Connexins form a family of transmembrane proteins that consists of 20 members in humans and 21 members in mice. Six connexins assemble into a connexon that can function as a hemichannel or connexon that can dock to a connexon expressed by a neighbouring cell, thereby forming a gap junction channel. Such intercellular channels synchronize responses in multicellular organisms through direct exchange of ions, small metabolites, and other second messenger molecules between the cytoplasms of adjacent cells. Multiple connexins are expressed in the cardiovascular system. These connexins not only experience the different biomechanical forces within this system, but may also act as effector proteins in co-ordinating responses within groups of cells towards these forces. This review discusses recent insights regarding regulation of cardiovascular connexins by mechanical forces and junctions. It specifically addresses effects of (i) shear stress on endothelial connexins, (ii) hypertension on vascular connexins, and (iii) changes in afterload and the composition of myocardial mechanical junctions on cardiac connexins.
Gap junctions; Connexins; Cardiovascular system; Mechanotransduction
Atherosclerosis initiates at predictable focal sites and develops to a spatially regional disease with limited distribution. There is compelling evidence that links haemodynamics to the localized origin of atherosclerotic lesions. Arterial flow in vivo is unsteady, dynamically complex, and regionally variable. Sites susceptible to atherosclerosis near arterial branches and curves are associated with regions of disturbed blood flow that contain repetitive phases of flow reversal resulting in steep multidirectional temporal and spatial gradients of wall shear stresses. Endothelium in atherosusceptible regions relative to protected sites shows activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR), the altered expression of pro-inflammatory Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFκB) and oxidant/antioxidant pathways, and low expression of major protective factors, notably endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Kruppel-like Factors KLF2 and KLF4. At some atherosusceptible locations, reactive oxygen species levels are significantly elevated. Here we describe flow-related phenotypes identified in steady-state in vivo and outline some of the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to pre-lesional atherosusceptibility as deduced from complementary cell experiments in vitro. We conclude that disturbed flow is a significant local risk factor for atherosclerosis that induces a chronic low-level inflammatory state, an adaptive response to ensure continued function at the expense of increased susceptibility to atherogenesis. Surprisingly, when challenged by short-term hypercholesterolaemia in vivo, atherosusceptible endothelial phenotype was resistant to greater pro-inflammatory expression, suggesting that sustained hyperlipidaemia is required to overcome these protective characteristics.
Endothelial phenotype; Haemodynamics; Atherosclerosis; Inflammation; Genomicsv
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an air pollutant that impedes neonatal development and induces adverse cardiorespiratory health effects, including tachycardia. Here, an animal model was developed that enabled characterization of (i) in vivo alterations in heart rate and (ii) altered activity in brainstem neurons that control heart rate after perinatal SO2 exposure.
Methods and results
Pregnant Sprague–Dawley dams and their pups were exposed to 5 parts per million SO2 for 1 h daily throughout gestation and 6 days postnatal. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups at 5 days postnatal to examine changes in basal and diving reflex-evoked changes in heart rate following perinatal SO2 exposure. In vitro studies employed whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons within the nucleus ambiguus upon SO2 exposure using a preparation that maintains fictive inspiratory activity recorded from the hypoglossal rootlet. Perinatal SO2 exposure increased heart rate and blunted the parasympathetic-mediated diving reflex-evoked changes in heart rate. Neither spontaneous nor inspiratory-related inhibitory GABAergic or glycinergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons was altered by SO2 exposure. However, excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission was decreased by 51.2% upon SO2 exposure. This diminished excitatory neurotransmission was tetrodotoxin-sensitive, indicating SO2 exposure impaired the activity of preceding glutamatergic neurons that synapse upon cardiac vagal neurons.
Diminished glutamatergic, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons provides a mechanism for the observed SO2-induced elevated heart rate via an impairment of brainstem cardioinhibitory parasympathetic activity to the heart.
Autonomic nervous system; Electrophysiology; Neurotransmitters; Parasympathetic; Tachycardia
Adenosine is a potent vasodilator contributing to cerebral blood flow regulation during metabolic stress. However, the distribution of adenosine receptor subtypes and underlying signalling mechanisms for dilation of pial arterioles remain unclear. The present study aimed at addressing these issues.
Methods and results
Isolated porcine pial arterioles were subjected to study of vasomotor function, localization of adenosine receptors, and production of nitric oxide (NO). Concentration-dependent vasodilation to adenosine was inhibited by A2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 but not by A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine. A2A receptors were detected in endothelium and smooth muscle of pial arterioles via immunohistochemistry. Adenosine significantly increased arteriolar production of NO, and the induced dilation was insensitive to KATP channel blocker glibenclamide but was attenuated by endothelial denudation, NO synthase inhibitor l-NAME, or guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ in a similar manner. Both inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel inhibitor barium and cAMP signalling inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS attenuated adenosine-induced dilation. In the presence of l-NAME or the absence of endothelium, addition of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS but not barium further reduced adenosine-induced responses. Barium diminished endothelium-independent vasodilation to NO donor sodium nitroprusside. Comparable to the adenosine-induced response, vasodilation to A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 was attenuated by endothelial removal, ZM241385, l-NAME, barium, or Rp-8-Br-cAMPS, but not by glibenclamide.
Adenosine evokes dilation of porcine pial arterioles via parallel activation of endothelial and smooth muscle A2A receptors. Stimulation of endothelial NO production activates smooth muscle guanylyl cyclase for vasodilation by opening Kir channels. Adenosine also activates smooth muscle cAMP signalling leading to vasodilation.
Adenosine; Microcirculation; Nitric oxide; Potassium channels; Vasodilation
Aberrant vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration contribute significantly to the development of vascular pathologies, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. MicroRNAs have recently emerged as critical modulators in cellular processes and the purpose of this study is to identify novel miRNA regulators implicated in human aortic VSMC proliferation and migration.
Methods and results
To identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in human VSMCs, we performed miRNA microarray analysis in human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at different time points after platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulation. Here, we identified microRNA-638 (miR-638) as a transcript that was one of the most significantly down-regulated in human VSMCs after PDGF stimulation. Furthermore, we confirmed, by Quantitative RT–PCR, that miR-638 is highly expressed in human VSMCs, and its expression is markedly down-regulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner upon PDGF treatment. Consistent with a critical role in SMC proliferation, we found that miR-638 expression was significantly up-regulated in human VSMCs cultured in differentiation medium, a condition that inhibits SMC proliferation. Furthermore, we identified the orphan nuclear receptor NOR1 as a downstream target gene product of miR-638 and down-regulation of NOR1 is critical for miR-638-mediated inhibitory effects on PDGF-induced cyclin D1 expression, cell proliferation, and migration in human aortic SMCs.
These results indicate that miR-638 is a key molecule in regulating human VSMC proliferation and migration by targeting the NOR1/cyclin D pathway and suggest that specific modulation of miR-638 in human VSMCs may represent an attractive approach for the treatment of proliferative vascular diseases.
miR-638; Vascular smooth muscle cell; Proliferation; Migration; Orphan Nuclear Receptor NOR1
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is associated with leaflet thickening, fibrosis, matrix remodelling, and leaflet prolapse. Molecular mechanisms contributing to MMVD, however, remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that increased transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major contributors to pro-fibrotic gene expression in human and mouse mitral valves.
Methods and results
Using qRT–PCR, we found that increased expression of TGF-β1 in mitral valves from humans with MMVD (n = 24) was associated with increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Increased levels of phospho-SMAD2/3 (western blotting) and expression of SMAD-specific E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases (SMURF) 1 and 2 (qRT–PCR) suggested that TGF-β1 signalling occurred through canonical signalling cascades. Oxidative stress (dihydroethidium staining) was increased in human MMVD tissue and associated with increases in NAD(P)H oxidase catalytic subunits (Nox) 2 and 4, occurring despite increases in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). In mitral valves from SOD1-deficient mice, expression of CTGF, MMP2, Nox2, and Nox4 was significantly increased, suggesting that ROS can independently activate pro-fibrotic and matrix remodelling gene expression patterns. Furthermore, treatment of mouse mitral valve interstitial cells with cell permeable antioxidants attenuated TGF-β1-induced pro-fibrotic and matrix remodelling gene expression in vitro.
Activation of canonical TGF-β signalling is a major contributor to fibrosis and matrix remodelling in MMVD, and is amplified by increases in oxidative stress. Treatments aimed at reducing TGF-β activation and oxidative stress in early MMVD may slow progression of MMVD.
Cardiovascular surgery; Valves; Mitral valve; Regurgitation; Antioxidants
The transcription factor hexamethylene-bis-acetamide-inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1) regulates myocardial vascularization and growth during cardiogenesis. Our aim was to determine whether HEXIM1 also has a beneficial role in modulating vascularization, myocardial growth, and function within the adult heart.
Methods and results
To achieve our objective, we created and investigated a mouse line wherein HEXIM1 was re-expressed in adult cardiomyocytes to levels found in the foetal heart. Our findings support a beneficial role for HEXIM1 through increased vascularization, myocardial growth, and increased ejection fraction within the adult heart. HEXIM1 re-expression induces angiogenesis, that is, essential for physiological hypertrophy and maintenance of cardiac function. The ability of HEXIM1 to co-ordinate processes associated with physiological hypertrophy may be attributed to HEXIM1 regulation of other transcription factors (HIF-1-α, c-Myc, GATA4, and PPAR-α) that, in turn, control many genes involved in myocardial vascularization, growth, and metabolism. Moreover, the mechanism for HEXIM1-induced physiological hypertrophy appears to be distinct from that involving the PI3K/AKT pathway.
HEXIM1 re-expression results in the induction of angiogenesis that allows for the co-ordination of tissue growth and angiogenesis during physiological hypertrophy.
HEXIM1; Hypertrophy; Angiogenesis
Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are secondary voltage depolarizations during the repolarizing phase of the action potential, which can cause lethal cardiac arrhythmias. The occurrence of EADs requires a reduction in outward current and/or an increase in inward current, a condition called reduced repolarization reserve. However, this generalized condition is not sufficient for EAD genesis and does not explain the voltage oscillations manifesting as EADs. Here, we summarize recent progress that uses dynamical theory to build on and advance our understanding of EADs beyond the concept of repolarization reserve, towards the goal of developing a holistic and integrative view of EADs and their role in arrhythmogenesis. We first introduce concepts from nonlinear dynamics that are relevant to EADs, namely, Hopf bifurcation leading to oscillations and basin of attraction of an equilibrium or oscillatory state. We then present a theory of phase-2 EADs in nonlinear dynamics, which includes the formation of quasi-equilibrium states at the plateau voltage, their stabilities, and the bifurcations leading to and terminating the oscillations. This theory shows that the L-type calcium channel plays a unique role in causing the nonlinear dynamical behaviours necessary for EADs. We also summarize different mechanisms of phase-3 EADs. Based on the dynamical theory, we discuss the roles of each of the major ionic currents in the genesis of EADs, and potential therapeutic targets.
Early afterdepolarizations; Repolarization reserve; Nonlinear dynamics; Oscillation; Arrhythmias
Low androgen levels have been linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in men. Previous studies have suggested that androgens directly inhibit atherosclerotic lesion formation although the underlying mechanisms for this remain unclear. This study addressed the hypothesis that endogenous androgens inhibit arterial remodelling by a direct action on the androgen receptor (AR) in the vascular wall.
Methods and results
We studied a series of novel mouse lines with cell-specific deletion of the AR in either the endothelium or in smooth muscle cells or both cell types. Findings were compared with a model of global androgen deficiency in wild-type mice (castrated). We characterized the cardiovascular phenotype, vascular pharmacology and histology, and assessed neointimal lesion formation following vascular injury to the femoral artery. Cell-specific AR deletion did not alter body weight, circulating testosterone levels or seminal vesicle weight, but caused limited alterations in arterial contractility and blood pressure. Neointimal lesion formation was unaltered by selective deletion of AR from the vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, or both cell types. Castration in wild-type mice increased neointimal lesion volume (Sham vs. Castration: 2.4 × 107 ± 4.5 × 106 vs. 3.9 × 107 ± 4.9 × 106 µm3, P = 0.04, n = 9–10).
Vascular cell-specific AR deletion had no effect on neointimal lesion formation, while low systemic androgen levels adversely affect neointimal lesion size. These findings suggest that the cardio-protective effects of androgens are mediated either by AR outside the vasculature or by AR-independent mechanisms.
Androgen receptor; Testosterone; Arterial injury; Neointima
Inward remodelling of the resistance vasculature is predictive of hypertension and life-threatening cardiovascular events. We hypothesize that the contractile mechanisms responsible for maintaining a reduced diameter over time in response to prolonged stimulation with vasoconstrictor agonists are in part responsible for the initial stages of the remodelling process. Here we investigated the role of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) actin polymerization on agonist-induced vasoconstriction and development of inward remodelling.
Methods and results
Experiments were conducted in Sprague–Dawley rat resistance vessels isolated from the cremaster and mesentery. Within blood vessels, actin dynamics of VSM were monitored by confocal microscopy after introduction of fluorescent actin monomers through electroporation and by differential centrifugation to probe globular (G) and filamentous (F) actin content. Results indicated that 4 h of agonist-dependent vasoconstriction induced inward remodelling and caused significant actin polymerization, elevating the F-/total-actin ratio. Inhibition of actin polymerization prevented vessels from maintaining prolonged vasoconstriction and developing inward remodelling. Activation of the small GTPases Rho/Rac/Cdc42 also increased the F-/total-actin ratio and induced inward remodelling, while inhibition of Rho kinase or Rac-1 prevented inward remodelling. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton reversed the inward remodelling caused by prolonged vasoconstriction, but did not affect the passive diameter of freshly isolated vessels.
These results indicate that vasoconstriction-induced inward remodelling is in part caused by the polymerization of actin within VSM cells through activation of small GTPases.
Microcirculation; Hypertension; Cytoskeletal remodelling; Rho-kinase; Rac-1
Our aim was to identify new microRNAs (miRNAs) implicated in pathological vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and characterize their mechanism of action.
Methods and results
MicroRNAs microarray and qRT–PCR results lead us to focus on miR-424 or its rat ortholog miR-322 (miR-424/322). In vitro mir-424/322 level was decreased shortly after the induction of proliferation and increased in a time-dependent manner later on. In vivo its expression increased in the rat carotid artery from Day 4 up to Day 30 after injury. miR-424/322 overexpression in vitro inhibited proliferation and migration without affecting apoptosis and prevented VSMC dedifferentiation. Furthermore, miR-424/322 overexpression resulted in decreased expression of its predicted targets: cyclin D1 and Ca2+-regulating proteins calumenin and stromal-interacting molecule 1 (STIM1). Using reporter luciferase assays, we confirmed that cyclin D1 and calumenin mRNAs were direct targets of miR-322, whereas miR-322 effect on STIM1 was indirect. Nevertheless, consistent with the decreased STIM1 level, the store-operated Ca2+ entry was reduced. We hypothesized that miR-424/322 could be a negative regulator of proliferation overridden in pathological situations. Thus, we overexpressed miR-424/322 in injured rat carotid arteries using an adenovirus, and demonstrated a protective effect against restenosis.
Our results demonstrate that miR-424/322 is up-regulated after vascular injury. This is likely an adaptive response to counteract proliferation, although this mechanism is overwhelmed in pathological situations such as injury-induced restenosis.
MicroRNA; Restenosis; Vascular smooth muscle cells; Proliferation; Calcium
Aortic valve sclerosis (AVSc) is a hallmark of several cardiovascular conditions ranging from chronic heart failure and myocardial infarction to calcific aortic valve stenosis (AVS). AVSc, present in 25–30% of patients over 65 years of age, is characterized by thickening of the leaflets with marginal effects on the mechanical proprieties of the valve making its presentation asymptomatic. Despite its clinical prevalence, few studies have investigated the pathogenesis of this disease using human AVSc specimens. Here, we investigate in vitro and ex vivo BMP4-mediated transdifferentiation of human valve interstitial cells (VICs) towards an osteogenic-like phenotype in AVSc.
Methods and results
Human specimens from 60 patients were collected at the time of aortic valve replacement (AVS) or through the heart transplant programme (Controls and AVSc). We show that non-calcified leaflets from AVSc patients can be induced to express markers of osteogenic transdifferentiation and biomineralization through the combinatory effect of BMP4 and mechanical stimulation. We show that BMP4 antagonist Noggin attenuates VIC activation and biomineralization. Additionally, patient-derived VICs were induced to transdifferentiate using either cell culture or a Tissue Engineering (TE) Aortic Valve model. We determine that while BMP4 alone is not sufficient to induce osteogenic transdifferentiation of AVSc-derived cells, the combinatory effect of BMP4 and mechanical stretch induces VIC activation towards a phenotype typical of late calcified stage of the disease.
This work demonstrates, for the first time using AVSc specimens, that human sclerotic aortic valves can be induced to express marker of osteogenic-like phenotype typical of advanced severe aortic stenosis.
Aortic valve sclerosis; Calcific aortic stenosis; Bone morphogenetic protein 4; Valve interstitial cells
Time for primary review: 15 days
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective mechanism for the degradation of soluble cytosolic proteins bearing the sequence KFERQ. These proteins are targeted by chaperones and delivered to lysosomes where they are translocated into the lysosomal lumen and degraded via the lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A). Mutations in LAMP2 that inhibit autophagy result in Danon disease characterized by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) plays a key role in cardiomyocyte excitation–contraction and its dysfunction can lead to cardiac failure. Whether RyR2 is degraded by CMA is unknown.
Methods and results
To induce CMA, cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with geldanamycin (GA) to promote protein degradation through this pathway. GA increased LAMP-2A levels together with its redistribution and colocalization with Hsc70 in the perinuclear region, changes indicative of CMA activation. The inhibition of lysosomes but not proteasomes prevented the loss of RyR2. The recovery of RyR2 content after incubation with GA by siRNA targeting LAMP-2A suggests that RyR2 is degraded via CMA. In silico analysis also revealed that the RyR2 sequence harbours six KFERQ motifs which are required for the recognition Hsc70 and its degradation via CMA. Our data suggest that presenilins are involved in RyR2 degradation by CMA.
These findings are consistent with a model in which oxidative damage of the RyR2 targets it for turnover by presenilins and CMA, which could lead to removal of damaged or leaky RyR2 channels.
Ryanodine receptor; Chaperone-mediated autophagy; Geldanamycin; Protein degradation; Cardiomyocyte
A sustained, single stretch of a cardiomyocyte activates a transient production of reactive oxygen species by membrane-located NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2). This NoX2-dependent ROS (X-ROS) tunes cardiac Ca2+ signalling by reversibly sensitizing sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels. In contrast to static length changes, working heart cells are cyclically stretched and shortened in the living animal. Additionally, this stretch cycle is constantly varied by changes in the pre-load and heart rate. Thus, the objective of this study was (i) to characterize X-ROS signalling during stretch-shortening cycles and (ii) to evaluate how the amplitude (pre-load) and frequency (heart rate) of cell stretch affects X-ROS and Ca2+ signalling.
Methods and results
Single adult rat cardiomyocytes were attached to MyoTak™-coated micro-rods and stretched, while ROS production and Ca2+ signals were monitored optically. Although a sustained stretch led to only a transient burst of ROS, cyclic stretch-shortening cycles led to a steady-state elevation of ROS production. Importantly, this new redox state was graded by both the amplitude of stretch (3–15%) and cycle frequency (1–4 Hz). Elevated ROS production enhanced Ca2+ signalling sensitivity as measured by the Ca2+ spark rate.
The steady-state level of ROS production in a cardiomyocyte is graded by the amplitude and frequency of cell stretch. Thus, mechanical changes that depend on the pre-load and heart rate regulate a dynamic redox balance that tunes cellular Ca2+ signalling.
Stretch; ROS; NADPH oxidase; Calcium sparks; Nox2
In the heart, Ca2+ influx via CaV1.2 L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) is a multi-functional signal that triggers muscle contraction, controls action potential duration, and regulates gene expression. The use of LTCC Ca2+ as a multi-dimensional signalling molecule in the heart is complicated by several aspects of cardiac physiology. Cytosolic Ca2+ continuously cycles between ∼100 nM and ∼1 μM with each heartbeat due to Ca2+ linked signalling from LTCCs to ryanodine receptors. This rapid cycling raises the question as to how cardiac myocytes distinguish the Ca2+ fluxes originating through L-type channels that are dedicated to contraction from Ca2+ fluxes originating from other L-type channels that are used for non-contraction-related signalling. In general, disparate Ca2+ sources in cardiac myocytes such as current through differently localized LTCCs as well as from IP3 receptors can signal selectively to Ca2+-dependent effectors in local microdomains that can be impervious to the cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients that drive contraction. A particular challenge for diversified signalling via cardiac LTCCs is that they are voltage-gated and, therefore, open and presumably flood their microdomains with Ca2+ with each action potential. Thus spatial localization of Cav1.2 channels to different types of microdomains of the ventricular cardiomyocyte membrane as well as the existence of particular macromolecular complexes in each Cav1.2 microdomain are important to effect different types of Cav1.2 signalling. In this review we examine aspects of Cav1.2 structure, targeting and signalling in two specialized membrane microdomains—transverse tubules and caveolae.
L-type calcium channel; T-tubule; Caveolae; Channel trafficking; Calcium signalling
Since the discovery of triadin >20 years ago as one of the major proteins located in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum, the field has come a long way in understanding the pivotal role of triadin in orchestrating sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-release and hence excitation–contraction (EC) coupling. Building on the information gathered from earlier lipid bilayer and myocyte overexpression studies, the gene-targeted ablation of Trdn demonstrated triadin's indispensable role for maintaining the structural integrity of the couplon. More recently, the discovery of inherited and acquired diseases displaying altered expression and function of triadin has further emphasized the role of triadin in health and disease. Novel therapeutic approaches could be aimed at correcting the loss of triadin in diseased hearts, and thereby correcting the sub-cellular EC coupling defect. This review summarizes current concepts of the impact of triadin on cardiac EC coupling with a focus towards triadin's role for ventricular arrhythmia.
Cardiac calcium handling; Ventricular arrhythmia; Cardiac couplon ultrastructure; Triadin
The cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), a Ca2+ release channel on the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), plays a key role in determining the strength of the heartbeat by supplying Ca2+ required for contractile activation. Abnormal RyR2 function is recognized as an important part of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). While in the normal heart, the balance between the cytosolic and intra-SR Ca2+ regulation of RyR2 function maintains the contraction–relaxation cycle, in HF, this behaviour is compromised by excessive post-translational modifications of the RyR2. Such modification of the Ca2+ release channel impairs the ability of the RyR2 to properly deactivate leading to a spectrum of Ca2+-dependent pathologies that include cardiac systolic and diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmias, and structural remodelling. In this article, we present an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the underlying causes and pathological consequences of abnormal RyR2 function in the failing heart. We also discuss the implications of these findings for HF therapy.
Ryanodine receptor; Heart failure; Arrhythmia; Ca2+ release; Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Compelling recent experimental results make clear that sub-cellular structures are altered in ventricular myocytes during the development of heart failure, in both human samples and diverse experimental models. These alterations can include, but are not limited to, changes in the clusters of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-release channels, ryanodine receptors, and changes in the average distance between the cell membrane and ryanodine receptor clusters. In this review, we discuss the potential consequences of these structural alterations on the triggering of SR Ca2+ release during excitation–contraction coupling. In particular, we describe how mathematical models of local SR Ca2+ release can be used to predict functional changes resulting from diverse modifications that occur in disease states. We review recent studies that have used simulations to understand the consequences of sub-cellular structural changes, and we discuss modifications that will allow for future modelling studies to address unresolved questions. We conclude with a discussion of improvements in both experimental and mathematical modelling techniques that will be required to provide a stronger quantitative understanding of the functional consequences of changes in sub-cellular structure in heart disease.
Transverse tubule; Ca2+ spark; Mathematical modelling; Ryanodine receptor; Ventricular myocyte
Although aberrant Ca2+ release (i.e. Ca2+ ‘leak’) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) is linked to heart failure (HF), it remains unknown whether and under what conditions SR-derived Ca2+ can actually cause HF. We tested the hypothesis that combining dysregulated RyR2 function with facilitated Ca2+ uptake into SR will exacerbate abnormal SR Ca2+ release and induce HF. We also examined the mechanisms for these alterations.
Methods and results
We crossbred mice deficient in expression of cardiac calsequestrin (CASQ2) with mice overexpressing the skeletal muscle isoform of SR Ca2+ATPase (SERCA1a). The new double-mutant strains displayed early mortality, congestive HF with left ventricular dilated hypertrophy, and decreased ejection fraction. Intact right ventricular muscle preparations from double-mutant mice preserved normal systolic contractile force but were susceptible to spontaneous contractions. Double-mutant cardiomyocytes while preserving normal amplitude of systolic Ca2+ transients displayed marked disturbances in diastolic Ca2+ handling in the form of multiple, periodic Ca2+ waves and wavelets. Dysregulated myocyte Ca2+ handling and structural and functional cardiac pathology in double-mutant mice were associated with increased rate of apoptotic cell death. Qualitatively similar results were obtained in a hybrid strain created by crossing CASQ2 knockout mice with mice deficient in phospholamban.
We demonstrate that enhanced SR Ca2+ uptake combined with dysregulated RyR2s results in sustained diastolic Ca2+ release causing apoptosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and early mortality. Our data also suggest that up-regulation of SERCA activity must be advocated with caution as a therapy for HF in the context of abnormal RyR2 function.
Calsequestrin; SERCA; CPVT; Heart failure; Apoptosis
The beta1-adrenoceptors (β1AR) and beta-2 (β2AR) adrenoceptors represent the predominant pathway for sympathetic control of myocardial function. Diverse mechanisms have evolved to translate signalling via these two molecules into differential effects on physiology. In this review, we discuss how the functions of the βAR are organized from the level of secondary messengers to the whole heart to achieve this. Using novel microscopy and bio-imaging methods researchers have uncovered subtle organization of the control of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), the predominant positively inotropic pathway for the βAR. The β2AR in particular is demonstrated to give rise to highly compartmentalized, spatially confined cAMP signals. Organization of β2AR within the T-tubule and caveolae of cardiomyocytes concentrates this receptor with molecules which buffer and shape its cAMP signal to give fine control. This situation is undermined in various forms of heart failure. Human and animal models of heart failure demonstrate disruption of cellular micro-architecture which contributes to the change in response to cardiac βARs. Loss of cellular structure has proved key to the observed loss of confined β2AR signalling. Some pharmacological and genetic treatments have been successful in returning failing cells to a more structured phenotype. Within these cells it has been possible to observe the partial restoration of normal β2AR signalling. At the level of the organ, the expression of the two βAR subtypes varies between regions with the β2AR forming a greater proportion of the βAR population at the apex. This distribution may contribute to regional wall motion abnormalities in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, a syndrome of high sympathetic activity, where the phosphorylated β2AR can signal via Gi protein to produce negatively inotropic effects.
T-tubules; Cardiomyocyte; Beta-adrenergic receptors; Heart failure; Sympathetic system; Cardiac
Cardiac excitation–contraction coupling occurs primarily at the sites of transverse (T)-tubule/sarcoplasmic reticulum junctions. The orderly T-tubule network guarantees the instantaneous excitation and synchronous activation of nearly all Ca2+ release sites throughout the large ventricular myocyte. Because of the critical roles played by T-tubules and the array of channels and transporters localized to the T-tubule membrane network, T-tubule architecture has recently become an area of considerable research interest in the cardiovascular field. This review will focus on the current knowledge regarding normal T-tubule structure and function in the heart, T-tubule remodelling in the transition from compensated hypertrophy to heart failure, and the impact of T-tubule remodelling on myocyte Ca2+ handling function. In the last section, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying T-tubule remodelling in heart disease.
T-tubules; Excitation-contraction coupling; Calcium; Heart failure; Junctophilin-2
The relevance of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations and low-molecular-weight (LMW) apo(a) phenotypes in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has only been investigated by few studies. Therefore, we analysed this association in three independent cohorts and performed a Mendelian Randomization approach using instrumental variable regression.
Methods and results
Lp(a) concentrations, apo(a) phenotypes, and one SNP in the LPA gene (rs10455872) were measured in the CAVASIC study, including 241 male patients with intermittent claudication and 246 age- and diabetes-matched controls as well as in the two population-based studies KORA F3 (n = 3184) and KORA F4 (n = 3080). In KORA F3/F4, 109/80 persons suffered from intermittent claudication, 200/144 from PAD, and 128/103 showed an ankle–brachial index (ABI) <0.9. In CAVASIC, adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between an increase of log-Lp(a) per one standard deviation (SD) (OR = 1.28, P = 0.02) as well as LMW apo(a) phenotypes and symptomatic PAD (OR = 1.65, P = 0.03). Linear regression models with continuous ABI showed a significant association in the combined analyses of KORA F3/F4: an increase in log-Lp(a) per one SD (β = −0.006, P = 0.005) and the presence of LMW apo(a) phenotypes (β = −0.011, P = 0.02) or the minor allele of rs10455872 (ß = −0.016, P = 0.03) were associated with a decrease in ABI in the fully adjusted linear and instrumental variable regression models.
Analyses in three independent populations showed significant associations of Lp(a) concentrations, LMW apo(a) phenotypes, and rs10455872 with PAD. This points to a causal relationship between Lp(a) and PAD since the genetically determined apo(a) phenotypes and SNP alleles are indeed associated with PAD.
Lp(a) concentrations; Apolipoprotein(a) phenotypes; Peripheral arterial disease; Ankle-brachial index; Mendelian randomization; Causality
Electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkene derivatives, products of unsaturated fatty acid nitration, exert long-term cardiovascular protection in experimental models of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of nitro-fatty acids in the regulation of upstream signalling events in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and determine whether low-dose acute administration of nitro-fatty acids reduces vascular inflammation in vivo.
Methods and results
Using NF-κB-luciferase transgenic mice, it was determined that pre-emptive treatment with nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2), but not oleic acid (OA) inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB activation both in vivo and in isolated macrophages. Acute intravenous administration of OA-NO2 was equally effective to inhibit leukocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium assessed by intravital microscopy and significantly reduces aortic expression of adhesion molecules. An acute treatment with OA-NO2
in vivo yielding nanomolar concentrations in plasma, is sufficient to inhibit LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-induced cell surface expression in leukocytes and NF-κB activation. In vitro experiments reveal that OA-NO2 suppresses LPS-induced TLR4 signalling, inhibitor of κB (IκBα) phosphorylation and ubiquitination, phosphorylation of the IκB kinase (IKK), impairing the recruitment of the TLR4 and TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to the lipid rafts compartments.
These studies demonstrate that acute administration of nitro-fatty acids is effective to reduce vascular inflammation in vivo. These findings reveal a direct role of nitro-fatty acids in the disruption of the TLR4 signalling complex in lipid rafts, upstream events of the NF-κB pathway, leading to resolution of pro-inflammatory activation of NF-κB in the vasculature.
Nitro-fatty acids; Inflammation; TLR4; NF-κB; Lipid rafts