Karyotyping is considered the gold standard for the genome-wide detection of genomic imbalances in prenatal diagnosis, but it has a number of inherent limitations, namely the time required to culture cell and the limited resolution(5 ~ 10 Mb). Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can also be used as a rapid prenatal diagnosis for common aneuploidies, it is labor intensive, requires prior knowledge of the regions of interest, and can only be used to diagnose one or a few genomic regions simultaneously. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) can overcome the resolution, the locus-specific, and the time limitations of the karyotyping and FISH techniques and is currently the most powerful method for detecting chromosomal alterations in pre and postnatal clinical cases. Several investigations have suggested that the aCGH testing should be considered a first-tier test for the diagnosis of cytogenetic aberrations in the fetus.
This study used karyotyping, FISH, sequence-tagged site (STS) analysis and aCGH to diagnose a case of de novo duplication of chromosome 21q22.12 → q22.3 with other concomitant deletion and duplication of small fragments in 21q associated with Down syndrome prenatally.
FISH, aCGH and STS analysis are useful in prenatal investigation of the nature of de novo alterations of small fragments of the chromosome.
Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH); Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); Sequence-tagged site (STS); Partial duplication; Prenatal diagnosis; Down syndrome
The ultimate goal of human genetics is to understand the role of genome variation in elucidating human traits and diseases. Besides single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), copy number variation (CNV), defined as gains or losses of a DNA segment larger than 1 kb, has recently emerged as an important tool in understanding heritable source of human genomic differences. It has been shown to contribute to genetic susceptibility of various common and complex diseases. Despite a handful of publications, its role in cardiovascular diseases remains largely unknown. Here, we deliberate on the currently available technologies for CNV detection. The possible utility and the potential roles of CNV in exploring the mechanisms of cardiac remodeling in hypertension will also be addressed. Finally, we discuss the challenges for investigations of CNV in cardiovascular diseases and its possible implications in diagnosis of hypertension-related left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).
Copy number variation; Genetic susceptibility; Hypertension; Left ventricular hypertrophy
Array based comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH) has been increasingly used as the method of choice for diagnosis of patients with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) but is not universally available for the high throughput use in routine practice. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, emerging as a new tool in clinical diagnostics, are at present quite labour-intensive and expensive. Since multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is relatively fast, easily interpreted and cost-effective, it is still a method of choice for screening large cohorts of patients with DD/ID.
We prospectively studied a cohort of 150 patients with DD/ID with or without dysmorphic features or additional congenital abnormalities. We used two distinct MLPA kits, SALSA P036 and P070, for subtelomere screening and MLPA kit SALSA P245 for the 21 common microdeletion syndromes. Subtelomere analysis was performed by both kits in all patients. All imbalances were verified by follow-up MLPA kits. The MLPA analysis revealed chromosome aberrations in 21 (14%) cases: 11 subtelomeric rearrangements and 10 microdeletions.
We have presented the results of the investigation of patients with DD/ID obtained by using a combination of the MLPA sets for subtelomere aberrations and microdeletion syndromes followed by the confirmation of the aberrant results by the region-specific MLPA kits. The use of two subtelomeric kits per patient and investigation of all aberrations by follow-up sets has reduced the rate of false positive and negative results and improved the diagnostic yield. The relatively low cost, simplicity and reliability makes MLPA an effective first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for screening large cohorts of DD/ID patients.
Intellectual disability; Chromosome aberrations; Genetic testing; Developing countries
The multicolor banding (MCB/mBAND) technique provides a unique opportunity to characterize intrachromosomal rearrangements and to determine chromosomal breakpoints. Until recently, MCB probes have only been available for human and some murine chromosomes. Generation of MCB probes for chromosomes of other species, useful and required in many cytogenetics research fields, was limited by technical difficulties. MCB probes are established by chromosome microdissection followed by whole genomic DNA amplification. However, unambiguous identification of the target chromosome is required for MCB-probe establishment. Previously proposed protocols suggested G-banding staining or preliminary FISH with whole chromosome paints (WCP) as methods to identify the chromosome of interest.
Here we present a complete workflow for MCB probe generation for those cases and species where chromosome morphology is too challenging to recognize target chromosomes by conventional methods and where WCP probes are not available. The workflow was successfully applied for murine chromosomes that are difficult to identify unambiguously. Additionally, we showed that glass-needle based microdissection enables establishment of a whole set of WCP paints by microdissection of individual chromosomes of a single metaphase
The present method can be applied for generation of whole or region-specific DNA probes for species, where karyotyping of G-banded chromosomes is challenging due to similar chromosome morphology and/or chromosome banding patterns.
Chromosome painting; FISH-banding; Multicolor banding; Chromosome microdissection
The t(8;14)(q24.1;q32), the cytogenetic hallmark of Burkitt’s lymphoma, is also found, but rarely, in cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Such translocation typically results in a MYC-IGH@ fusion subsequently deregulating and overexpressing MYC on der 14q32. In CLL, atypical rearrangements resulting in its gain or loss, within or outside of IGH@ or MYC locus, have been reported, but their clinical significance remains uncertain. Herein, we report a 67 year-old male with complex cytogenetic findings of apparently balanced t(8;14) and unreported complex rearrangements of IGH@ and MYC loci. His clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic features were consistent with the diagnosis of CLL.
Interphase FISH studies revealed deletions of 11q22.3 and 13q14.3, and an extra copy of IGH@, indicative of rearrangement. Karyotype analysis showed an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32). Sequential GPG-metaphase FISH studies revealed abnormal signal patterns: rearrangement of IGH break apart probe with the 5’-IGH@ on derivative 8q24.1 and the 3’-IGH@ retained on der 14q; absence of MYC break apart-specific signal on der 8q; and, the presence of unsplit 5’-MYC-3’ break apart probe signals on der 14q. The breakpoint on 8q24.1 was found to be at least 400 Kb upstream of 5’ of MYC. In addition, FISH studies revealed two abnormal clones; one with 13q14.3 deletion, and the other, with concurrent 11q deletion and atypical rearrangements. Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) detected a 7.1 Mb deletion on 11q22.3-q23.3 including ATM, a finding consistent with FISH results. While no significant copy number gain or loss observed on chromosomes 8, 12 and 13, a 455 Kb microdeletion of uncertain clinical significance was detected on 14q32.33. Immunohistochemistry showed co-expression of CD19, CD5, and CD23, positive ZAP-70 expression and absence of MYC expression. Overall findings reveal an apparently balanced t(8;14) and atypical complex rearrangements involving 3’-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of MYC, resulting in the relocation of the intact 5’-MYC-3’ from der 8q, and apposition to 3’-IGH@ at der 14q. This case report provides unique and additional cytogenetic data that may be of clinical significance in such a rare finding in CLL. It also highlights the utility of conventional and sequential metaphase FISH in understanding complex chromosome anomalies and their association with other clinical findings in patients with CLL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first CLL reported case with such an atypical rearrangement in a patient with a negative MYC expression.
MYC/IGH; FISH; CLL; Microarray
The interstitial 6p deletions, involving the 6p22-p24 chromosomal region, are rare events characterized by variable phenotypes and no clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been established so far.
High resolution array-CGH identified 1 Mb de novo interstitial deletion in 6p22.3 chromosomal region in a patient affected by severe Intellectual Disability (ID), Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), and electroencephalographic anomalies. This deletion includes ATXN1, DTNBP1, JARID2 and MYLIP genes, known to play an important role in the brain, and the GMPR gene whose function in the nervous system is unknown.
We support the suggestion that ATXN1, DTNBP1, JARID2 and MYLIP are candidate genes for the pathophysiology of ASDs and ID, and we propose that deletion of DTNBP1 and/or JARID2 contributes to the hypotonia phenotype.
6p22.3 deletion; Array-CGH; ASDs; Hypotonia; DTNBP1
Obtaining a germ cell line is one of the most important steps in developing a transgenic or knockout mouse with a targeted mutated gene of interest. A common problem with this technology is that embryonic stem (ES) cells often lack, or are extremely inefficient at, germ line transmission.
To determine whether chromosomal anomalies are correlated with inefficient ES cell germ line transmission, we examined 97 constructed ES cell lines using conventional cytogenetic analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Chromosomal abnormalities occurred in 44 (45%) out of the 97 specimens analyzed: 31 specimens had trisomy 8 or mosaic trisomy 8, eight specimens had partial trisomy 8 resulting from unbalanced translocations, and five specimens had other chromosomal anomalies.
Our data suggest that chromosomal analysis is an important tool for improving the yield and quality of gene targeting experiments.
Mouse ES cells; Chromosomal aberrations; FISH; Mosaicism
The etiology of mental retardation/developmental delay (MRDD) remains a challenge to geneticists and clinicians and can be correlated to environmental and genetic factors. Chromosomal aberrations are common causes of moderate to severe mental retardation and may represent 10% of these occurrences. Here we report the case of a boy with development delay, hypoplasia of corpus callosum, microcephaly, muscular hypotonia, and facial dysmorphisms. A deletion of 7q36.1 → 36.3 and duplication of 9p22.3 → 23 was detected as a result of an unbalanced translocation of paternal origin. Breakpoint delimitation was achieved with array comparative genomic hybridization assay. Additional multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyzes confirmed one copy loss of 7q36.3 region and one copy gain of 9p24.3 region. Patient resultant phenotype is consistent with the already described findings for both 7q deletion and 9p duplication syndromes.
Developmental delay; 7q deletion; 9p duplication; aCGH array
Errors during meiosis that affect synapsis and recombination between homologous chromosomes contribute to aneuploidy and infertility in humans. Despite the clinical relevance of these defects, we know very little about the mechanisms by which homologous chromosomes interact with one another during mammalian meiotic prophase. Further, we remain ignorant of the way in which chromosomal DNA complexes with the meiosis-specific structure that tethers homologs, the synaptonemal complex (SC), and whether specific DNA elements are necessary for this interaction.
In the present study we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and DNA sequencing to demonstrate that the axial elements of the mammalian SC are markedly enriched for a specific family of interspersed repeats, short interspersed elements (SINEs). Further, we refine the role of the repeats to specific sub-families of SINEs, B1 in mouse and AluY in old world monkey (Macaca mulatta).
Because B1 and AluY elements are the most actively retrotransposing SINEs in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, our observations imply that they may serve a dual function in axial element binding; i.e., as the anchoring point for the SC but possibly also as a suppressor/regulator of retrotransposition.
Meiosis; Synaptonemal complex; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP); SINE; Synapsis; SYCP3; Mouse; Macaque
Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been repeatedly shown to be a successful tool for the identification of genomic variations in a clinical population. During the last decade, the implementation of array CGH has resulted in the identification of new causative submicroscopic chromosome imbalances and copy number variations (CNVs) in neuropsychiatric (neurobehavioral) diseases. Currently, array-CGH-based technologies have become an integral part of molecular diagnosis and research in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and children with intellectual disability (mental retardation) and congenital anomalies. Here, we introduce the Russian cohort of children with intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies analyzed by BAC array CGH and a novel bioinformatic strategy.
Among 54 individuals highly selected according to clinical criteria and molecular and cytogenetic data (from 2426 patients evaluated cytogenetically and molecularly between November 2007 and May 2012), chromosomal imbalances were detected in 26 individuals (48%). In two patients (4%), a previously undescribed condition was observed. The latter has been designated as meiotic (constitutional) genomic instability resulted in multiple submicroscopic rearrangements (including CNVs). Using bioinformatic strategy, we were able to identify clinically relevant CNVs in 15 individuals (28%). Selected cases were confirmed by molecular cytogenetic and molecular genetic methods. Eight out of 26 chromosomal imbalances (31%) have not been previously reported. Among them, three cases were co-occurrence of subtle chromosome 9 and 21 deletions.
We conducted an array CGH study of Russian patients suffering from intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies. In total, phenotypic manifestations of clinically relevant genomic variations were found to result from genomic rearrangements affecting 1247 disease-causing and pathway-involved genes. Obviously, a significantly lesser part of them are true candidates for intellectual disability, autism or epilepsy. The success of our preliminary array CGH and bioinformatic study allows us to expand the cohort. According to the available literature, this is the first comprehensive array CGH evaluation of a Russian cohort of children with neuropsychiatric disorders and congenital anomalies.
Array CGH; Intellectual disability; Congenital anomalies; Autism; Epilepsy; Genome variations; Chromosome imbalances; Chromosome abnormalities; Copy number viriations (CNVs)
Members of the Anostomidae family provide an interesting model system for the study of the influence of repetitive elements on genome composition, mainly because they possess numerous heterochromatic segments and a peculiar system of female heterogamety that is restricted to a few species of the Leporinus genus. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify important new repetitive DNA elements in Anostomidae through restriction enzyme digestion, followed by cloning, characterisation and chromosome mapping of this fragment. To identify repetitive elements in other Leporinus species and expand on studies of repetitive elements in Anostomidae, hybridisation experiments were also performed using previously described probes of LeSpeI repetitive elements.
The 628-base pair (bp) LeSpeII fragment was hybridised to metaphase cells of L. elongatus individuals as well as those of L. macrocephalus, L. obtusidens, L. striatus, L. lacustris, L. friderici, Schizodon borellii and S. isognathus. In L. elongatus, both male and female cells contained small clusters of LeSpeII repetitive elements dispersed on all of the chromosomes, with enrichment near most of the terminal portions of the chromosomes. In the female sex chromosomes of L. elongatus (Z2,Z2/W1W2), however, this repeated element was absent. In the remaining species, a dispersed pattern of hybridisation was observed on all chromosomes irrespective of whether or not they were sex chromosomes. The repetitive element LeSpeI produced positive hybridisations signals only in L. elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens, i.e., species with differentiated sex chromosomes. In the remaining species, the LeSpeI element did not produce hybridisation signals.
Results are discussed in terms of the effects of repetitive sequences on the differentiation of the Anostomidae genome, especially with respect to sex chromosome evolution. LeSpeII showed hybridisation patterns typical of Long Interspersed Elements (LINEs). The differential distribution of this element may be linked to sex chromosome differentiation in L. elongatus species. The relationship between sex chromosome specificity and the LeSpeI element is confirmed in the species L. elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens.
Chromosomes; FISH; Heterochromatin; Neotropical fish; Sex chromosomes
Anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements have been reported in 2-13% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with ALK rearrangements do not respond to EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs); however, they do benefit from small molecule inhibitors targeting ALK.
In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a break-apart probe for the ALK gene was performed on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue to determine the incidence of ALK rearrangements and hybridization patterns in a large unselected cohort of 1387 patients with a referred diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (1011 of these patients had a histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma). The abnormal FISH signal patterns varied from a single split signal to complex patterns. Among 49 abnormal samples (49/1387, 3.5%), 32 had 1 to 3 split signals. Fifteen samples had deletions of the green 5′ end of the ALK signal, and 1 of these 15 samples showed amplification of the orange 3′ end of the ALK signal. Two patients showed a deletion of the 3′ALK signal. Thirty eight of these 49 samples (38/1011, 3.7%) were among the 1011 patients with confirmed adenocarcinoma. Five of 8 patients with ALK rearrangements detected by FISH were confirmed to have EML4-ALK fusions by multiplex RT-PCR. Among the 45 ALK-rearranged samples tested, only 1 EGFR mutation (T790M) was detected. Two KRAS mutations were detected among 24 ALK-rearranged samples tested.
In a large unselected series, the frequency of ALK gene rearrangement detected by FISH was approximately 3.5% of lung carcinoma, and 3.7% of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, with variant signal patterns frequently detected. Rare cases with coexisting KRAS and EGFR mutations were seen.
ALK rearrangement; ALK amplification; FISH; KRAS; EGFR; Non-small cell lung cancer; Adenocarcinoma; Crizotinib
Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is an asymptomatic, pre-malignant condition of the esophagus that can progress to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). BE arises typically in individuals with long-standing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The neoplastic progression of BE has been extensively studied histologically and defined as a metaplasia- dyplasia- carcinoma sequence. However the genetic basis of this process is poorly understood. It is conceived that preclinical models of BE may facilitate discovery of molecular markers due to ease of longitudinal sampling. Clinical markers to stratify the patients at higher risk are vital to institute appropriate therapeutic intervention since EAC has very poor prognosis. We developed a dynamic in-vitro BE carcinogenesis (BEC) model by exposing naïve Barrett’s epithelium cell line (BAR-T) to acid and bile at pH4 (B4), 5min/day for a year. The BEC model acquired malignant characteristics after chronic repeated exposure to B4 similar to the sequential progression of BE to EAC in vivo.
To study cytogenetic changes during progressive transformation in the BEC model.
We observed that the BAR-T cells progressively acquired several chromosomal abnormalities in the BEC model. Evidence of chromosomal loss (-Y) rearrangements [t(10;16) and dup (11q)] and clonal selection appeared during the early stages of the BEC model. Clonal selection resulted in a stabilized monoclonal population of cells that had a changed morphology and formed colony in soft agar. BAR-T cells grown in parallel without any exposure did not show any of these abnormalities.
Prolonged acid and bile exposure induced chromosomal aberrations and clonal selection in benign BAR-T cells. Since aneuploidy preceded morphological/dysplastic changes in the BEC model, chromosomal aberrations may be an early predictor of BE progression. The [t(10;16) and dup(11q)] aberrations identified in this study harbor several genes associated with cancer and may be responsible for neoplastic behavior of cells. After further validation, in-vivo, they may be clinically useful for diagnosis of BE, progressing to dysplasia/esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Barrett’s epithelium; BAR-T; Barrett’s epithelium carcinogenesis model; Aneuploidy; Polyploidy; Chromosomal aberrations; Genetic instability
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous form of hematological cancer consisting of various subtypes. We are interested to study the genetic aberration in precursor B-cell ALL with specific t(12;21) translocation in childhood ALL patients. A high resolution 244K array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) was used to study eleven ETV6/RUNX1-positive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients.
155 chromosomal aberrations (119 losses, 36 gains) were reported in the array findings, corresponding to 76.8% deletions and 23.2% amplifications. The ETV6 gene deletion occurred in 4 of the patients, corresponding to 45% of the sample. The most common alterations above 1 Mb were deletion 6q (13%), 12p (12%) and 9p (8%), and duplication 4q (6%) and Xq (4%). Other genes important in ALL were also identified in this study including RUNX1, CDKN2A, FHIT, and PAX5. The array-CGH technique was able to detect microdeletion as small as 400 bp.
The results demonstrate the usefulness of high resolution array-CGH as a complementary tool in the investigation of ALL.
Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization; Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; ETV6/RUNX1
Chromosomal rearrangements of band 19q13.4 are frequent cytogenetic alterations in benign thyroid adenomas. Apparently, these alterations lead to the upregulation of genes encoding microRNAs of two clusters mapping to the breakpoint region, i.e. miR-371-3 and C19MC. Since members of both clusters have been associated with neoplastic growth in other tumor entities the question arises whether or not their upregulation predisposes to malignant transformation of follicular cells of the thyroid. To address this question we have quantified the expression of miR-372 and miR-520c-3p in samples of 114 thyroid cancers including eight anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, 25 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 78 papillary thyroid carcinomas (including 13 follicular variants thereof), two medullary thyroid carcinomas and one oncocytic thyroid carcinoma. Additionally, we quantified miR-371a-3p and miR-519a-3p in selected samples. While in neither of the cases miR-520c-3p and miR-519a-3p were found to be upregulated, one papillary and one anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, respectively, showed upregulation of miR-372 and miR-371a-3p. However, in these cases fluorescence in situ hybridization did not reveal rearrangements of the common breakpoint region as affected in adenomas. Thus, these rearrangements do apparently not play a major role as first steps in malignant transformation of the thyroid epithelium. Moreover, there is no evidence that 19q13.4 rearrangements characterize a subgroup of thyroid adenomas associated with a higher risk to undergo malignant transformation. Vice versa, the mechanisms by which 19q13.4 rearrangements contribute to benign tumorigenesis in the thyroid remain to be elucidated.
Thyroid tumors; microRNAs; C19MC; miR-371-3
Chromosome changes in the bone marrow (BM) of patients with persistent cytopenia are often considered diagnostic for a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Comprehensive cytogenetic evaluations may give evidence of the real pathogenetic role of these changes in cases with cytopenia without morphological signs of MDS.
Chromosome anomalies were found in the BM of three patients, without any morphological evidence of MDS: 1) an acquired complex rearrangement of chromosome 21 in a boy with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA); the rearrangement caused the loss of exons 2–8 of the RUNX1 gene with subsequent hypoexpression. 2) a constitutional complex rearrangement of chromosome 21 in a girl with congenital thrombocytopenia; the rearrangement led to RUNX1 disruption and hypoexpression. 3) an acquired paracentric inversion of chromosome 1, in which two regions at the breakpoints were shown to be lost, in a boy with aplastic anaemia; the MPL gene, localized in chromosome 1 short arms was not mutated neither disrupted, but its expression was severely reduced: we postulate that the aplastic anaemia was due to position effects acting both in cis and in trans, and causing Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia (CAMT).
A clonal anomaly in BM does not imply per se a diagnosis of MDS: a subgroup of BM hypoplastic disorders is directly due to chromosome structural anomalies with effects on specific genes, as was the case of RUNX1 and MPL in the patients here reported with diagnosis of SAA, thrombocytopenia, and CAMT. The anomaly may be either acquired or constitutional, and it may act by deletion/disruption of the gene, or by position effects. Full cytogenetic investigations, including a-CGH, should always be part of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with BM aplasia/hypoplasia and peripheral cytopenias.
SAA; Thrombocytopenia; CAMT; RUNX1; MPL; Chromosome structural anomalies; Chromosome 1; Chromosome 21
To describe the diagnostic performance of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) as a potential first line diagnostic method in first trimester high risk pregnancies.
In a retrospective study we performed aCGH using a targeted array BAC platform (Constitutional Chip® 4.0, PerkinElmer, Turku Finland, median resolution 600 kB) and the Affymetrix Cytogenetics® Whole Genome 2.7 M array (at a resolution of 400kB) on 100 anonymized prenatal samples from first trimester high risk pregnancies with normal conventional karyotype. We studied the technical feasibility and turn-around-time as well as the detection rate of pathogenic submicroscopic chromosome anomalies and CNVs of unknown significance.
We obtained results in 98 of 100 samples in 3 to a maximum of 5 days after DNA extraction. At the given resolution we did not identify any additional pathogenic CNVs but two CNVs of unknown significance in the chromosomal regions 1q21.1q21.2 (deletion) and 5p15.33 (duplication) (2%).
In accordance with a growing number of reports this study supports the concept that aCGH at a resolution of 400-600kB may be used as a first line prenatal diagnostic test with high diagnostic safety and rapid turn-around time in high-risk first trimester pregnancies. Detection rate of CNVs of unknown significance, considered as a major hindrance for replacing conventional karyotyping by aCGH, is 2%, but the diagnosis of additional submicroscopic anomalies in this heterogeneous group of patients seems to be rare.
Prenatal diagnosis; Array comparative genomic hybridization; ArrayCGH; aCGH; First trimester; High risk; CVS
Rodents have been reported to contain large arrays of interstitial telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)n (ITS) located in pericentromeric heterochromatin. The relative sizes of telomeric sequences at the ends of chromosomes (TS) and ITS in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) cells have not been evaluated yet, as well as their structural organization in interphase nuclei.
FISH signal distribution analysis was performed on DAPI-banded metaphase chromosomes of Syrian hamster fibroblasts, and relative lengths of telomere signals were estimated. Besides well-distinguished FISH signals from ITS located on chromosomes ##2, 4, 14, 20 and X that we reported earlier, low-intensity FISH signals were visualized with different frequency of detection on all other metacentric chromosomes excluding chromosome #21. The analysis of 3D-distribution of TS in interphase nuclei demonstrated that some TS foci formed clearly distinguished associations (2–3 foci in a cluster) in the nuclei of cells subjected to FISH or transfected with the plasmid expressing telomeric protein TRF1 fused with GFP. In G0 and G1/early S-phase, the average total number of GFP-TRF1 foci per nucleus was less than that of PNA FISH foci in the corresponding cell cycle phases suggesting that TRF1 overexpression might contribute to the fusion of neighboring telomeres. The mean total number of GFP-TRF1 and FISH foci per nucleus was increased during the transition from G0 to G1/early S-phase that might be the consequence of duplication of some TS.
The relative lengths of TS in Syrian hamster cells were found to be moderately variable. All but one metacentric chromosomes contain ITS in pericentromeric heterochromatin indicating that significant rearrangements of ancestral genome occurred in evolution. Visualization of GFP-TRF1 fibrils that formed bridges between distinct telomeric foci allowed suggesting that telomere associations observed in interphase cells are reversible. The data obtained in the study provide the further insight in the structure and dynamics of telomeric sequences in somatic mammalian cells.
Chromosome; Telomeric repeats; Interstitial telomeric sequences; Telomeric associations; PNA FISH
The so-called Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is present in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cases. It results in juxtaposition of the 5′ part of the BCR gene on chromosome 22 to the 3′ part of the ABL gene on chromosome 9. Since the majority of CML cases are currently treated with Imatinib, variant rearrangements in general have no specific prognostic significance, although the mechanisms involved in resistance to therapy have yet to be investigated. The T315I mutation within the abl-gene is the most frequent one associated with resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
This study evaluated a Ph chromosome positive CML case resistant to imatinib mesylate. A dic(17;18), loss of TP53 gene, co-expression of b2a2 and b3a2 fusions transcript and a T315I mutation were found.
We reported here a novel case of a Ph chromosome positive CML with a secondary abnormality [dic(17;18)], resulting to Glivec resistance but good response to nilotinib. The dic(17;18) might be a marker for poor prognosis in CML. Our finding indicated for an aggressive progression of the disease. The patient died under the treatment due to unknown reasons.
Dic (17;18); Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); TP53 gene; T315I; Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Imatinib resistant
Short stature is associated with several disorders including wide variations of chromosomal disorders and single gene disorders. The objective of this report is to present the cytogenetic findings in Indonesian patients with short stature.
G-banding and interphase/metaphase FISH were performed on short stature patients with and without other clinical features who were referred by clinicians all over Indonesia to our laboratory during the year 2003–2009.
The results of chromosomal analysis of ninety seven patients (mean age: 10.7 years old) were collected. The group of patients with other clinical features showed sex chromosome abnormalities in 45% (18/40) and autosomal abnormalities in 10% (4/40), whereas those with short stature only, 42.1% (24/57) had sex chromosome abnormalities and 1.75% (1/57) had autosomal abnormalities. The autosomal chromosomal abnormalities involved mostly subtelomeric regions. Results discrepancies between karyotype and FISH were found in 10 patients, including detection of low-level monosomy X mosaicism in 6 patients with normal karyotype, and detection of mosaic aneuploidy chromosome 18 in 1 patient with 45,XX,rob(13;14)(q10;q10).
Statistical analysis showed no significant association between the groups and the type of chromosomal abnormalities.
Chromosome abnormalities account for about 50% of the short stature patients. Wide variations of both sex and autosomal chromosomes abnormalities were detected in the study. Since three out of five patients had autosomal structural abnormalities involving the subtelomeric regions, thus in the future, subtelomeric FISH or even a more sensitive method such as genomic/SNP microarray is needed to confirm deletions of subtelomeric regions of chromosome 9, 11 and 18. Low-level mosaicism in normal karyotype patients indicates interphase FISH need to be routinely carried out in short stature patients as an adjunct to karyotyping.
Short stature; Chromosome abnormalities; Low-level mosaicism; FISH
The importance of the genetic factor in the aetiology of premature ovarian failure (POF) is emphasized by the high percentage of familial cases and X chromosome abnormalities account for 10% of chromosomal aberrations. In this study, we report the detailed analysis of 4 chromosomal abnormalities involving the X chromosome and associated with POF that were detected during a screening of 269 affected women. Conventional and molecular cytogenetics were valuable tools for locating the breakpoint regions and thus the following karyotypes were defined: 46,X,der(X)t(X;19)(p21.1;q13.42)mat, 46,X,t(X;2)(q21.33;q14.3)dn, 46,X,der(X)t(X;Y)(q26.2;q11.223)mat and 46,X,t(X;13)(q13.3;q31)dn. A bioinformatic analysis of the breakpoint regions identified putative candidate genes for ovarian failure near the breakpoint regions on the X chromosome or on autosomes that were involved in the translocation event. HS6ST1, HS6ST2 and MATER genes were identified and their functions and a literature review revealed an interesting connection to the POF phenotype. Moreover, the 19q13.32 locus is associated with the age of onset of the natural menopause. These results support the position effect of the breakpoint on flanking genes, and cytogenetic techniques, in combination with bioinformatic analysis, may help to improve what is known about this puzzling disorder and its diagnostic potential.
Breakpoint definition; Premature ovarian failure; X chromosome structural aberrations
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a new technique for detecting submicroscopic deletions and duplications, and can overcome many of the limitations associated with classic cytogenetic analysis. However, its clinical use in spontaneous abortion needs comprehensive evaluation. We used aCGH to investigate chromosomal imbalances in 100 spontaneous abortions and compared the results with G-banding karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Inconsistent results were verified by quantitative fluorescence PCR.
Abnormalities were detected in 61 cases. aCGH achieved the highest detection rate (93.4%, 57/61) compared with traditional karyotyping (77%, 47/61) and FISH analysis (68.9%, 42/61). aCGH identified all chromosome abnormalities reported by traditional karyotyping and interphase FISH analysis, with the exception of four triploids. It also detected three additional aneuploidy cases in 37 specimens with ‘normal’ karyotypes, one mosaicism and 10 abnormalities in 14 specimens that failed to grow in vitro.
aCGH analysis circumvents many limitations in traditional karyotyping or FISH. The accuracy and efficiency of aCGH in spontaneous abortions highlights its clinical usefulness for the future. As aborted tissues have the potential to be contaminated with maternal cells, the threshold value of detection in aCGH should be lowered to avoid false negatives.
Spontaneous abortion; Aneuploidy; Karyotyping; Array-based comparative genomic hybridization
B chromosomes (Bs) are dispensable elements which occur in many species including rye (Secale cereale). We determined the organization of B variants to obtain insights into the origin of B polymorphisms in rye.
The observed B variants were classified according to their morphology and in situ hybridization patterns with the B-specific repeats D1100 and CL11 into (I) long arm iso B, (II) D1100-deficient B and (III) small metacentric B variants. Long arm iso Bs are likely products of a meiotic centromere misdivision and subsequent duplication of the long arm, whereas small B variants are probably generated by chromosome breakage. Some deficient Bs experienced extensive amplification of CL11 repeats.
Both the pericentromere and the nondisjunction control region seem to be involved in the generation of rye B chromosome variants. However, due to the loss of the B-specific nondisjuction control region most of the variants generated are not capable to accumulate in a population.
Supernumerary chromosome; Rye; B chromosome polymorphisms
Partial duplication and partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 9 have each been reported in the literature as clinically recognizable syndromes. We present clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings on a five-week-old female infant with concomitant duplication and terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 9. To our knowledge ten such cases have previously been reported. Conventional cytogenetic analysis identified additional material on chromosome 9 at band p23. FISH analysis aided in determining the additional material consisted of an inverted duplication with a terminal deletion of the short arm. Microarray analysis confirmed this interpretation and further characterized the abnormality as a duplication of about 32.7 Mb, from 9p23 to 9p11.2, and a terminal deletion of about 11.5 Mb, from 9p24.3 to 9p23. The infant displayed characteristic features of Duplication 9p Syndrome (hypotonia, bulbous nose, single transverse palmar crease, cranial anomalies), as well as features associated with Deletion 9p Syndrome (flat nasal bridge, long philtrum, cardiac anomalies) despite the deletion being distal to the reported critical region for this syndrome. This case suggests that there are genes or regulatory elements that lie outside of the reported critical region responsible for certain phenotypic features associated with Deletion 9p Syndrome. It also underscores the importance of utilizing array technology to precisely define abnormalities involving the short arm of 9p in order to further refine genotype/phenotype associations and to identify additional cases of duplication/deletion.
Concomitant deletion and duplication of 9p; Deletion 9p Syndrome; Duplication 9p Syndrome; Craniofacial dysmorphism; Cardiac anomalies