405847  PMID: 22844348
20.  Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: clinical characteristics and implications 
Neuropsychiatry  2011;1(2):133-147.
SUMMARY
Impulse control disorders (ICDs), specifically those related to excessive gambling, eating, sex and shopping, have been observed in a subset of people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some initial case reports claimed that dopamine replacement therapies, particularly dopamine agonists, cause ICDs, more recent, larger and better controlled studies indicate a more complicated picture. While dopamine replacement therapy use is related to ICDs, other vulnerabilities, some related to PD and/or its treatment directly and others seemingly unrelated to PD, have also been associated with ICDs in PD. This suggests a complex etiology with multiple contributing factors. As ICDs occur in a sizable minority of PD patients and can be associated with significant distress and impairment, further investigation is needed to identify factors that can predict who may be more likely to develop ICDs. Clinical implications are discussed and topics for future research are offered.
PMCID: PMC3120055  PMID: 21709778
21.  Antisocial personality and bipolar disorder: interactions in impulsivity and course of illness 
Neuropsychiatry  2011;1(6):599-610.
SUMMARY
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and bipolar disorder are both characterized by impulsive behavior, increased incarceration or arrest, addictive disorders and suicidal behavior. These characteristics appear more severe in the combined disorders. Individuals with ASPD who also have bipolar disorder have higher rates of addictive disorders and suicidal behavior and are more impulsive, as measured by questionnaires or behavioral laboratory tests. Those with bipolar disorder who have ASPD have higher rates of addictive, criminal and suicidal behavior, earlier onset of bipolar disorder with a more recurrent and predominately manic course and increased laboratory-measured, but not questionnaire-rated, impulsivity. These characteristics may result in part from differential impulsivity mechanisms in the two disorders, with bipolar disorder driven more by excessive catecholamine sensitivity and ASPD by deficient serotonergic function.
doi:10.2217/NPY.11.69
PMCID: PMC3253316  PMID: 22235235

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