Mitral valve reoperation, through a median sternotomy, for a patient with patent coronary bypass grafts is technically challenging and carries higher postoperative morbidity and mortality than a primary operation. We present a case of mitral valve repair using a beating heart technique under normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass that was performed 3 years after a coronary artery bypass operation. A limited (10 cm) right thoracotomy was made and cardiopulmonary bypass was conducted using the ascending aortic and femoral venous cannulation. The left atrium was opened while beating was maintained. Triangular resection of the prolapsed portion of the posterior leaflet and ring annuloplasty were performed. Completeness of the repair was verified by direct visualization under beating condition and transesophageal echocardiogram. This technique is a safe and feasible option for a mitral valve reoperation that excludes re-sternotomy, extensive pericardial dissection and aortic clamping, thereby minimizes risks of bleeding, graft injury and myocardial damage.
Mitral valve insufficiency; Mitral valve repair; Reoperation; Minimally invasive surgical procedures
Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is associated with high risk of neurologic injury. But the mechanism of neurologic injury during and/or after ECMO therapy is still unclear. Recent animal experiments confirmed that ECMO treatment increases the immune inflammatory response. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of VV- ECMO on immune inflammatory response of cerebral tissues and neurological impairment.
18 porcine were randomly divided into control, sham and ECMO group (n = 6/group). ECMO was run 24 h in the ECMO group, and serum collected at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h during ECMO treatment for the analysis of cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-a) and cerebral injury specific biomarker S100B and NSE. After 24 h ECMO treatment, all animals were euthanized and cerebral tissues (hypothalamus, hippocampus and cortex) were collected for measure of mRNA and protein levels of cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-a).
The results during ECMO treatment showed that all the pro-inflammation cytokines were increased significantly after 2 h, and anti-inflammation IL-10 showed transient hoist in the first 2 h in serum. After 24 h ECMO therapy, the mRNA levels of pro-inflammation cytokines and anti-inflammation IL-10 were simultaneously up-regulated in cerebral tissues (hypothalamus, hippocampus and cortex). And protein concentrations also showed different increasing levels in cerebral tissues. However, during the ECMO treatment, S100B and NSE protein in serum did not change significantly.
These findings suggest VV-ECMO treatment can not only lead to immune inflammatory response in blood, but can also produce immune and inflammatory response in cerebral tissues. However the extent of immune inflammation was not sufficient to cause significant neurological impairment in this study. But the correlation between cerebral inflammatory response and cerebral impairment need to further explore.
Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation; Immune inflammatory response; Neurological impairment; Adult respiratory distress syndrome
We report a case of acute thrombosis of bioprosthetic mitral valve in a 59 year–old Korean female, who underwent a mitral valve replacement with a 25 mm Carpentier - Edwards PERIMOUNT Plus bioprosthesis (Edwards Lifesciences, Inc.; Irvine, CA, USA) and a mini-Maze procedure for correction of mitral stenosis (MS) and atrial fibrillation (AF). On the 10th postoperative day, the patient began to complain of increasing dyspnea and general malaise. Her symptoms worsened and developed into pulmonary edema. Echocardiography revealed a mean diastolic pressure gradient (MDPG) of 10 mmHg across the mitral valve and pressure-half time (PHT) of 166 msec. Due to progressive decompensated heart failure, the patient underwent a repeat sternotomy to replace the bioprosthetic mitral valve. Intraoperatively, we found a thrombosis around the bioprosthetic mitral valve. We excised the bioprosthetic mitral valve and replaced it with a 27 mm ATS mechanical valve (ATS medical, Inc.; Minneapolis, MN, USA). We experienced a rare case that required an early reoperation for a thrombosis of the bioprosthetic valve.
Mitral valve replacement; Bioprosthetic valve; Thrombosis
Acidosis during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been related to the strong ion difference (SID) and the composition of intravascular fluids that are administered. Less intravascular fluids tend to be administered during off- than on-pump CABG and should influence the degree of acidosis that develops. This study aimed to explore the role of CPB in the development of acidosis by comparing changes in hydrogen ion concentration ([H+]) and electrolytes in patients undergoing on- and off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
Eighty two patients had arterial blood gas measurements pre-operatively, following CABG and at approximately 0600 h the morning after surgery. Carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, [H+], bicarbonate and haemoglobin were measured and strong ion difference calculated. Data was analysed using mixed repeated-measures analysis of variance.
Intra-operatively, mean SID decreased more in the on- compared to the off-pump group (4.0 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval 2.8-5.3 mmol/L, p < 0.001). Neither [H+] or PaCO2 changed significantly and there were no significant difference between the groups. By the morning following surgery, [H+] and PaCO2 had both increased (p < 0.001) and difference in SID had disappeared (p = 0.17).
Despite significant differences in changes in SID, there were no differences in [H+] between patients during or after CABG surgery whether performed on- or off-pump. This may be have been the result of greater haemodilution in the on- compared to the off-pump group, compensating for change in SID by reducing the concentration of weak acids. Although it was associated with significantly greater decrease in SID, CPB was not associated with any significant increased risk of acidosis.
Cardiopulmonary bypass; Hydrogen ion concentration; Strong ion difference; Intravascular fluids; Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery
Cardiovascular disorders, including coronary artery bypass graft failure and in-stent restenosis remain significant opportunities for the advancement of novel therapeutics that target neointimal hyperplasia, a characteristic of both pathologies. Gene therapy may provide a successful approach to improve the clinical outcome of these conditions, but would benefit from the development of more efficient vectors for vascular gene delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether a novel genetically engineered Adenovirus could be utilised to produce enhanced levels of vascular gene expression.
Vascular transduction capacity was assessed in primary human saphenous vein smooth muscle and endothelial cells using vectors expressing the LacZ reporter gene. The therapeutic capacity of the vectors was compared by measuring smooth muscle cell metabolic activity and migration following infection with vectors that over-express the candidate therapeutic gene tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3).
Compared to Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), the novel vector Ad5T*F35++ demonstrated improved binding and transduction of human vascular cells. Ad5T*F35++ mediated expression of TIMP-3 reduced smooth muscle cell metabolic activity and migration in vitro. We also demonstrated that in human serum samples pre-existing neutralising antibodies to Ad5T*F35++ were less prevalent than Ad5 neutralising antibodies.
We have developed a novel vector with improved vascular transduction and improved resistance to human serum neutralisation. This may provide a novel vector platform for human vascular gene transfer.
Adenovirus; Vascular gene therapy; TIMP-3; Vein graft failure
Median sternotomy provides excellent access to all mediastinal structures in patients undergoing conventional cardiovascular surgery. Although this incision technique is associated with relatively lower complication rates, certain complications such as the sternal dehiscence may pose serious health consequences. In this regard, considerable effort has been paid to develop techniques aiming to improve sternal healing and to enhance postoperative recovery after conventional cardiac surgery. Among these, kryptonite bone cement, a biocompatible polymer with improved mechanical properties when combined with a standard wire cerclage, represents a promising novel approach that may help prevent sternal dehiscence. In this study, the effects of this particular type of bone cement on sternal healing, postoperative pain, and quality of life have been evaluated.
Kryptonite bone cement enhanced sternal closure was employed in a total of 100 patients undergoing conventional cardiac surgery between November 2009 and June 2012. Of these patients, 50 expressed their willingness to participate in this study. Each participant underwent a computerized tomography imaging for the radiological assessment of sternal healing. Pain and life quality of these patients have been evaluated by Wong-Baker faces pain scale and SF-36 health survey questionnaire, respectively.
Mean duration of follow-up was 20.14 ± 7.36 months (range: 10–32). Mean age and body mass index were 71.32 ± 7.23 years (range: 55–85) and 28.34 ± 2.62 (21–34) kg/m2, respectively. Elderly patients (≥70), females and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comprised 64%, 26% and 40% of the study population, respectively. No patients had findings suggestive of dehiscence on CT images. No patients reported severe pain (i.e. all patients had a Wong-Baker faces pain scale score <4). Elderly (≥ 70 yr) subjects had better quality of life scores as compared to the remaining group of patients (< 70 yr) according to SF-36 Health Survey results. Vitality and emotional role scores were lower (63.5 ± 25.5, p = 0.018 and 41.7 ± 23.3, p = 0.001, respectively) in female patients. Patients with COPD had lower quality of life scores than those without COPD, particularly with respect to general health scores (73.3 ± 18.5; p = 0.012).
Kryptonite bone cement, when combined with a standard wire cerclage, enhances mechanical strength, prevents sternal dehiscence, reduces postoperative pain and improves quality of life after conventional cardiac surgery. Long-term studies are warranted to better define the role of kryptonite bone cement in the prevention of sternal dehiscence.
A tumor shadow was identified in the chest X-ray of a 40-year-old Korean man and he was referred to our hospital. The computed tomographic (CT) scan of his chest showed a 3-cm rounded pleural-based mass lesion with calcification, which was growing into the intercostal muscles. Thoracoscopic surgery was performed to resect the tumor. From the histological findings, the tumor was diagnosed as an intramuscular lipoma. The patient displayed no evidence of recurrence for more than 18 months. As well-circumscribed type of intramuscular lipoma is a rare tumor, we report this case with a literature review in this paper.
Intramuscular lipoma; Thoracoscopic surgery
We report the case of a 55 years old caucasian male patient with cardiogenic shock due to an extended myocardial infarction who underwent SynCardia Total Artificial Heart implantation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a bicaval dual-lumen cannula for the treatment of adult respiratory distress syndrome.
Circulatory assist devices; Acute respiratory distress syndrome; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Surgery for pulmonary aspergillosis is infrequent and often challenging. Risk assessment is imprecise and new antifungals may ameliorate some surgical risks. We evaluated the medical and surgical management of these patients, including perioperative and postoperative antifungal therapy.
Retrospective study of patients who underwent surgery for pulmonary aspergillosis between September 1996 and September 2011.
30 patients underwent surgery with 23 having a preoperative tissue diagnosis while 7 were confirmed post-resection. The median age was 57 years (17–78). The commonest presenting symptoms were cough (40%, n = 12) and haemoptysis (43%, n = 13). Twelve (40%) patients had simple aspergilloma (including 2 with Aspergillus nodules) while the remaining 18 (60%) had chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) (complex aspergilloma). Most of the patients had underlying lung disease: tuberculosis (20%, n = 6), asthma (26%, n = 8) and COPD (20%, n = 6). The procedures included lobectomy 50% (n = 15), pneumonectomy 10% (n = 3), sublobar resection 27% (n = 8), decortication 7% (n = 2), segmentectomy 3% (n = 1), thoracoplasty 3% (n = 1), bullectomy and pleurectomy 3% (n = 1), 6% (n = 2) lung transplantation for associated disease. Median hospital stay was 9.5 days (3–37). There was no operative and 30 day mortality. Main complications were prolonged air leak (n = 7, 23%), empyema (n = 6, 20%), respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy /reintubation (n = 4, 13%). Recurrence of CCPA was noted in 8 patients (26%), most having prior CCPA (75%). Taurolidine 2% was active against all 9 A. fumigatus isolates and used for pleural decontamination during surgery.
Surgery in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis offered good outcomes with an acceptable morbidity in a difficult clinical situation; recurrence is problematic.
Aspergilloma; Nodule; Aspergillus fumigatus; Voriconazole; Echinocandin
Reports of the association between the time interval from coronary angiography (CAG) to cardiac surgery and risk of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) are controversial. We attempted to examine this association by conducting a meta-analysis.
We searched the Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science databases, and the Cochrane Library from January 1966 to March 2013. A meta-analysis of studies reporting data for 1-day and 3-day time intervals between CAG and cardiac surgery was conducted after evaluation of heterogeneity and publication bias. Study-specific estimates were combined with inverse variance-weighted averages of logarithmic odds ratios (ORs) in fixed-effects models.
From 8 studies involving 11542 persons, the pooled OR of AKI associated with an interval of 1 day or less between CAG and surgery was 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04 to 1.39) relative to an interval of more than 1 day. From 4 studies involving 5420 persons in the cardiopulmonary-bypass subgroup, the pooled OR of AKI associated with an interval of 3 days or less between CAG and surgery was 1.25 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.43) relative to an interval of more than 3 days. The adjusted OR of the study in the cardiopulmonary bypass/ deep hypothermic circulatory arrest subgroup was 0.35 (95% CI, 0.17 to 0.73).
A time interval of 1 day or less between CAG and on-pump cardiac surgery was significantly associated with increased risk of AKI. A delay of on-pump cardiac surgery until 24 hours after CAG can potentially decrease postoperative AKI.
Acute kidney injury; Coronary angiography; Cardiac surgery
Quality improvement initiatives in cardiac surgery largely rely on risk prediction models. Most often, these models include isolated populations and describe isolated end-points. However, with the changing clinical profile of the cardiac surgical patients, mixed populations models are required to accurately represent the majority of the surgical population. Also, composite model end-points of morbidity and mortality, better reflect outcomes experienced by patients.
The model development cohort included 4,270 patients who underwent aortic or mitral valve replacement, or mitral valve repair with/without coronary artery bypass grafting, or isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. A composite end-point of infection, stroke, acute renal failure, or death was evaluated. Age, sex, surgical priority, and procedure were forced, a priori, into the model and then stepwise selection of candidate variables was utilized. Model performance was evaluated by concordance statistic, Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness of Fit, and calibration plots. Bootstrap technique was employed to validate the model.
The model included 16 variables. Several variables were significant such as, emergent surgical priority (OR 4.3; 95% CI 2.9-7.4), CABG + Valve procedure (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.8-3.0), and frailty (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.5), among others. The concordance statistic for the major adverse cardiac events model in a mixed population was 0.764 (95% CL; 0.75-0.79) and had excellent calibration.
Development of predictive models with composite end-points and mixed procedure population can yield robust statistical and clinical validity. As they more accurately reflect current cardiac surgical profile, models such as this, are an essential tool in quality improvement efforts.
Cardiac surgery; Predictive model; Outcomes
The variations in recovery time, complications, and survival among cardiac patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures are vast. Many formulas and theories are used to predict clinical outcome and recovery time, and current prognostic predictions are based on medical and family history, lifestyle, co-morbidities, and performance status. The identification of biomarkers that provide concrete evidence supporting clinical outcome has greatly affected the field of medicine, helping clinicians in many medicine sub-specialties to forecast clinical course. Recent studies have discovered biomarkers that may be used as predictors of cardiac patients’ status post-cardiothoracic surgery, and the applications are numerous. In this review, we assess currently available cardiac biomarkers as predictors of clinical outcome for post-operative CABG patients. Data were collected from various studies in which cardiac biomarkers were measured in pre-operative and post-operative CABG patients.
Biomarker; Cardiothoracic surgery; Clinical outcome; Serum; Predictive markers
The existence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with lung cancer has been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess whether CTCs are predictive of the pathological effects of induction chemoradiotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Patients who underwent induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery were compared with those who underwent surgery alone. Peripheral and pulmonary venous blood samples from the involved lobe were collected intraoperatively, and the number of CTCs was counted using the CellSearch™ system, an epithelial cell adhesion molecule-based immunomagnetic technique.
Of the 9 patients who underwent induction therapy, 4 achieved pathological CR, 4 achieved major response, and 1 achieved minor response. All patients who underwent induction therapy and surgery alone were negative for CTCs in peripheral blood. In the induction therapy group, 4 patients showing pathological CR were negative for CTCs in pulmonary venous blood (pvCTCs) and 5 showing major/minor response were positive (mean, 57.8 cells). The numbers of CTCs in patients showing major/minor response were significantly higher than those in patients showing pathological CR (p = 0.012, Mann–Whitney U test). All 6 patients undergoing surgery alone were positive for pvCTCs (mean, 207.5 cells), showing a significant difference from those undergoing induction therapy (p = 0.038).
The existence of CTCs in pulmonary venous blood reflects pathological non-CR, and therapeutic pathological response may be predicted by pvCTC measurement.
Circulating tumor cells; Non-small cell lung cancer; Induction chemoradiotherapy; Surgery; CellSearch
Whether obesity is related to late mortality with implantation of small aortic prosthesis remains to be clarified. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of obesity on late survival of patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with implantation of small aortic prosthesis (size ≤ 21 mm).
From January 1998 to December 2008, 307 patients in our institution who underwent primary AVR with smaller prostheses survived the 30 days after surgery. Patients were defined as normal if body mass index (BMI) was < 24 kg/m2, as overweight if BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2, and as obese if BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2. Data of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), effective orifice area index (EOAI), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of the patients collected at the 3rd month (M), 6th M, 1st year (Y), 3rd Y, 5th Y, 8th Y after operation respectively.
By multivariable analysis, obesity was an independent factor of late mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.62; P = 0.01). The obesity and overweight group had more poor survival (p < 0.001) and higher proportion of NYHA class III/IV (p < 0.01) compared with the normal group. Lower EOAI and higher LVMI were found in obesity and overweight group, but we saw no significant difference about LVEF among the three groups.
Obesity was associated with increased late mortality of patients after AVR with implantation of small aortic prosthesis. Being obese or and overweight may also affect the NYHA classification, even in the longer term. EOAI should be improved where possible, as it may reduce late mortality and improve quality of life in obese or overweight patients.
Aortic valve replacement; Small aortic root; Obesity; Body mass index
Patients with extensive coronary artery disease often require re-do coronary artery bypass grafting. However, autologous bypass material is sometimes sparse. Since long term patency of arterial graft material is superior to venous bypass grafting, we developed a technique to perform re-do total arterial coronary artery bypass grafting extending the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) with the radial artery (RA) in an end to end fashion to gain the needed length in patients with and without an open left thoracic artery (LITA).
We performed this approach in 27 consecutive patients (age: 67.93 ± 7.51 years). Data was analyzed retrospectively. 19 operations were first re-op, 6 were second re-op and two were third re-op procedures.
Cardiopulmonary bypass time was 115.42 minutes (±31.92 minutes) with one OPCAB procedure, and clamp time was 55.09 minutes (±22.41 minutes) excluding 10 procedures performed on beating heart. Bypass grafting included the RCA, Cx and LAD. An average of 1.96 anastomoses were performed in each patient. Complication rate was low with one intra-operative apoplexy and one prolonged wound healing after harvest of the radial artery. One patient needed long term pulmonary assist. There was no intra-operative or early postoperative death.
The operational technique of elongation of the internal thoracic artery with the radial artery proved to be safe and feasible with acceptable operation times for a re-do procedure. We recommend this as an additional option to existing methods to perform a complete arterial revascularization mainly in patients with open left internal thoracic artery to LAD bypass.
Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) purportedly increase the risk after coronary bypass surgery. This may relate to the development of saphenous vein graft (SVG) disease early postoperatively, but this premise has never been evaluated in the context of a prospective trial.
The CASCADE Trial was a multi-center study of 113 patients evaluating the use of postoperative clopidogrel. Patients received standard lipid management after surgery (96% statins). At 12 months, angiography and intravascular ultrasound was performed to assess SVG occlusion and intimal hyperplasia, respectively. In this exploratory analysis, we evaluated the influence of HDL levels on the development of SVG disease at 12 months, using the established cut-off of <40 mg/dL suggesting increased risk.
While HDL levels increased over the time-period of the trial (P < 0.0001), 51.1% of patients had HDL levels <40 mg/dL 12 months after surgery. Slightly more SVG occlusions occurred amongst patients with HDL levels <40 mg/dL (6.8%), compared to patients with HDL levels >40 mg/dL (4.0%, P = 0.5). With multivariate adjustment, HDL level <40 mg/dL was associated with a trend towards more SVG occlusions (odds ratio: 3.2; P = 0.12). Lower HDL level was also associated with more intimal hyperplasia on ultrasound at 12 months (P = 0.10). Patients who had HDL levels >60 mg/dL had the least amount of intimal hyperplasia, significantly less than the remainder of the cohort (P = 0.01).
Within this population, lower HDL levels were associated with trends towards more graft occlusions and more vein intimal hyperplasia. Modulation of postoperative HDL levels may represent a valuable future strategy for the reduction of SVG disease.
Coronary artery bypass graft surgery; Vein graft disease; HDL; Graft patency; Cholesterol
Bronchogenic cyst is considered as an uncommon congenital anomaly. It can be mostly found in mediastinum or lung. Intracardiac bronchogenic cyst is very rare. We found 2 cases in more than 20000 cardiac surgical cases in our department. The 2 cases bronchogenic cyst arose from interatrial septum (IAS), the preoperative diagnosis were myxoma, but the histological diagnosis were bronchogenic cyst in both cases. Although it is very rare, it should be considered while intracardiac tumor is diagnosed. It is recommended to complete resection of any bronchogenic cyst for primarily diagnostic and potentially therapeutic reasons, and every effort should be made to prevent complications due to injury to nearby tissues.
Congenital anomaly; Bronchogenic cyst; Interatrial septum; Diagnosis; Therapy
Subclavian arteriovenous (AV) fistula is an uncommon disease and rarely occurs secondary to injury. We herein report a case of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm with a subclavian AV fistula caused by clavicle fixation. In cases of a large ruptured pseudoaneurysm with a massive surrounding hematoma, bleeding control and vessel repair is very difficult. For treatment of this case, we decided that median sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass with total circulatory arrest would be a good alternative to surgery.
Subclavian artery; Arteriovenous fistula; Pseudoaneurysm
Risk stratification in cardiac surgery significantly impacts outcome. This study seeks to define whether there is an independent association between the preoperative serum level of hemoglobin (Hb), leukocyte count (LEUCO), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and postoperative morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery.
Prospective, analytic cohort study, with 554 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a tertiary cardiovascular hospital and followed up for 12 months. The cohort was distributed according to preoperative values of Hb, LEUCO, hsCRP, and BNP in independent quintiles for each of these variables.
After adjustment for all covariates, a significant association was found between elevated preoperative BNP and the occurrence of low postoperative cardiac output (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.53–7.80, p = 0.003) or postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.45–10.38). For the combined outcome (death/acute coronary syndrome/rehospitalization within 12 months), we observed an OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.00–3.74). An interaction was found between BNP level and the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus. The OR for non-diabetics was 1.26 (95% CI 0.61–2.60) and for diabetics was 18.82 (95% CI 16.2–20.5). Preoperative Hb was also significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of postoperative low cardiac output (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13–0.81, p = 0.016). Both Hb and BNP were significantly associated with the lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stays and the number of transfused red blood cells (p < 0.002). Inflammatory markers, although associated with adverse outcomes, lost statistical significance when adjusted for covariates.
High preoperative BNP or low Hb shows an association of independent risk with postoperative outcomes, and their measurement could help to stratify surgical risk. The ability to predict the onset of atrial fibrillation or postoperative low cardiac output has important clinical implications. Our results open the possibility of designing studies that incorporate BNP measurement as a routine part of preoperative evaluation, and this strategy could improve upon the standard evaluation in terms of reducing adverse postoperative events.
Cardiac surgery; Hemoglobin; Inotropic agents; Natriuretic peptides; Postoperative care
The number of patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and being untreatable by interventional cardiologists increased during the last years. Previous experience in emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in these patients spurred us towards a more liberal acceptance for surgery. Following a prospective protocol, patients were operated on and further analysed.
Within a two year interval, 127 patients (38 female, age 68±12 years, EuroScore (ES) II 6.7±7.2%) presenting with AMI (86 non-ST-elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), 41 STEMI) were immediately accepted for emergency CABG and operated on within six hours after cardiac catheterisation (77% three-vessel-disease, 47% left main stem stenosis, 11% cardiogenic shock, 21% preoperative intraaortic balloon pump (IABP), left ventricular ejection fraction 48±15%).
30-day-mortality was 6% (8 patients, 2 NSTEMI (2%) 6 STEMI (15%), p=0.014). Complete revascularisation could be achieved in 80% of the patients using 2±1 grafts and 3±1 distal anastomoses. In total, 66% were supported by IABP, extracorporal life support (ECLS) systems were implanted in two patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed the ES II as an independent risk factor for mortality (p<0.001, HR 1.216, 95%-CI-Intervall 1.082-1.366).
Quo ad vitam, results of emergency CABG for patients presenting with NSTEMI can be compared with those of elective revascularisation. Complete revascularisation obviously offers a clear benefit for the patients. Mortality in patients presenting with STEMI and cardiogenic shock is substantially high. For these patients, other concepts regarding timing of surgical revascularisation and bridging until surgery need to be taken into consideration.
Myocardial infarction; Coronary artery bypass grafting; Emergency surgery
Since 2002, transapical aortic valve replacement has been developed as a clinical pathway for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). However the appropriate role of TA in the AS population versus TF remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to assess if TF has any benefit in reduction of 30-day clinical complications in AS.
We conducted a comprehensive search on pub-med and web of knowledge from 2002 through September 2012 using following terms: aortic stenosis, aortic valve replacement, transcatheter aortic valve implantation, TAVI, trans-artery, transfemoral, trans-apical. Studies in the original research or review articles were also considered. Included studies must meet the preconditioned criterias. Two investigators independently browsed the studies by title and abstract, finally making decision according to full-text. Disagreements were discussed in group.
A total of 20 studies met inclusion criteria’s and were included in the analysis (including 4267 patients in TF group, 2242 in TA group). No random clinical trial, one was a retrospective study, others were prospective trials. Our meta-analysis found that TF had the low incidence of 30-day mortality compared with TA procedure (7.5% versus 11.3%). The incidence of stroke at ≤ 30 days was relatively low (3.8% in TF versus 4.0% in TA). Although the incidence of post-operative heart block was high (8.5% versus 7.5%), but no differences were indicated [1.06,95% CI(0.85,1.33)].
The result of our meta-analysis suggested that TF may have a low risk for 30-day mortality against TA procedure. No difference was found in the incidence of post-operative stroke and heart block.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation; Transfemoral; Transapical; Aortic stenosis; Meta-analysis
The objective of this study was to identify the postoperative risk factors associated with the conversion of colonization to postoperative infection in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Following approval from the Institutional Review Board, patient demographics, co-morbidities, surgery details, transfusion requirements, inotropic infusions, laboratory parameters and positive microbial results were recorded during the hospital stay, and the patients were divided into two groups: patients with clinical signs of infection and patients with only positive cultures but without infection during the postoperative period. Using propensity scores, 141 patients with infection were matched to 141 patients with positive microbial cultures but without signs of infection. Our database consisted of 1665 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent cardiac surgery between January 2004 and December 2008 at a single center. The association between the patient group with infection and the group with colonization was analyzed after propensity score matching of the perioperative variables.
179 patients (9.3%) had infection, and 253 patients (15.2%) had colonization. The occurrence of Gram-positive species was significantly greater in the colonization group (p = 0.004). The C-reactive protein levels on the first and second postoperative days were significantly greater in the infection group (p = 0.02 and p = 0.05, respectively). The sum of all the positive cultures obtained during the postoperative period was greater in the infection group compared to the colonization group (p = 0.02). The length of the intensive care unit stay (p < 0.001) was significantly longer in the infection group compared to the control group.
Based on our results, we uncovered independent relationships between the conversion of colonization to infection regarding positive S. aureus and bloodstream results, as well as significant differences between the two groups regarding postoperative C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell counts.
Colonization; Infection; Conversion; Risk factors; Pediatric; Cardiac surgery; Perioperative; Intensive care
Reexpansion pulmonary edema (REPE) is known as a rare and fatal complication after tube thoracostomy.
We investigated the risk factors for the development of REPE in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax.
We selected patients who were diagnosed with spontaneous pneumothorax and were initially treated with tube thoracostomy between August 1, 2003 and December 31, 2011. The patients’ electronic medical records, including operative notes and chest x-ray and computed tomography scans, were reviewed.
REPE developed in 49 of the 306 patients (16.0%). REPE was more common in patients with diabetes (14.3% vs 3.9%, P = 0.004) or tension pneumothorax (46.8% vs 16.2%, P = 0.000). The pneumothorax was larger in patients with REPE than without REPE (57.0 ± 16.0% vs 34.2 ± 17.6%, P = 0.000), and the incidence of REPE increased with the size of pneumothorax. On multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus [(odds ratio (OR) = 9.93, P = 0.003), and the size of pneumothorax (OR = 1.07, P = 0.000) were independent risk factors of REPE.
The presence of diabetes increases the risk of REPE development in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. The risk of REPE also increases significantly with the size of pneumothorax.
Pneumothorax; Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema; Diabetes Mellitus
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded and non-coding RNAs, freely circulating in human plasma and correlating with vary pathologies. In this study, we monitored early myocardial injury and recovery after heart transplantation by detecting levels of circulating muscle-specific miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-208a.
7 consecutive patients underwent heart transplantation in Fuwai hospital and 14 healthy controls were included in our study. Peripheral vein blood was drawn from patients on the day just after transplantation (day 0), the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th and 14th day after transplantation respectively. Serum from peripheral blood was obtained for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) measurement. Plasma was centrifuged from peripheral blood for measuring miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-208a by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The plasma concentration of miRNAs were calculated by absolute quantification method. The sensitivity and specificity of circulating miRNAs were revealed by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Correlations between miRNAs and cTnI / perioperative parameters were analyzed.
Similar to cTnI, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-208a all showed dynamic changes from high to low levels early after operation. The Sensitivity and specificity of miRNAs were: miR-133a (85.7%,100%), miR-208a (100%,100%), and miR-133b (90%,100%). Correlations between miRNAs and cTnI were statistically significant (p < 0.05), especially for miR-133b (R2 = 0.813, p < 0.001). MiR-133b from Day 0-Day 2 (r > 0.98, p < 0.01), and cTnI from Day 1- Day 3 (r > 0.86, p < 0.05) had strong correlations with bypass time, particularly parallel bypass time. Obviously, miR-133b had a better correlation than cTnI. Circulating miR-133b correlated well with parameters of heart function such as central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), cardiac output (CO) and inotrope support, while cTnI only correlated with 3 of the 4 parameters mentioned above. MiR-133b also had strong correlations with ventilation time (r > 0.99, p < 0.001) and length of ICU stay (r > 0.92, p < 0.05), both of which reflected the recovery after operation. The correlation coefficients of miR-133b were also higher than that of cTnI.
The dynamic change in circulating muscle-specific miRNAs, especially miR-133b can reflect early myocardial injury after heart transplantation. And miR-133b may have advantages over cTnI in forecasting graft dysfunction and recovery of patients after operation.
Circulating miRNAs; Myocardial injury; Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Heart surgery; Heart transplantation
Cardiac function is important for patients treated by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO), but data about the effect of VV ECMO on the heart in nonneonates is absent. We studied the effect of VV ECMO on cardiac performance, cardiomyocyte and mitochondria in an animal model.
Twelve farm piglets were randomly assigned into two groups: control group and ECMO group. In the ECMO group, ECMO cannulaes were placed and ECMO was instituted. Hemodynamics was recorded at baseline, 1 hour after induction, and every 4 hours thereafter, to assess the cardiac performance. All animals were monitored for 24 hours and were euthanized and myocardium was harvested. Myocardial histology, ultrastructure of cardiomyocyte and mitochondria were observed, and activities of mitochondrial complexes I-V were measured, to assess the effect to cardiomyocyte and mitochondria.
Hemodynamics were stable in each group of animals throughout the experiment. Interstitial edema, disorderd and dissolved of focal myofilament, morphological deformations of mitochondria were observed in the ECMO group. The activities of mitochondrial complexes were decreased in the ECMO group, and complex I and IV reached significance.
VV ECMO therapy is associated with changes of ultrastructure and function of cardiomyocyte and mitochondria, inducing myocardium injury. However, the injury was mild and had no effect on the cardiac performance for healthy piglets.