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1.  Development of feedstocks for cellulosic biofuels 
The inclusion of cellulosic ethanol in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 and the revised Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) has spurred development of the first commercial scale cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. These efforts have also revived interest in the development of dedicated energy crops selected for biomass productivity and for properties that facilitate conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. While many aspects of developing these feedstocks are compatible with current agricultural activities, improving biomass productivity may provide opportunities to expand the potential for biofuel production beyond the classical research objectives associated with improving traditional food and feed crops.
doi:10.3410/B4-10
PMCID: PMC3342825  PMID: 22615716
2.  The PEN1 Syntaxin Defines a Novel Cellular Compartment upon Fungal Attack and Is Required for the Timely Assembly of PapillaeD⃞ 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2004;15(11):5118-5129.
Attack by the host powdery mildew Erysiphe cichoracearum usually results in successful penetration and rapid proliferation of the fungus on Arabidopsis. By contrast, the nonhost barley powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) typically fails to penetrate Arabidopsis epidermal cells. In both instances the plant secretes cell wall appositions or papillae beneath the penetration peg of the fungus. Genetic screens for mutations that result in increased penetration of Bgh on Arabidopsis have recently identified the PEN1 syntaxin. Here we examine the role of PEN1 and of its closest homologue, SYP122, identified as a syntaxin whose expression is responsive to infection. pen1 syp122 double mutants are both dwarfed and necrotic, suggesting that the two syntaxins have overlapping functions. Although syp122-1 and the cell wall mur mutants have considerably more pronounced primary cell wall defects than pen1 mutants, these have relatively subtle or no effects on penetration resistance. Upon fungal attack, PEN1 appears to be actively recruited to papillae, and there is a 2-h delay in papillae formation in the pen1-1 mutant. We conclude that SYP122 may have a general function in secretion, including a role in cell wall deposition. By contrast, PEN1 appears to have a basal function in secretion and a specialized defense-related function, being required for the polarized secretion events that give rise to papilla formation.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E04-02-0140
PMCID: PMC524786  PMID: 15342780

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