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Pain management (5)
Apkarian, A Vania (1)
Chen, Vincent J (1)
Fink, David J (1)
Gold, Jeffrey I (1)
Grunau, Ruth E (1)
Holsti, Liisa (1)
Li, Angela (1)
Lin, Vivian (1)
Montaño, Zorash (1)
Seidman, Laura C (1)
Shany, Eilon (1)
Tsao, Jennie CI (1)
Wolfe, Darren (1)
Zeltzer, Lonnie K (1)
von Baeyer, Carl L (1)
Year of Publication
The brain in chronic pain: clinical implications
Apkarian, A Vania
This article examines the present, and potential future, impact of brain imaging on chronic pain. It is argued that novel theories of chronic pain are coming to the fore, specifically through brain imaging of the human brain in chronic pain. Such studies show that the brain reorganizes in relation to chronic pain, in a pattern specific to the type of clinical pain, and that brain networks and receptor targets are being identified and reverse translated to animal studies of their efficacy and mechanisms. Future studies need to integrate across human brain imaging techniques, as well as more intensive reverse translational methods.
Gene Therapy for Pain: A Perspective
Fink, David J
Virtual reality and pain management: current trends and future directions
Chen, Vincent J
Gold, Jeffrey I
Virtual reality (VR) has been used to manage pain and distress associated with a wide variety of known painful medical procedures. In clinical settings and experimental studies, participants immersed in VR experience reduced levels of pain, general distress/unpleasantness and report a desire to use VR again during painful medical procedures. Investigators hypothesize that VR acts as a nonpharmacologic form of analgesia by exerting an array of emotional affective, emotion-based cognitive and attentional processes on the body’s intricate pain modulation system. While the exact neurobiological mechanisms behind VR’s action remain unclear, investigations are currently underway to examine the complex interplay of cortical activity associated with immersive VR. Recently, new applications, including VR, have been developed to augment evidenced-based interventions, such as hypnosis and biofeedback, for the treatment of chronic pain. This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature, exploring clinical and experimental applications of VR for acute and chronic pain management, focusing specifically on current trends and recent developments. In addition, we propose mechanistic theories highlighting VR distraction and neurobiological explanations, and conclude with new directions in VR research, implications and clinical significance.
Assessing pain in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit: moving to a ‘brain-oriented’ approach
Grunau, Ruth E
Preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit undergo repeated exposure to procedural and ongoing pain. Early and long-term changes in pain processing, stress-response systems and development may result from cumulative early pain exposure. So that appropriate treatment can be given, accurate assessment of pain is vital, but is also complex because these infants' responses may differ from those of full-term infants. A variety of uni- and multidimensional assessment tools are available; however, many have incomplete psychometric testing and may not incorporate developmentally important cues. Near-infrared spectroscopy and/or EEG techniques that measure neonatal pain responses at a cortical level offer new opportunities to validate neonatal pain assessment tools.
Pain charts (body maps or manikins) in assessment of the location of pediatric pain
von Baeyer, Carl L
Seidman, Laura C
Tsao, Jennie CI
Zeltzer, Lonnie K
This article surveys the use of pain charts or pain drawings in eliciting information about the location of pain symptoms from children and adolescents. While pain charts are widely used and have been incorporated in multidimensional pediatric pain questionnaires and diaries, they present a number of issues requiring further study. These include, in particular, the number and size of different locations or areas of pain that need to be differentiated; the age at which children are able to complete pain charts unassisted; and whether the intensity and other qualities of pain can be accurately recorded on pain charts by children and adolescents. Based on data currently available, it is suggested that the unassisted use of pain charts be restricted to children aged 8 years or over, while for clinical purposes many younger children can complete pain charts with adult support. Where the investigator’s interest is restricted to a few areas of the body, checklists of body parts may have greater utility than pain charts. A new pain chart adapted for use in studies of pediatric recurrent and chronic pain is presented.
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