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1.  Morphologic spectrum of glial tumors: an increased trend towards oligodendroglial tumors in Pakistan 
Background
Glial tumors are most common brain tumors in our population. While the exact etiology and pathogenesis is unknown, the evaluation of current trends in the frequency and morphology of glial tumors is imperative to constitute better diagnostic and treatment protocols. Data pertaining to frequency and spectrum of glial tumors is scarcely available in our population. The aim of this study was to determine the morphologic spectrum of glial tumors prevalent in our population.
Method
126 cases of glial tumors were retrospectively analyzed over a period of 5 years. Patients from all age groups and both genders were included in this study. Glial tumors were classified and graded according to WHO classification.
Results
Glial tumors were more common in males with a sex ratio of 2:1 and mean age of 38.26 years. Astrocytomas were most common glial tumors (51.6%) followed by oligodendrogliomas (23%). Glioblastoma was the most frequent astrocytic tumor and was incomparably frequent in older age group.
Conclusion
In our study, Oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas represent major pattern of disease in comparison with available regional data. Knowledge of these changing trends and patterns of glial tumor morphology and frequency can help in improvements and applications of newly emerging diagnostic and treatment modalities.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-33
PMCID: PMC4088292
Glial tumors; Astrocytoma; Oligodendroglioma; Glioblastoma; Mixed oligoastrocytoma
2.  Predictive factors of left atrial spontaneous echo contrast in patients with rheumatic mitral valve stenosis: a retrospective study of 159 patients 
Background
Mitral valve stenosis is a common manifestation of chronic rheumatic heart disease. The presence of spontaneous echo contrast in the left atrium and left atrial appendage has been reported to be an independent predictor of thrombo-embolic risk in patients with mitral stenosis. The objective of this study was to retrospectively investigate various clinical and echocardiographic variables to predict the spontaneous echo contrast in these patients.
Methodology
This is a bicentric retrospective study which includes 159 cases of symptomatic mitral stenosis from January 2011 to June 2012. All of the patients had transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. Patients who had significant mitral regurgitation (> Grade I), significant aortic valve disease, previous mitral valvulotomy and anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy were excluded from the study. Our study population was divided into two groups based on the presence (Group I) or absence (Group II) of spontaneous echo contrast.
Result
Left atrial spontaneous contrast was present in 34.6% of cases. Patients in this group have more frequent atrial fibrillation (P = 0.001), larger left atrial area (P = 0.027) and diameter (P=0.023), smaller mitral valve area (P = 0.025), and higher mean transmitral diastolic gradient (p = 0.003) as compared to patients without spontaneous echo contrast. There were no significant differences in the mean age (p = 0.38), duration of symptoms (p = 0.4) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.7) between patients with and without spontaneous echo contrast. On multivariate analysis, only mitral valve area and transmitral diastolic gradient (OR: 18.753, 1.21, CI [1,838-191,332], [1,064-1,376], p: 0.013, 0.004, respectively) were found to be independently associated to the presence of spontaneous echo contrast.
Conclusion
Patients with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis in atrial fibrillation or sinus rhythm have a higher risk of developing spontaneous echo contrast. These patients might benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation. The long-term outcomes can be ascertained in a study over a longer period and with periodic follow-up.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-32
PMCID: PMC4081018  PMID: 24995039
Mitral stenosis; Left atrial spontaneous contrast; Transesophageal echocardiography; Anticoagulation
3.  Unexpected triggers for pheochromocytoma-induced recurrent heart failure 
Pheochromocytoma crisis typically presents as paroxysmal episodes of headache, tachycardia, diaphoresis or hypertension. We describe an uncommon case of recurrent non-hypertensive heart failure with systolic dysfunction in a young female due to pheochromocytoma compression. It presented as acute pulmonary oedema while straining during pregnancy and later on as cardiogenic shock after a recreational body massage. Such crisis occurring during pregnancy is rare. Moreover, of the few reported cases of pheochromocytoma-induced cardiogenic shock, recreational body massage has not yet been reported as a trigger for this condition.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-30
PMCID: PMC4077553  PMID: 24987459
Body massage; Cardiogenic shock; Heart failure; Pheochromocytoma; Pregnancy
4.  Ventricular trigeminy in a patient with serologically confirmed dengue haemorrhagic fever 
Background
Cardiac arrhythmias occur during the acute stage of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. Dengue myocarditis is the most likely cause of the arrhythmias.
Case presentation
We report a 55-year-old patient with Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever presenting with transient ventricular trigeminy which has not been reported before.
Conclusion
Among many other known cardiac arrhythmia seen in DHF, ventricular trigeminy is also a possibility. Clinicians should be aware of this cardiac rhythm abnormality that can occur in dengue patients.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-28
PMCID: PMC4046007  PMID: 24904689
Dengue fever; Ventricular trigeminy; Dengue myocarditis
5.  Auditory stimulation with music influences the geometric indices of heart rate variability in men 
Background
Chronic classical music was reported to increase parasympathetic activitywhen evaluating heart rate variability (HRV). It is poor in the literature investigation of the acute effects of baroque and heavy metal styles of musical auditory stimulation on HRV. In this study we evaluated the acute effects of relaxant baroque and excitatory heavy metal music on the geometric indices of HRV in healthy men.
Method
The study was performed in 12 healthy men between 18 and 30 years old. We excluded persons with previous experience with music instrument and those who had affinity with the song styles. We analyzed the following indices: RRtri, TINN and Poincaré plot (SD1, SD2 and SD1/SD2 ratio). HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes. Subsequently they were exposed to relaxant baroque or excitatory heavy metal music for five minutes through an earphone. After the first music exposure they remained at rest for more five minutes and them they were exposed again to Baroque or Heavy Metal music (65–80 dB). The sequence of songs was randomized for each individual.
Results
The RRTri and SD2 indices were reduced during the heavy metal musical auditory stimulation (p < 0.05). No changes were observed regarding TINN, SD1 and SD1/SD2 ratio (p > 0.05).The qualitative Poincaré plot analysis indicated that during relaxant classical baroque music there was observed a higher beat-to-beat dispersion of RR intervals compared with no music exposure and during excitatory heavy metal musical auditory stimulation, showing higher HRV.
Conclusion
We suggest that excitatory heavy metal music acutely decreases global HRV.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-27
PMCID: PMC4039650  PMID: 24883104
Autonomic nervous system; Auditory stimulation; Cardiovascular system; Music
6.  Novel occupational therapy interventions may improve quality of life in older adults with dementia 
Background
Dementia is a major health problem in advancing age with no definitive treatment. Occupational therapy interventions are recognized strategies in treatment of dementia. Quality of life (QOL) assessment has been reliably used as an objective index of an individual’s well being pertaining to interventions in dementia. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to study the effects of a novel occupational therapy program in improving QOL of subjects having mild to moderate dementia.
Methodology
273 subjects older than 60 years were screened. 196 were excluded having cognitive impairment with no dementia (CIND). Remaining 77 subjects after satisfying DSM IV criteria for diagnosis of dementia were included in the study and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Experimental group received a novel occupational therapy regimen along with medical treatment, while control group received only medical treatment for 5 weeks. Outcome measures included standard occupational therapy assessment and WHOQOL-BREF. Subjects were assessed at baseline and post intervention.
Result
The mean age of participants was 69.39 years with male preponderance (80.5% male, 19.5% female). The quality of life (QOL) scores of physical and psychological domain in experimental groups significantly increased from 37.30 ± 5.42 and 45.13 ± 3.52 to 45.43 ± 7.32 and 51.50 ± 6.46 respectively. The QOL scores in social and environmental domains did not change significantly. The QOL scores in control groups declined in all domains with statistical significance found in social and environmental domain. (29.67 ± 4.58 and 38.49 ± 1.77 to 28.45 ± 5.26 and 38.18 ± 2.15 respectively).
Conclusion
This novel occupational therapy program improved the short term physical performance and psychological well being domain of quality of life in older adults with dementia. An improved physical performance is achieved by physical exercise of novel program and it creates sense of independency, increased motivation, positive outlook and reduced behavioral and psychological symptoms. The long term effects of the intervention can be ascertained in a study with longer period of intervention and follow-up.
Trial registration
[CTRI/2014/01/004290]
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-26
PMCID: PMC4076057  PMID: 24982692
Dementia; Occupational therapy; Quality of life; WHOQOL-BREFF
7.  Fractal correlation property of heart rate variability in response to the postural change maneuver in healthy women 
Background
We evaluated the effects of the PCM on the fractal analysis of the HRV in healthy women
Method
We evaluated healthy women between 18 and 30 years old. HRV was analyzed in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, NN50 and pNN50) and frequency (LF, HF and LF/HF ratio) domains as well as short and long-term fractal exponents (alpha-1 and alpha-2) of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes at seated rest and then the women quickly stood up from a seated position in up to three seconds and remained standing for 15 minutes. HRV was recorded at the following time: rest, 0–5 min, 5–10 min and 10–15 min during standing.
Results
We observed decrease (p < 0.05) in the time-domain indices of HRV between seated and 10–15 minutes after the volunteer stood up. The LF (ms2) and HF (ms2) indices were also reduced (p < 0.05) at 10–15 minutes after the volunteer stood up compared to seated while the LF (nu) was increased at 5–10 min and 10–15 min (p < 0.05). The short-term alpha-1 exponent was increased (p < 0.05) at all moments investigated compared to seated. Increase in the properties of short-term fractal correlations of heart rate dynamics accompanied by a decrease in the parasympathetic modulation and global HRV was observed in response to the postural change maneuver.
Conclusion
We suggest that fractal analysis of HRV is more sensitive than frequency and time-domain analysis of HRV during the postural change maneuver.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-25
PMCID: PMC4030044  PMID: 24910714
Autonomic nervous system; Cardiovascular system; Nonlinear dynamics; Physiology
8.  Effect of systemic inflammation on level of ferritin seminal in chronic renal male patient undergoing hemodialysis 
Background
Most hemodialysis patients present with chronic systemic inflammation characterized by the elevation of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and/or the production of proinflammatory interleukins by the immune system in response to the hemodialysis process. Plasma ferritin(PF) is one of the parameters used to correct anemia. An PF level of >500 ng/mL is not recommended for correction of anemia because of the uncertainty of whether these levels are elevated because of anemia or a mere reaction to inflammation. we aimed to study the effects of inflammation on seminal ferritin (SF) levels and hypothesized that SF is not affected because of the testicular immune privilege.
Methods
A prospective prevalence study was conducted at the Department of Hemodialysis of the University Hospital of Brasília (HuB) between June 2010 and July 2011. The sample included 60 chronic renal patients undergoing hemodialysis and 20 control subjects from the health promotion general outpatient clinic. All participants were males aged 18–60 years. Inflammation was assessed through serum CRP levels, and the testicular condition was determined by measuring sex hormone levels. In the patient group, inflammation was considered to be present when CRP was >5 mg/L (n = 27) and absent when CRP was ≤5 mg/L (n = 33). Control group (n = 20) CRP was ≤1 mg/L. Blood and semen were collected via arm venoclysis and after voluntary masturbation, respectively. CRP was measured by turbidimetry; PF, SF, and sex hormone levels by immunochemoluminescence. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.
Results
There was no significant difference in mean SF levels among patients with inflammation (295.34 ± 145.39 ng/mL), those without inflammation (324.42 ± 145.51 mg/mL), and controls (335.70 ± 075.90 ng/mL; p = 0.49). There was no correlation between mean SF and PF levels in the patients with and without inflammation). All participants were eugonadal with mean serum FSH, LH, and testosterone levels of 3.76 ± 2.17 mUI/mL, 7.00 ± 3.53 mUI/mL, and 454.18 ± 173.08 ng/dL, respectively.
Conclusion
Systemic inflammation did not significantly alter SF levels in eugonadal hemodialysis patients.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-23
PMCID: PMC4022435  PMID: 24834129
Chronic renal disease; Ferritin; Semen; Sex hormones; Testis
9.  Evolution of female urinary continence after physical therapy and associated factors 
Background
Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any involuntary loss of urine that can influence the quality of life, personal hygiene and social interaction. The types of UI that most affect women are stress urinary incontinence, urge incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence. There are several risk factors that result in specific treatments. We aimed to investigate the evolution of female urinary continence after physical therapy intervention and its associated factors.
Method
A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with 71 participants who were discharged from physiotherapy sector from August 2006 to April 2012 and met the inclusion criteria.
Results
Among the studied variables, the number of sessions and completion of home pelvic floor exercises showed a significant association. The urinary continence appeared in 43.7% of the cases, and factors, performance of home exercises, and number of sessions showed a significant association.
Conclusion
The number of sessions and completion of home pelvic floor exercises showed a significant relationship with each other.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-24
PMCID: PMC4024111  PMID: 24839462
Urinary incontinence; Patient outcome assessment; Urogynecology; Women’s health
10.  Prevalence of burnout syndrome in clinical nurses at a hospital of excellence 
Background
Burnout syndrome can be defined as long-term work stress resulting from the interaction between constant emotional pressure associated with intense interpersonal involvement for long periods of time and personal characteristics. We investigated the prevalence/propensity of Burnout syndrome in clinical nurses, and the factors related to Burnout syndrome-associated such as socio-demographic characteristics, work load, social and family life, leisure activities, extra work activities, physical activities, and work-related health problems.
Method
We conducted a cross-sectional, quantitative, prospective epidemiological study with 188 surgical clinic nurses. We used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), which is a socio-demographic questionnaire and the most widely used instrument to assess Burnout syndrome (three basic dimensions: emotional exhaustion, despersonalization and professional underachievement). The socio-demographic profile questionnaire wascomposed of questions regarding identification, training, time at work, work characteristics and personal circumstances.
Results
The prevalence of Burnout syndrome was higher (10.1%) and 55, 4% of subjects had a propensity to develop this syndrome. The analysis of the socio-demographic profile of the nurse sample studied showed that most nurses were childless married women, over 35 years of age, working the day shift for 36 hours weekly on average, with 2-6 years of post-graduation experience, and without extra employments. Factors such as marital status, work load, emotion and work related stress aggravated the onset of the syndrome.
Conclusion
The prevalence and propensity of Burnout syndrome were high. Some factors identified can be useful for the adoption of preventive actions in order to decrease the prevalence of the clinical nurses Burnout syndrome.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-22
PMCID: PMC4031323  PMID: 24860618
Burnout; Professional; Syndrome; Nursing
11.  Association between central auditory processing mechanism and cardiac autonomic regulation 
Background
This study was conducted to describe the association between central auditory processing mechanism and the cardiac autonomic regulation.
Methods
It was researched papers on the topic addressed in this study considering the following data bases: Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, Scopus and Cochrane. The key words were: “auditory stimulation, heart rate, autonomic nervous system and P300”.
Results
The findings in the literature demonstrated that auditory stimulation influences the autonomic nervous system and has been used in conjunction with other methods. It is considered a promising step in the investigation of therapeutic procedures for rehabilitation and quality of life of several pathologies.
Conclusion
The association between auditory stimulation and the level of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has received significant contributions in relation to musical stimuli.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-21
PMCID: PMC4022404  PMID: 24834128
Auditory stimulation; Autonomic nervous system; Heart rate; P300
12.  Influence of cardiac rehabilitation in Primigravida with spontaneous coronary artery dissection during postpartum 
Background
The physical exercise consists of trainable physical abilities such as strength and endurance. It can be inferred that the individual cardiac patient is dependent on it as an associated therapy to the drug treatment for a rapid and lasting improvement of their overall clinical status
Case presentation
The patient – with Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Postpartum period – was subjected to 21 sessions of cardiac rehabilitation. A physical evaluation was performed, before and after the treatment period, for data collection: anthropometric values, flexibility, aerobic capacity and strength of grip.
Conclusion
The patient had a positive response in aerobic capacity, flexibility and grip strength and the anthropometric values were kept in short term rehabilitation.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-20
PMCID: PMC4020313  PMID: 24829614
Cardiac rehabilitation; Spontaneous coronary artery dissection; Aerobic exercises
13.  Virus against virus (VIVI): a potential solution against HIV/AIDS 
Most therapeutic regimens are aimed at the use of pharmacologic agents or the induction of immunological response against the pathological agent. However, these methods tend to be insufficient for the management of some of the most debilitating infectious diseases. Here we present a novel therapeutic approach. It involves voluntary super-infection of a subject having HIV/AIDS with a virus (GBV-C), which to date has not been shown to be responsible for any pathology. It has been shown to counter, suppress or eradicate the agent responsible for the severe disease. Several studies demonstrate the role of different micro-organisms in influencing the growth of other pathogens in the human body. This hypothesis requires meticulous testing before its implementation on humans. If the trials are successful, the implications for this hypothesis are promising considering the compliance issues and adverse effects associated with current standard of HIV care.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-19
PMCID: PMC4030572  PMID: 24855491
HIV; AIDS; GBV-C; Hepatitis G virus; Super-infection; HAART; Vaccination
14.  Medication prescribing errors and associated factors at the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia 
Background
Medication error is common and preventable cause of medical errors and occurs as a result of either human error or a system flaw. The consequences of such errors are more harmful and frequent among pediatric patients.
Objective
To assess medication prescribing errors and associated factors in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was carried out in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital from February 17 to March 17, 2012. Data on the prescribed drugs were collected from patient charts and prescription papers among all patients who were admitted during the study period. Descriptive statistics was used to determine frequency, prevalence, means, and standard deviations. The relationship between dependent and independent variables were computed using logistic regression (with significance declared at p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence interval).
Results
Out of the 384 Medication order s identified during the study, a total of 223 prescribing errors were identified. This corresponds to an overall medication prescribing error rate of 58.07%. Incomplete prescriptions and dosing errors were the two most common types of prescribing errors. Antibiotics (54.26%) were the most common classes of drugs subjected to prescribing error. Day of the week and route of administration were factors significantly associated with increased prescribing error.
Conclusions
Medication prescribing errors are common in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital. Improving quick access to up to date reference materials, providing regular refresher trainings and possibly including a clinical pharmacist in the healthcare team are recommended.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-18
PMCID: PMC4018470  PMID: 24826198
Medication errors; Prescribing errors; Dessie; Pediatrics
15.  Anesthetic challenges of patients with cardiac comorbidities undergoing major urologic surgery 
The cardiac patient undergoing major urologic surgery is a complex case requiring a great attention by the anesthesiologist. Number of this group of patients having to go through this procedure is constantly increasing, due to prolonged life, increased agressiveness of surgery and increased anesthesia’s safety. The anesthesiologist usually has to deal with several problems of the patient, such as hypertension, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, rhythm disturbances, intraoperative hemodymanic changes, intraoperative bleeding, perioperative fluid imbalance, and metabolic disturbances. A cardiac patient undergoing major urologic surgery is a complex case requiring a great attention by the anesthesiologist. The scope of this review article is to present the most frequent issues encountered with this group of patients, and to synthetically discuss the respective strategies and maneuvers during perioperative period, which is the major challenge for the anesthesiologist.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-17
PMCID: PMC4005855  PMID: 24791166
Cardiac patient; Urological surgery; Anesthesia
16.  Evaluation of physical activity among adults with diabetes mellitus from Sri Lanka 
We evaluated the patterns of physical activity (PA) and the prevalence of physical inactivity among Sri Lankan adults with diabetes mellitus. Data were collected as part of a wider cross-sectional national study on diabetes in Sri Lanka. PA during the past week was assessed using the short version of the IPAQ. Overall prevalence of physical inactivity was 13.9%. Females (3091 ± 2119) had a significantly higher mean weekly total MET minutes than males (2506 ± 2084) (p < 0.01). Inactivity of those residing in urban (17.2%) areas was higher than rural (12.6%) in all adults. Participants from Moor ethnicity were more inactive compared to others. Adults who were physically active had significantly low waist and hip circumferences, BMI and systolic blood pressure.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-15
PMCID: PMC3996511  PMID: 24708737
Diabetes mellitus; Physical activity; Inactivity; Adults; Sri Lanka
17.  Harmful effects of shisha: literature review 
Tobacco is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. A recently infamous way of smoking tobacco is shisha. Shisha smoking is also known as water pipe, hookah and Narghile smoking. The percentage of shisha smokers is on the rise rapidly spanning the globe. A literature review was conducted to identify all evidence on the epidemiological variations and health effects of shisha smoking. “Pub med” is used as a searching tool to identify all relevant empirical studies conducted worldwide. A qualitative overview of evidence is presented.
Exposure to Shisha smoking is significantly associated with low infant weight, heart rate variations, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Increased risk of carcinoma is also leagued with it including carcinomas of the pancreas and lung being at the forefront. In conclusion, this review identifies grounds of several adverse conditions being associated with the habit of shisha smoking. It also evaluates the relevant epidemiological variations around the globe. The review culminates in the importance of enlightening shisha smokers regarding its deleterious effects.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-16
PMCID: PMC4003490  PMID: 24708750
18.  Unusual findings in secondary hypertension: double orifice mitral associated to aortic coarctation, bicuspid aortic valve, and ventricular septal defect 
Double orifice mitral valve is a rare congenital anomaly presenting as the division of the mitral orifice into two anatomically distinct orifices, it is most often associated with other congenital heart defects such as left-sided obstructive lesions, ventricular septal defects or aortic coarctation. We report the case of a 15 year’s old boy, admitted for arterial hypertension, auscultation revealed a rude aortic systolic murmur. Femoral pulses were weak. Owing to the suspicion of aortic coarctation, transthoracic echocardiography was performed, the aortic coarctation with dilation of the aorta proximal to the stenosis was confirmed and bicuspid aortic valve was found with good function. The mitral valve was dysmorphic, having two orifices; it was divided into 2 separate valve orifices by a fibrous bridge. No mitral or aortic regurgitation was documented by color Doppler flow imaging. The left ventricular ejection fraction was normal. There was a small peri membranous ventricular septal defect with left to right shunt. Owing to the severity of the aortic coarctation and taking into account the anatomy and characteristics of the patient, he was made a surgical correction of aortic coarctation with good outcome.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-14
PMCID: PMC3976167  PMID: 24693935
Secondary hypertension; Aortic coarctation; Bicuspid aortic valve; Double orifice mitral; Ventricular septal defect
19.  Monitoring of Hypocalcaemia & Hyperglycemia predictive consequences of Thyroidectomy 
Background
Hyperglycemia and hypocalcaemia have separately been attributed to adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. The study was aim determine whether hyperglycemia and hypocalcaemia together post-operative effect of thyroidectomy and evaluate the gender & age impact on the extend of clinical condition.
Methods
All the patients underwent thyroidectomy in the duration of 1st Jan 2012 till 30th June, 2013 in HPP and HUSM Kelantan, Malaysia. Serum evaluation has been made on 4 consecutive reading with duration of 6 hours. The predictive trend has been established to identify the hypokalemic and hyperglycemic condition. Ethical approvals & Patients’ consent forms have been made prior to conduct this study.
Results
The incidence of hyperglycemia [≥ 150 mg/dl(8.3 mmol/L)] and hypocalcaemia (serum calcium < 8.5 mg/dl (2.2 mmol/L)] were 39.4% and 43.9% respectively. Hyperglycemia and hypocalcaemia associated with age and length of stay, significant association has been found among pre-operative diagnosis as well. The interaction of hyperglycemia and hypocalcaemia did not separate effects on mortality.
Conclusion
As demonstrated, the prevalence of hyperglycemia and hypocalcaemia in post-thyroidectomy patients is considerable high. Also, the linear association pattern has been shown. However, considering the disease severity, the association of hyperglycemia and hypocalcaemia with surgical ward indicators of morbidity could not be verified.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-13
PMCID: PMC3984019  PMID: 24684723
Thyroidectomy; Endocrine disorders; Clinical practice; Hyperglycemia; Hypocalcemia
20.  Magnetic Resonance Image findings of Spinal Tuberclosis at first presentation 
Background
Spinal tuberculosis presents in various pathological patterns. The clinical presentation and often the management depend on exact pathological findings. Objective of study was to evaluate the Pathology of spinal tuberculosis as depicted by MRI findings in 119 consecutive cases of spinal TB.
Methodology
It was a cross sectional and observational study conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi from July 2010 to December 2012.Total numbers of participants were 119. Diagnosis was based on positive histopathology results along with the supportive evidence in MRI. A pre-structured questionnaire was constructed to record the data. Study was ethically approved by Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. Sample size was calculated by using Open-EPI software. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19.
Result
There were 119 patients who participated in this study out of which 52 were males and 67 were females. Most common level was Dorso-lumbar (33.6%) and 87.5% of them had spondylodiscitis while 90% had cord compression. All 6 (100%) patients who had their upper- dorsal region affected had gibbus formation while all those patients having lumbosacral region involved had thecal compression 4 (100%). Most common mode of treatment used in patients having Spinal TB at Lumbar region was conservative (86.2%).
Conclusion
MRI findings were mostly shadowed with features such as disc destruction and thecal or cord compression. MRI scan could be used for early detection of spinal TB which can reduce disability and deaths in patients. Major clinical findings in spinal TB were fever, Para paresis and back pain.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-12
PMCID: PMC3994417  PMID: 24655918
Tuberculosis; Paraplegia; Lumbar
21.  Low hepatitis B vaccine uptake among surgical residents in Cameroon 
Background
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most serious occupational hazards faced by healthcare workers. Surgical personnel are particularly at risk. HBV infection is preventable by vaccination, but no previous study has assessed HBV vaccination coverage among healthcare workers in Cameroon. We assessed knowledge of risk factors of HBV infection, awareness of HBV vaccine, and vaccination status of surgical residents in Cameroon.
Methods
A structured pretested questionnaire was administered to 49 of the 70 surgical residents in Cameroon during the 2011–2012 academic year.
Results
Since the beginning of their residency program, 28 (57.1%) had had at least one accidental exposure to blood, with a median of 2 (range 1 to 25) exposures. Most of them had a good knowledge of risk factors for HBV infection. Although 98.0% (n = 48) were aware of the HBV vaccine, and 89.8% (n = 44) knew that they were at high risk of infection, only 24.5% (n = 12) had received a full course of at least three doses of the vaccine. In addition, only 33.3% (4/12) underwent post-vaccination testing to confirm a good immunological response (and thus effective protection against HBV infection). Among the 53.1% (n = 28) who had never had any dose of HBV vaccine, the main reasons for not being vaccinated were lack of time (38.5%), lack of money to pay for vaccine (23.1%), and lack of sufficient information on the vaccine (19.2%). Only 20.4% (n = 10) had been sensitized by their training institutions about the importance of HBV vaccination.
Conclusion
There is a low HBV vaccine uptake among surgical residents in Cameroon. As part of occupational safety measures, complete HBV vaccination should be strongly recommended and offered to surgical trainees before the beginning of their training program.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-11
PMCID: PMC3975270  PMID: 24629103
Hepatitis B vaccine; Healthcare workers; Cameroon
22.  Implications of movement-related cortical potential for understanding neural adaptations in muscle strength tasks 
This systematic review aims to provide information about the implications of the movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) in acute and chronic responses to the counter resistance training. The structuring of the methods of this study followed the proposals of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses). It was performed an electronically search in Pubmed/Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge data bases, from 1987 to 2013, besides the manual search in the selected references. The following terms were used: Bereitschaftspotential, MRCP, strength and force. The logical operator “AND” was used to combine descriptors and terms used to search publications. At the end, 11 studies attended all the eligibility criteria and the results demonstrated that the behavior of MRCP is altered because of different factors such as: force level, rate of force development, fatigue induced by exercise, and the specific phase of muscular action, leading to an increase in the amplitude in eccentric actions compared to concentric actions, in acute effects. The long-term adaptations demonstrated that the counter resistance training provokes an attenuation in the amplitude in areas related to the movement, which may be caused by neural adaptation occurred in the motor cortex.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-9
PMCID: PMC3946007  PMID: 24602228
Movement-related cortical potential; Acute effects; Chronic effects; Counter resistance training
23.  Profile of idiopathic parkinson’s disease in Moroccan patients 
Objective
To characterize clinical aspects of Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease from a movement disorders consultation in University Hospital of Rabat.
Methods
Retrospective review of medical records of 117 patients with diagnosis of Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease seen in our outpatient clinic from 2006 to 2011.
Results
Mean age was 64 ± 10 years with predominance of men (61.5%). Mean age at disease onset was 57 ± 11 years. Early onset Parkinson’s Disease was recorded in 12.8%. The median duration of disease was 5 years. Initial symptom appeared on the right side in 56.5%. Tremor presentation was the most frequent (40.2%). Symptom severity was mild to moderate in 80% of cases (UPDRS < 30). Forty four per cent of patients were receiving both Dopamine Agonists and Levodopa and in 69% of cases Levodopa was introduced within the first year following onset. The mean Levodopa Equivalent Doses (LED) was 667 ± 446 mg/day. Motor complications were found in 42% with motor fluctuations in 28.7% and 2dyskinesias in 26.7%. Non motor complications are represented mainly by autonomic disorders (44%). There were no differences in the clinical presentation related to the age at onset. Age of onset < 45 and LED > 600 mg are identified as risk factors for motor fluctuations whereas duration of Levodopa treatment is a risk factor of dyskinesias.
Conclusion
Our patients are younger compared to most series with high prevalence of early onset forms. In the majority of cases, Levodopa was introduced within the first year following onset which expose patients to dyskinesias early in the course of the disease.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-10
PMCID: PMC3946767  PMID: 24602214
Parkinson’s disease; Clinical features; Treatment; Motor complications; On-motor complications
24.  Effects of physiotherapy on balance and unilateral vestibular hypofunction in vertiginous elderly 
Background
We aimed to analyze the effect of a physical therapy protocol on unilateral vestibular hypofunction and overall balance in elderly with vertigo.
Methods
The study included nine subjects, four male subjects (68.5 ± 11.09 years old) and five females (72.4 ± 7.09 years old). It was used the performance-oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), to evaluate the balance and the Unterberger – Fukuda test for analysis of unilateral vestibular dysfunction through rotations and displacements of the body. We developed and applied a structured physical therapy protocol, consisting of group exercises.
Results
It was observed that after the protocol, all participants improved balance (33.9 ± 5.1 vs. 47.3 ± 7.6, p < 0.0001) and displacement (111.1 ± 38.0 vs. 53.3 ± 34.6, p = 0.0001). However, it was not found significant differences for rotation.
Conclusion
The proposed protocol has contributed to an improvement in balance and vestibular dysfunction of the aged.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-8
PMCID: PMC3938970  PMID: 24576350
Aged; Postural balance; Physical therapy modalities; Vestibular diseases
25.  Vocal complaint in physical education teachers and its association with the cardiovascular system 
Background
We examined the vocal complaints and evaluated the correlation between the vocal handicap index (VHI) and heart rate variability (HRV) in physical education teachers. We evaluated 46 teachers.
Method
The subjects were investigated regarding voice complaint and the VHI was applied. HRV was recorded at seated rest for ten minutes and it was analyzed in the time, frequency domains, geometric indices and fractal exponents. The three domains of the VHI were correlated with the indices of HRV.
Results
The physical education teachers presented a VHI score much below the standard of the physiological normality. There was correlation of the organic domain of the VHI with the NN50 and pNN50 and correlation of the functional domain and organic domain of the VHI with the HF index of HRV.
Conclusion
The physical education teachers evaluated reported vocal complaints that affected their function and it is suggested to be related with the cardiac autonomic regulation.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-7-7
PMCID: PMC3975969  PMID: 24571789
Functional performance; Health; Neuroscience; Teaching

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