Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease endemic in some undeveloped areas, and still represents a public health problem in Brazil. Therefore, the control of this endemic disease depends necessarily on the institution of correct treatment and containment of treatment dropout. This study aims to conduct a systematic review of published studies on treatment dropout of leprosy.
We conducted a systematic review of articles on treatment dropout of leprosy, published between january 2005 and april 2013, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases. The search was performed using the MeSH terms: “leprosy”; “patients dropouts” and the keywords: “leprosy, treatment” and “noncompliance, leprosy” in association, beside the equivalents in Portuguese.
There were originally 196 references. After analyzing the titles and abstracts of articles, 20 articles were obtained and included in the final sample.
Leprosy is a notifiable disease known as its disfiguring capability and the high rate of non-compliance to treatment. The low adhesion is responsible for the remaining potential sources of infection, irreversible complications, incomplete cure and, additionally, may lead to resistance to multiple drugs. Many factors are responsible for the interruption or dropout treatment: socioeconomic factors, education level, knowledge about the disease, lack of efficiency of health services, demographics, side effects of drugs, alcoholism, among others.
The recent scientific literature about the subject diverge regarding the factors that most affect the dropout problem in treating leprosy patients. However, better integration between professionals and users, and greater commitment of the patient, are common points among the authors of the studies.
Leprosy; Patient dropout; Treatment; Adhesion
Hydration plays a key role in the physiological maintenance required by exercise.
To evaluate the behavior of heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate (RR) of young people during and after prolonged physical exercise, with and without the intake of water or isotonic solution.
31 young individuals (21.63 ± 1.86 years) were subjected to a four-step protocol with a 48-hour interval between each step, namely: i) a test to determine the incremental load used in subsequent steps, ii) a control protocol without hydration (CP), iii) an experimental protocol with water intake (PE1), iv) an experimental protocol with ingestion of isotonic (PE2). The protocols consisted of 10 min rest, 90 min of exercise on a treadmill at 60% of VO2peak and 60 min of recovery. The parameters HR, SBP, DBP, RR and SPO2 were measured at rest, at 30, 60 and 90 min of exercise, with the exception of RR; and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min of recovery. The two-factor analysis of variance for repeated measures model was used for analysis (p<0.05).
There was a moment effect for all variables in exercise (p<0.001), however, no effect was observed between the protocols (SBP, p=0.998; DBP, p=0.897; SpO2, p=0.077, HR=0.281) and in the interaction moment and protocol (SBP, p=0.058; DBP, p=0.191 and SpO2, p=0.510, HR=0.496). In recovery there was also a moment effect for all variables analyzed (p<0.001). There was no effect among protocols for SBP (p=0.986), DBP (p=0.536) and RR (p=0.539), however in the SpO2 (p=0.001) and HR (p=0.033) variables, effects were observed between the protocols. Regarding the moment and protocol interaction, an effect was observed for HR (SBP, p=0.431; DBP, p=0.086; SpO2, p=0.445, RR, p=0.147, HR, p=0.022).
For the type of exercise performed, both the water and the isotonic solution influenced the behavior of cardiorespiratory parameters, and independent of the type of hydration given the behavior of the parameters studied was similar.
Aerobic exercise; Rehydration solutions; Heart rate; Blood pressure; Respiratory rate
Chronic exposure to musical auditory stimulation has been reported to improve cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not clear if music acutely influences it in response to autonomic tests. We evaluated the acute effects of music on heart rate variability (HRV) responses to the postural change maneuver (PCM) in women.
We evaluated 12 healthy women between 18 and 28 years old and HRV was analyzed in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, NN50 and pNN50) and frequency (LF, HF and LF/HF ratio) domains. In the control protocol, the women remained at seated rest for 10 minutes and quickly stood up within three seconds and remained standing still for 15 minutes. In the music protocol, the women remained at seated rest for 10 minutes, were exposed to music for 10 minutes and quickly stood up within three seconds and remained standing still for 15 minutes. HRV was recorded at the following time: rest, music (music protocol) 0–5, 5–10 and 10–15 min during standing.
In the control protocol the SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50 indexes were reduced at 10–15 minutes after the volunteers stood up, while the LF (nu) index was increased at the same moment compared to seated rest. In the protocol with music, the indexes were not different from control but the RMSSD, pNN50 and LF (nu) were different from the music period.
Musical auditory stimulation attenuates the cardiac autonomic responses to the PCM.
Autonomic nervous system, Auditory stimulation; Cardiovascular system, Music
The Stroke remains one of the major chronic diseases worldwide, and is considered a major cause of disability, which results not only in persistent neurological deficits, but also in the high physical deconditioning, nevertheless there are not many forms of assessing functional capacity in this population. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of the Six Minute Walk Teste and the Six-Minute Step Test (6MST) in post-stroke patients and compare the behavior of physiological variables during the 6MST and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), by correlating the functional performance obtained in both tests.
The 6MWT was carried out according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the 6MST was performed in six minutes in order to compare it to the 6MWT in a 20 cm step. Was included post-stroke individuals able to walk without aid. All of them did the 6MWT and the 6MST.
12 patients participated in the study. There was no statistical difference in the parameters analyzed when tests were compared. There was poor correlation between the functional performance in both tests.
The 6MWT and the 6MST is feasible for post-stroke patients and physiological responses are equal during the performance of both tests. However, there was no correlation with respect to functional performance, which was assessed by the distance walked in the 6MWT and by the number of steps climbed in the 6MST.
Exercise test; Mobility limitation; Stroke
Although cricket has origins in the British Empire, it is followed as a religion in South Asia, probably due to the influence of the former during their rule. The sport is equally popular among all groups of the society, and is not subject to gender or age constraints. It marks the epitome of reverence and is considered a battle for self-esteem, not only for those playing, but for those watching as well. The intensity of emotional attachment with this sport renders certain public health benefits as well as drawbacks to the general masses.
Malnutrition in children is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary diversity and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea and that between consumption of each specific food group and these nutritional and health outcomes among children.
A nationally representative household survey of 6209 children aged 12 to 59 months was conducted in Cambodia. We examined the consumption of food in the 24 hours before the survey and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea that had occurred in the preceding 2 weeks. A food variety score (ranging from 0 to 9) was calculated to represent dietary diversity.
Stunting was negatively associated with dietary diversity (adjusted odd ratios [ORadj] 0.95, 95% confident interval [CI] 0.91-0.99, P = 0.01) after adjusting for socioeconomic and geographical factors. Consumption of animal source foods was associated with reduced risk of stunting (ORadj 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89, P < 0.01) and underweight (ORadj 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.96, P = 0.03). On the other hand, the higher risk of diarrhea was significantly associated with consumption of milk products (ORadj 1.46, 95% CI 1.10-1.92, P = 0.02) and it was significantly pronounced among children from the poorer households (ORadj 1.85, 95% CI 1.17-2.93, P < 0.01).
Consumption of a diverse diet was associated with a reduction in stunting. In addition to dietary diversity, animal source food was a protective factor of stunting and underweight. Consumption of milk products was associated with an increase in the risk of diarrhea, particularly among the poorer households. Both dietary diversity and specific food types are important considerations of dietary recommendation.
Nutrition status; Children under 5 years; Demographic and health survey; Food groups
The aim of this study is identify the main morphological patterns of the pancreas in AIDS patients in use of Higly Active Antiretorviral Therapy (HAART).
We conducted a cross sectional study in the year of 2010. The inclusion criteria were patients older than 18 years who died of AIDS with the use of HAART (2006–2009) and underwent to autopsy . They were compared with a group of 109 patients who died of AIDS in 1995 before the HAART therapy. All the autopsies were made in the Death Verification Service of São Paulo.
The HAART group presented pancreas abnormalities lighter than no HAART users. In the HAART group, histology shows: reduction of zymogen granules in the acinar cells (ZG) higher percentage of cases, “dysplasia-like” presents lower and pancreatic acinar atrophy, presents higher percentage of cases compared to no HAART group. The exocrine pancreas in treated patients was distinguished by the high level of atrophy, sharp reduction of zymogen granules and high level of apoptosis, reflecting degeneration and lower level of protein-caloric malnutrition.
The islets of Langerhans in HAART group were increased in number and volume and with high level of nuclear dysplasia. The antiviral therapy and a longer survival resulted in a higher atrophy and reduction of enzymes, increasing the apoptosis and generated important changes in the pancreatic islets, probably resulting in clinical laboratory repercussion.
We found no evidence of pancreatic histopathological lesions secondary to antiretroviral therapy.
HIV; Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency; Highly active anti-retroviral therapy; Chronic pancreatitis
The purpose of this study was to identify the sources of waste generation household consisting of biological material and to investigate the knowledge presented by those responsible for the generation of waste in the home environment on the potential health risk human and environmental.
It is a quantitative survey performed in Parque Capuava, Santo André (SP). The questionnaire was administered by the community employers and nursing students during the consultation with nursing supervision through interview question/answer. The exclusion criteria were patients who were not in the area served by the Basic Health Unit which covers the area of Pq Capuava. The sample was consisted of 99 persons and the data collection a questionnaire was used.
We observed that 63.3% of people said to use disposables, with the majority (58.7%) of these use the public collection as the final destination of these materials. It was reported that 73.7% of those surveyed reported having knowledge about the risk of disease transmission. Public awareness of the importance of proper packaging and disposal of potentially hazardous household waste may contribute significantly to the preservation of human and environmental health and this procedure can be performed and supervised by professional nurses.
We suggest implementation of workshops for community health workers and the general population in order to enhance their knowledge about the storage and disposal of potentially infectious waste generated at home, thereby reducing the potential risk of disease transmission by improper management.
Medical waste; Housing; Environmental health
We aimed to verify the association of risk behavior aggregation in different categories of physical activity (PA) with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (RF) employees at a public university.
We analyzed data of 376 employees, which were visited in their workplace for measurement of weight, height and questionnaires to identify the risk behaviors and risk factors. Chi-square test was used to analyze the association between the dependent and independent variables and binary logistic regression was used to construct a multivariate model for the observed associations.
Associations were found between the aggregation of following risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity, considered in different categories of PA, and the increase in RF, except for the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with two or more risk behaviors in occupational PA category are more likely to be hypertensive (3.04 times) and diabetes (3.44 times). For the free time PA category, these individuals were 3.18 times more likely to have hypercholesterolemia and for locomotion PA, more likely to be hypertensive (2.42 times) and obese (2.51 times).
There are association between the aggregation of two or more risk behaviors and the presence of cardiovascular RF.
Cardiovascular Disease; Risk Factors; Risk Behaviors; Physical Activity
The aim of this study was to identify dietary strategies for physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia based on a systematic literature review.
References were included if the study population consisted of adults over 18 years old who were physically active in fitness centers. We identified reports through an electronic search ofScielo, Lilacs and Medline using the following keywords: muscle dysmorphia, vigorexia, distorted body image, and exercise. We found eight articles in Scielo, 17 in Medline and 12 in Lilacs. Among the total number of 37 articles, only 17 were eligible for inclusion in this review.
The results indicated that the feeding strategies used by physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia did not include planning or the supervision of a nutritionist. Diet included high protein and low fat foods and the ingestion of dietary and ergogenic supplements to reduce weight.
Physically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia could benefit from the help of nutritional professionals to evaluate energy estimation, guide the diet and its distribution in macronutrient and consider the principle of nutrition to functional recovery of the digestive process, promote liver detoxification, balance and guide to organic adequate intake of supplemental nutrients and other substances.
Diet; Nutrition; Physical exercise; Muscle dysmorphia
Osteoporosis is a disease of bone metabolism in which bisphosphonates (BPS) are the most common medications used in its treatment, whose main objective is to reduce the risk of fractures. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on BPs adherence for treatment of osteoporosis.
Systematic review of articles on BPs adherence for treatment of osteoporosis, indexed on MEDLINE (via PubMed) databases, from inception of databases until January 2013. Search terms were “Adherence, Medication” (MeSH term), “Bisphosphonates” (MeSH term), and “Osteoporosis” (MeSH term).
Of the 78 identified studies, 27 met the eligibility criteria. Identified studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding adherence and associated factors, adherence and fracture, adherence and BPs dosage. The studies are mostly observational, conducted with women over 45 years old, showing low rates of adherence to treatment. Several factors may influence adherence: socio-economic and cultural, participation of physicians when guidance is given to the patient, the use of bone turnover markers, and use of generic drugs. The monthly dosage is associated with greater adherence compared to weekly dosage.
Considering the methodological differences between the studies, the results converge to show that adherence to treatment of osteoporosis with BPs is still inadequate. Further experimental studies are needed to evaluate the adherence and suggest new treatment options.
Bone and bones; Bisphosphonates; Medication adherence; Osteoporosis
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis which is spread through contamined running water. This contaminations is seriously affected by the flooding which occurs in the area surrounding the Aricanduva river. The transmission of the disease results mainly from the contact of water with soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals. We aimed to conduct an epidemiological survey on Leptospirosis cases in Sao Paulo East Zone area.
The analysis conducted in this study was based on data collected from the health authorities of that region close the Aricanduva river between 2007 and 2008 years, which give the rates of confirmed cases, mortality and death from human Leptospirosis. Other information concerned with the relationships among rainfall index, points of flooding and incidence of Leptospirosis.
We observed a direct and important water contamination. Records of flooding points and dates of the reported cases in the region showed a direct relationship from which the period of higher rainfall also recorded an increase in cases. The annual record of the city and the region and rainfall regions also presented correlation.
The association between the indices of flooding and Leptospirosis cases indicates that preventive measures are necessary to avoid exposing the community.
Epidemiological survey; Precipitation index; Points of flooding; Laboratory methods
Autism is a disorder characterized by pervasive social and communicative impairments, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Its causes and effects have been researched from various neurocognitive theoretical perspectives and with the aid of neuroimaging technology. We aimed to describe biopsychosocial processes characteristic of the Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Literature review using Medline and Scopus databases published between 2001 and 2011, with the keywords "autism", "theory of mind", "executive functions", "central coherence" and “fMRI”.
The studies found were plotted and organized into tables and an explanatory diagram of the main findings was produced.
The most popular neurocognitive theories are still unable to fully explain the characteristics of the complications that autistic spectrum disorder causes to the quality of life of individuals living with autism. The association of clinical research and neuroimaging may contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of the brain affected by the disorder.
Autistic disorder; Mental disorder; Central coherence; fMRI
To share our experience in bladder preservation in Upper Egypt, Assiut and Sohag Universities, using different treatment protocols. In Sohag study patients with operable muscle invasive bladder cancer were included and underwent transurethral resection followed by radiochemotherapy (5- fluorouracil and Cisplatin) for bladder preservation. In Assiut study after maximum safe resection of bladder tumor, patients received combined chemo-radiotherapy, 60 Gy of fractionated radiotherapy over 6 weeks, with Cisplatin and Gemcitabine.
In Sohag study the age of patients ranged from 35–72ys with Median 56 years, 24 patients were male (80%) and 6 patients were female (20%). In Assiut study the mean of age was 57.30 years, median 58.5 years with peak incidence in 7th decade (9 cases) then in 6th decade 7 cases (23.33%). Performance status was represented as following, 23 patients (76.6%) were scale 1 and seven patients (23.3%) were scale 2. In Assiut study, 90% of patients were disease free at the time of cystoscopic reevaluation. Of concern is that within 18 months of follow up in Assiut study, 7 of 27 (74%) complete responding patients have had local recurrence and 66.7% of all cases. The recurrence free survival in Sohag study at the median follow up (17 months) was 84% and at the end of follow up (30 months) was 70%. The overall survival at the median follow up was 95%, and at the end of follow up was 84%. The disease free survival in Assiut study was 66.7% and the overall Survival in Assiut study was 76.7.
Three significant prognostic factors were detected for overall survival, performance status, tumor size and residual of tumor and two significant prognostic factors were detected for disease free survival, tumor size and residual of tumor in Assiut study. And it was nearly similar to that reported by Sohag study as they found the completeness of TUR and early stage of the tumor had the strongest impact in response to treatment.
Measuring healthcare quality and improving patient satisfaction have become increasingly prevalent, especially among healthcare providers and purchasers of healthcare. Currently, research is interested to the satisfaction in several areas, and in various cultures. The aim of this study was; to confirm the reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the Emergency Department Quality Study (EDQS), to evaluate patient satisfaction with emergency care, and to determine associated factors with patient satisfaction.
A survey of socio demographic, visit and health characteristics of patients, conducted in emergency department (ED) of a Moroccan University Hospital during 1 week in February 2009. The EDQS was performed with patients who were discharged from ED. The psychometric properties of the EDQS were tested. Factors influencing patient satisfaction were identified using ordinal logistic regression.
A total of 212 patients were enrolled. The Arabic version of the EDQS showed excellent reliability and validity. Sixty six percent of participants were satisfied with overall care, and 69.8% would return to our unit. The most patient-reported problems were about waiting time and test results. Variables associated with greater satisfaction with ED care were: emergent (OR: 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04-0.31; P < 0.001), or urgent patients (OR: 0.35; 95% CI = 0.15-0.86; P = 0.02) compared to non-urgent patients, and waiting time less than 15 min (OR: 0.41; 95% CI = 0.23-0.75; P = 0.003). Variables associated with lesser satisfaction were: distance patient’s home hospital ≤10Kilometers (OR: 2.64; 95% CI = 1.53-4.53; P < 0.001), weekday’s admissions (OR: 2.66; 95% CI = 1.32 to 5.34; P < 0.006), and educational level; with secondary (OR: 5.19; 95% CI = 2.04-13.21; P < 0.001) primary (OR: 3.04; 95% CI = 1.10-8.04; P = 0.03) and illiterate patients (OR: 2.53; 95% CI = 1.02-6.30; P = 0.03) were less satisfied compared to those with high educational level.
Medical staff needs to consider different interactions between those predictive factors in order to develop some supportive tools.
Emergency care; Emergency department quality Study; Satisfaction
Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) entail a high risk of stroke recurrence, which depends on the etiology. New organizational models have been created, but there is not much information about the long-term evolution of patients managed according to these premises. Our aim is to refer the follow-up of patients attended according to our model of TIA Unit.
TIA Unit is located in the Emergency Department and staffed by vascular neurologists. Patients admitted during the Neurology night shift stayed in such Unit <48h with complete etiological study. Preventive treatment is instituted in patients discharged to a high resolution Neurology consult, in order to review in <2 weeks and subsequent follow-up.
During a year 161 patients were attended, being admitted to the hospital 8.6%. A total of 1470 hospital days were avoided. Recurrence at 90 days was of 0.6%. Mean follow-up was 18.14 ± 8.02 months (0–34), total recurrence 6.2% (70% cardioembolic strokes). There were no complications derived from treatment. Cardiological events were recorded in 10.6%, neoplastic in 5%, cognitive impairment in 11%. There were 3 deaths unrelated nor to the stroke or its treatment.
This model allows an early diagnosis and treatment of TIA, preventing recurrences of stroke in a long term. It detects atherothrombotic strokes, most of them admitted to the hospital, and it shows a greater difficulty for detecting all cardioembolic strokes. TIA Unit appeared to be safe in using anticoagulation therapy, as the follow-up shows. It shows the same quality of management than hospital admission, with a significant saving in hospital stays.
TIA; Mild stroke; TIA unit; Stroke care models; TIA management
Gallstones represent a significant burden for health care systems worldwide and are one of the most common disorders presenting to emergency room. Ultrasonography, complete blood picture test and liver function tests are procedures of choice in suspected gallstones or biliary diseases. They are the most sensitive, specific, non-invasive and inexpensive tests for the detection of gallstones. Our main objective was to evaluate the relationship of ultrasonographic findings, hemolytic indices and liver function tests with gallstones.
It was a prospective study carried out in Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS) and Liaquat National Hospital, two largest tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Duration of the study was from July 2011 to October 2012. The study was carried out on diagnosed, pre-operative and symptomatic patients of cholelithiases. Exclusion criteria were patients of gallbladder and pancreatic carcinoma, emergency operations, patients having age <12 years and non-cooperative patients, who refused to give written consent for participation in the study. Total two tests were performed on each patient after diagnosis by ultrasonography. These were complete blood count and liver function tests. All the demographic data, laboratory findings and ultrasonographic features were noted in a pre-structured Performa. Sample size was calculated by using open-epidemiological sample size calculator prevalence (p) = 35%, d = 5%, and confidence interval (CI) 95% = 350. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19.
There were 454 diagnosed and pre-operative cases of gallstones present in the study. There were 120(26.4%) males and 334(73.6%) females, with a mean age of 42.80 ± 12.26 years. Most of the suspects had multiple stones 384 (84.5%) while few had single stones 70(15.4%). Fatty liver was found to be present in 144(31.7%) patients and 92(20.2%) had hepatomegaly. Splenomegaly was present in 16(3.5%) patients. Alkaline phosphatase was elevated in 186(41.0%) patients while SGPT was found to be raised in 160(35.2%). Blood urea nitrogen was found to be elevated in 186(41%) patients and serum creatinine was elevated in 46(10.1%) patients.
In the light of findings it is recommend that all patients should go through the process of ultrasonography and all the biochemical parameters should be analyzed before surgery.
Gallstone; Alkaline phosphatase; Fatty liver
The time synchronization is a very important ability for the acquisition and performance of motor skills that generate the need to adapt the actions of body segments to external events of the environment that are changing their position in space. Down Syndrome (DS) individuals may present some deficits to perform tasks with synchronization demand. We aimed to investigate the performance of individuals with DS in a simple Coincident Timing task.
32 individuals were divided into 2 groups: the Down syndrome group (DSG) comprised of 16 individuals with average age of 20 (+/− 5 years old), and a control group (CG) comprised of 16 individuals of the same age. All individuals performed the Simple Timing (ST) task and their performance was measured in milliseconds. The study was conducted in a single phase with the execution of 20 consecutive trials for each participant.
There was a significant difference in the intergroup analysis for the accuracy adjustment - Absolute Error (Z = 3.656, p = 0.001); and for the performance consistence - Variable Error (Z = 2.939, p = 0.003).
DS individuals have more difficulty in integrating the motor action to an external stimulus and they also present more inconsistence in performance. Both groups presented the same tendency to delay their motor responses.
Growth & development; Down syndrome; Motor activity; Task performance and analysis
The Editor-in-Chief of International Archives of Medicine would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 5 (2012).
The literature has already demonstrated that cigarette influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we performed a literature review in order to investigate the relationship between sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS) and cardiac autonomic regulation.
Searches were performed on Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the crossing between the key-words: “cigarette smoking”, “autonomic nervous system”, “air pollution” and “heart rate variability”.
The selected studies indicated that SSCS exposure affects the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses to changes in arterial blood pressure. Moreover, heart rate responses to environmental tobacco smoke are increased in smokers compared to non-smokers. The mechanism involved on this process suggest increased oxidative stress in brainstem areas that regulate the cardiovascular system.
Further studies are necessary to add new elements in the literature to improve new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders in subjects exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke.
Autonomic nervous system; Cigarette smoking; Cardiovascular physiology; Air pollution
In order to raise African countries probability of achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals by 2015, there is need to increase and more efficiently use domestic and external funding to strengthen health systems infrastructure in order to ensure universal access to quality health care. The objective of this paper is to examine the changes that have occurred in African countries on health financing, taking into account the main sources of funding over the period 2000 to 2009.
Our analysis is based on the National Health Accounts (NHA) data for the 46 countries of the WHO African Region. The data were obtained from the WHO World Health Statistics Report 2012. Data for Zimbabwe was not available. The analysis was done using Excel software.
Between 2000 and 2009, number of countries spending less than 5% of their GDP on health decreased from 24 to 17; government spending on health as a percentage of total health expenditure increased in 31 countries and decreased in 13 countries; number of countries allocating at least 15% of national budgets on health increased from 2 to 4; number of countries partially financing health through social security increased from 19 to 21; number of countries where private spending was 50% and above of total health expenditure decreased from 29 (64%) to 23 (51%); over 70% of private expenditure on health came from household out-of-pocket payments (OOPS) in 32 (71%) countries and in 27 (60%) countries; number of countries with private prepaid plans increased from 29 to 31; number of countries financing more than 20% of their total health expenditure from external sources increased from 14 to 19; number of countries achieving the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health recommendation of spending at least US$34 per person per year increased from 11 to 29; number of countries achieving the International Taskforce on Innovative Financing recommendation of spending at least US$44 per person per year increased from 11 to 24; average per capita total expenditure on health increased from US$35 to US$82; and average per capita government expenditure on health grew from US$ 15 to US$ 41.
Whilst the African Region (AFR) average government expenditure on health as a per cent of THE increased by 5.4 per cent, the average private health expenditure decreased by the same percentage between 2000 and 2009. The regional average OOPS as a per cent of private expenditure on health increased by 4.9 per cent. The average external resources for health as a percentage of THE increased by 3.7 per cent. Even though on average the quantity of health funds have increased, we cannot judge from the current study the extent to which financial risk protection, equity and efficiency has progressed or regressed.
In 2009 OOPS made up over 20% of total expenditure on health in 34 countries. Evidence shows that where OOPS as a percentage of total health expenditure is less than 20%, the risk of catastrophic expenditure is negligible. Therefore, there is urgent need for countries to develop health policies that address inequities and health financing models that optimize the use of health resources and strengthen health infrastructure. Increased coverage of prepaid health-financing mechanisms would reduce over-reliance on potentially catastrophic and impoverishing out-of-pocket payments.
Cutaneous melanoma is the fastest growing tumor of the skin and the median life span of patients with advanced disease is less than a year. Melanoma-related mortality can be reduced through early detection via clinical skin exams and patient self-examination. Despite the potential to reducing the medical burden associated with clinical skin exams, systematic and regular skin self-examinations (SSE) are rarely performed. The current study examined psychosocial predictors of SSE and changes in SSE behavior from pre- to post-diagnosis in order to guide future melanoma prevention initiatives.
A consecutive sample of 47 melanoma survivors was drawn from a tertiary care clinic. Most melanomas had been detected by patients, spouses and other laypersons. Higher education was related to more frequent SSE at pre-diagnosis, more thorough SSE at post-diagnosis, and more frequent reports of having been advised to perform SSE at post-diagnosis. SSE behaviors increased significantly from pre- to post-diagnosis.
These findings suggest that different patient subgroups display varied knowledge base, readiness for change, and receptiveness for medical advice. Thus, interventions seeking to enhance skin self-exam practice may be most effective when the individual’s psychosocial characteristics are taken into account.
Melanoma; Skin self-exam; Medical advice; Education level
Snake bite is a common and devastating environmental hazard, especially in rural areas of tropical countries. Acute myocardial infarction caused by snakebite has rarely been reported. To our knowledge we found only 10 cases of Myocardial infarction following a viper bite in English literature.
We report a case of inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction following a Russell’s viper bite in a 37 year old healthy Sri Lankan (South Asian) female with no past history of cardiac disease or cardiac risk factors who died 30 hours following the bite.
The course of events with respect to myocardium suggests a direct toxic effect of the venom on myocardial tissue or coronary vasoconstriction. Physicians should bear in mind the complications and devastating sequela of Myocardial infarction following Russell’s viper bite.
Snake bite; Russell’s viper; Myocardial infarction; ST elevation myocardial infarction
Radiotherapy is an important tool in the control of pain in patients with spinal metastatic disease. We aimed to evaluate pain and of quality of life of patients with spinal metastatic disease undergoing radiotherapy with supportive treatment.
The study enrolled 30 patients. From January 2008 to January 2010, patients selection included those treated with a 20 Gy tumour dose in five fractions. Patients completed the visual analogue scale for pain assessment and the SF-36 questionnaire for quality of life assessment.
The most frequent primary sites were breast, multiple myeloma, prostate and lymphoma. It was found that 14 spinal metastatic disease patients (46.66%) had restricted involvement of three or fewer vertebrae, while 16 patients (53.33%) had cases involving more than three vertebrae. The data from the visual analogue scale evaluation of pain showed that the average initial score was 5.7 points, the value 30 days after the end of radiotherapy was 4.60 points and the average value 6 months after treatment was 4.25 points. Notably, this final value was 25.43% lower than the value from the initial analysis. With regard to the quality of life evaluation, only the values for the functional capability and social aspects categories of the questionnaire showed significant improvement.
Radiotherapy with supportive treatment appears to be an important tool for the treatment of pain in patients with spinal metastatic disease.
Radiotherapy; Neoplasm metastasis; Quality of life
The participation of children and adolescents in sports, including basketball, is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the potential risk of sports injuries.
To analyze the occurrence of sports injuries among young basketball players according to their position on the court and to associate these injuries with risk factors.
A retrospective, epidemiological study. A sample consisting of 204 basketball players with a mean age of 14.33 ± 1.19 years participated in the study. The players were interviewed using a reported condition questionnaire containing anthropometric and training data as well as information on injuries during the previous 12 months.
The frequency of injury was highest among the shooting guards (47.8%), followed by the centers (34.8%) and point guards (17.4%). Among the 204 participants, 40 players reported a total of 46 injuries, representing 0.22 injuries per participant and 1.15 injuries per injured participant. For the shooting guards and centers, statistically significant differences between injured and non-injured players were found related to age, weight, height, length of time in training and number of weekly practice hours (p < 0.05). For point guards, a statistically significant difference between injured and non-injured players was found based on weight alone (p < 0.05).
The occurrence of injuries among basketball players was low. Injuries were associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic factors among shooting guards and centers, whereas injuries were only associated with weight among point guards.
Trauma in athletes; Risk factors; Morbidity surveys