Splenic hematoma or rupture of the spleen is rare in the absence of trauma. This case report with a brief review of the literature is intended to raise awareness of splenic bleeding as an etiology of abdominal pain; it highlights the importance of a detailed social history.
Presentation of case
This report of an otherwise healthy 42-year old man details hemoperitoneum with splenic rupture as a cause for hemorrhage following cocaine use. The patient was managed non-operatively in the surgical intensive care unit. He did not require transfusion and was discharged home on hospital day four with close follow-up.
While splenic pathology associated with cocaine use has been described, this case illustrates a novel report of cocaine-associated splenic hemorrhage. A plausible mechanism is transient vasospasm with subsequent bleeding into the infarcted area.
Although uncommon, atraumatic splenic rupture should be recognized early because it is potentially fatal. This case is the first to describe hemoperitoneum of splenic etiology following cocaine use.
Cocaine; Atraumatic splenic rupture; Hemoperitoneum
Injury is a public health problem in terms of mortality, morbidity and disability. The implementation of a regionalised trauma system has been proved to significantly reduce the social impact of severe trauma on population. A population-based registry may be useful to obtain reliable epidemiologic data.
To perform an exhaustive analysis of severe trauma patients hospitalised in Lombardia, a region of northern Italy.
Materials and methods
The regional Hospital Discharge Registry (HDR) was used to retrieve data of all patients who suffered from serious injuries from 2008 to 2010. ICD9-CM codes of discharge diagnoses were analysed and patients coded from 800.0 to 939.9 or from 950.0 to 959.9 have been retrieved. Femur fractures in elderly and patients with length of hospital stay less than 2 days were excluded. Patients have been considered seriously injured if discharged dead or any of followings: admission or transit in ICU, need of mechanical ventilation, tracheotomy, invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Average reimbursement based on DRG has been evaluated.
Student’s t test, ANOVA for continuous data, chi-square test for categorical data were used, and a p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.
The severely injured patients hospitalised in Lombardia in three years were 11704, 391 per million per year. Overall mortality was 24.17% and increased with age. Males aging from 18 to 64 years had more occupational injuries, trauma on the road and violence by others. Females were more susceptible to domestic injuries and self inflicted violence, mostly in older ages. Acute mortality was higher after traffic accidents, while late mortality was increased in domestic trauma. Pediatric cases were unusual. A significant increase (+10.18%) in domestic trauma, with a concomitant decrease (-17.76%) in road-related accidents was observed in the three years study period. Reimbursement paid to hospitals for seriously injured was insufficient with regard to estimated costs of care.
Serious injury requiring hospitalisation in Lombardia is still an healthcare problem, with a trend toward a decrease of traffic accidents, increase in domestic trauma and involvement of older people. These results may help to plan a new regionalised Trauma System.
Epidemiology; Major trauma; Population-based study; Trauma registry; Trauma system
Appendicitis and trauma may exist together, which causes an interesting debate whether trauma has led to appendicitis. We report a case of appendicitis after an abdominal trauma. Our patient developed acute appendicitis following a stab wound in the right iliac fossa. Surgical exploration confirmed the traumatic origin of appendicitis, appendectomy was performed and our patient made an excellent recovery. In non operative management of abdominal trauma, physical examinations and radiological explorations should be repeated in order to diagnose traumatic appendicitis.
Appendicitis; Abdominal trauma
Wandering spleen is a very rare defect characterized by the absence or weakness of one or more of the ligaments that hold the spleen in its normal position in the upper left abdomen. Patient symptomatology is variable and ranges from mere feeling of an abdominal lump to sudden abdominal pain due to infarction. Patients may have subacute to chronic abdominal or gastrointestinal complaints. Because of nonspecific symptoms, clinical diagnosis can be difficult; hence, imaging plays an important role. A major complication is splenic torsion, which is the cause of acute abdomen. We present a case of acute abdominal pain due to torsion of wandering spleen in a patient with Marfan Syndrome, valvular heart disease, and vertebral anomalies. Preoperative diagnosis was made on the basis of ultrasonography and computed tomography, which was later confirmed on surgery, and treated successfully.
A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our institution with acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography demonstrated total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, which was successfully revascularized. Four days later, the patient suddenly went into shock. The subsequent emergency operation revealed a blowout rupture of the left ventricular free wall. Several TachoComb® (CSL Behring, Tokyo, Japan) sheets were applied to control bleeding and avoid the need for a cardiopulmonary bypass. Horizontal mattress sutures were used in combination with a pair of Teflon felt strips for reinforcement. The combination of TachoComb® sheets and sutures is a novel hybrid method and an effective life-saving procedure for the treatment of left ventricular blowout ruptures. This approach avoids the need for a cardiopulmonary bypass. Sutureless repairs with TachoComb® sheet achieve rapid hemostasis without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass. This stabilizes patient hemodynamics immediately and preserves the fragile myocardium. This allows emergency room physicians to open the chest and apply the TachoComb® sheet to stabilize the patient before the cardiac surgeons arrive at the operating room. This technique will be very useful in emergency situations.
Myocardial infarction; Left ventricular rupture; Off-pump surgery; Emergency room
Hydatidosis is endemic in the Mediterranean region including morrocco, the Middle and Far East, Australia, New Zealand, and South America—all areas where animal husbandry is common. Rupture into the abdominal cavity is a rare but serious complication of hydatid disease. The cysts may be ruptured after a trauma, or spontaneously as a result of increased intracystic pressure. Rupture of the hydatid cyst requires emergency surgical intervention.
Fourteen patients received surgical treatment for intraperitoneal rupture of the cysts over a period of 5 years. Age, gender, time to surgery from the onset of the symptoms, laboratory findings, diagnostic procedures, surgical treatment modalities, in-hospital stay, morbidity, mortality and recurrence were evaluated retrospectively.
Eight of the patients were men and six were women. All of the patients had signs of peritoneal irritation. One patient (7,14%) had a history of blunt abdominal trauma. Ultrasonography scans revealed intra-abdominal fluid in all cases, intraperitoneal multiple cysts in 11 cases and heterogeneous cavity or cystic structures in the liver in 12 cases. Computed tomography showed multiple cystic lesions in the liver and peritoneum with intra-abdominal free fluid. The ruptured cysts were located in the right lobe of the liver in seven patients, in the left lobe in six patients and in both lobes in one patients. Procedures to fill the cystic cavities were applied after removal of the intraperitoneal fluid. Partial pericystectomy and drainage was the most frequent surgical procedure. No patients died in the early postoperative period. A total of seven morbidities developed in six patients (35.3%). Median hospital stay was 08 days and median follow-up was 12 months. Intra-abdominal recurrence occurred in one case (7.7%).
Rupture of hydatid cysts into the peritoneal cavity, although rare, presents a challenge for surgeons. This pathology should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in endemic areas. The operative procedures, either radical or conservative, should be based on the patient’s condition, the regional characteristics, and the surgeon’s experience. The morbidity and mortality rates of surgical interventions for ruptured hydatid cysts are higher than the rates for elective uncomplicated cases.
Echinococcosis; Abdomen; Peritonitis; Surgery
Scalp lacerations are commonly encountered in patients presenting to emergency department with trauma. Lacerations are repaired with suturing, stapling, adhesive tapes, and tissue adhesives. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of suturing, stapling, and hair apposition techniques used in repair of scalp lacerations in patients who presented to emergency department with scalp laceration.
Materials and method
After obtaining approval of local ethics committee, we examined the effects of the three technique used to repair scalp lacerations on wound healing, complication rate, and patient satisfaction by recording data. Categorical variables were expressed as n and %. X2 test was used for statistical analysis. A p value less than 0.05 was accepted statistically significant.
Our study included a total of 134 patients of whom were treated 37 (27.6%) with hair apposition technique 49, 48 (35.8%) with suturing, and (36.6%) with stapling. There was a significant difference between the scalp repair technique and 7th and 15th day patient satisfaction rates in favor of the hair apposition technique (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference between the scalp repair technique and cosmetic problems after 15 days (p < 0.05). Cosmetic problems 15 days after the procedure were significantly lower in the hair apposition technique.
In patients presenting to emergency departments with linear scalp laceration suturing, stapling, and hair apposition techniques can be safely applied. However, hair apposition technique has the advantages of being more satisfying, and having lower cosmetic problem and complication rates compared with other techniques.
Scalp laceration; Suturing; Stapling; Hair apposition; Emergency
The duodenum is the second seat of onset of diverticula after the colon. Duodenal diverticulosis is usually asymptomatic, but duodenal perforation with abscess may occur.
Woman, 83 years old, emergency hospitalised for generalized abdominal pain. On the abdominal tomography in the third portion of the duodenum a herniation and a concomitant full-thickness breach of the visceral wall was detected. The patient underwent emergency surgery. A surgical toilette of abscess was performed passing through the perforated diverticula and the Petzer’s tube drainage was placed in the duodenal lumen; the duodenostomic Petzer was endoscopically removed 4 months after the surgery.
A review of medical literature was performed and our treatment has never been described.
For the treatment of perforated duodenal diverticula a sequential two-stage non resective approach is safe and feasible in selected cases.
Duodenum; Diverticula; Complications; Perforation; Surgical treatment
Foreign bodies in rectum and colon is an uncommon problem in surgical practice. Anal eroticism leads amongst etiologic factors. In some patients accidents or forceful application of foreign bodies are causative factors. This study was designed to describe our experience in diagnosis and treatment of this exciting clinical problem.
Data were collected prospectively from 1998 to 2013 in 30 patients. Patient demographics, diagnostic findings, location, type, extraction method, and postextraction period were reviewed.
All the 30 patients were their first admission in emergency service of a hospital. On admission high alcohol intake was determined in 15(50%) patients. All the patients were hospitalized. Most of the rectal foreign bodies (23 of 25) was located distal 2/3 of the rectum. Colorectal perforation was diagnosed in 5 patients who had not any retained foreign body. Under adequate anesthesia transanal extraction was implemented in 23 (92%) patients in the operating room. In the patients with proximal located rectal foreign bodies (2/25), grade III and IV rectal injury or colonic perforation (7/30) laparotomy was carried out.
A careful physical and rectal examination is essential for correct diagnosis and localization of retained foreign bodies. Forceful and repeated efforts without sphincter relaxation is gives rise to proximal migration of objects and unwanted complications such as rectal perforation. The operating room provides adequate anaesthesia for muscle relaxation and technical advantages in transanal extraction of rectal foreign bodies. Therefore, nonoperative success rate improves. If the objects are large and proximally migrated and if the patients suffer from peritonitis due to rectal or colon perforation or pelvic sepsis, laparatomy is performed witout much delay.
Rectum; Foreign bodies; Erotica; Wounds and injuries; Operating rooms
Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion can impair anastomotic strength.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of delayed colon anastomosis following remote ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury.
Rats divided into two groups underwent bilateral groin incisions, however only the study group had femoral artery clamping to inflict IR injury. Twenty-four hours following this insult, the animals underwent laparotomy, incision of the transverse colon and reanastomosis. End points included anastomotic leakage, strength and histopathological features.
Anastomotic leak among IR animals (22.2%) was not statistically different in comparison to the controls [10.5% (p = 0.40)]. Anastomotic mean burst pressures showed no statistically significant difference [150.6 ± 15.57 mmHg in the control group vs. 159.9 ± 9.88 mmHg in the IR group (p = 0.64)]. The acute inflammatory process in the IR group was similar to controls (p = 0.26), as was the chronic repair process (p = 0.88). There was no significant difference between the inflammation:repair ratios amongst the two groups (p = 0.67).
Primary colon repair is safe when performed 24 hours following systemic IR injury.
Ischemia-reperfusion; Injury; Colon; Intestinal anastomosis; Rat model; Emergency surgery
To study the biomechanism, pattern of injury, management, and outcome of major vascular injuries treated at Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital, Kuwait during the Second Gulf War.
This is a descriptive retrospective study. War-related injured patients who had major vascular injuries and were treated at Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital from August 1990 to September 1991 were studied. Studied variables included age, gender, anatomical site of vascular injury, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, type of vascular repair, and clinical outcome.
36 patients having a mean (SD) age of 29.8 (10.2) years were studied. 32 (89%) were males and 21 (58%) were civilians. Majority of injuries were caused by bullets (47.2%) and blast injuries (47.2%). Eight patients (22%) presented with shock.
There were 31 arterial injuries, common and superficial femoral artery injuries were most common (10/31). Arterial repair included interposition saphenous vein graft in seven patients, thrombectomy with end-to-end / lateral repair in twelve patients, vein patch in two patients, and arterial ligation in four patients. Six patients had arterial ligation as part of primary amputation. 3/21 (14.3%) patients had secondary amputation after attempted arterial vascular repair of an extremity. There were a total of 17 venous injuries, 13 managed by lateral suture repair and 4 by ligation. The median (range) hospital stay was 8 (1–76) days. 5 patients died (14%).
Major vascular injuries occurred in 10% of hospitalized war-related injured patients. Our secondary amputation rate of extremities was 14%. The presence of a vascular surgeon within a military surgical team is highly recommended. Basic principles and techniques of vascular repair remain an essential part of training general surgeons because it may be needed in unexpected wars.
Injury; Management; Trauma; Vascular; War
While advanced age is often associated with poorer surgical outcomes, long-term age-related health status following acute care surgery is unknown. The objective of our study was to assess post-operative cognitive impairment, functional status, and quality of life in elderly patients who underwent emergency surgery.
We identified 159 octo- and nonagenarians who underwent emergency surgery between 2008 and 2010 at a single tertiary hospital. Patients were grouped into three cohorts: 1, 2, and 3 years post-operative. We conducted a survey in 2011, with octo- and nonagenarians regarding the impact of emergency surgical procedures. Consenting participants responded to four survey questionnaires: (1) Abbreviated Mental Test Score-4, (2) Barthel Index, (3) Vulnerable Elders Survey, and (4) EuroQol-5 Dimensional Scale.
Of the 159 octo- and nonagenarians, 88 (55.3%) patients were alive at the time of survey conduction, and 55 (62.5%) of the surviving patients consented to participate. At 1, 2, and 3 years post-surgery, mortality rates were 38.5%, 44.7%, and 50.0%, respectively. More patients had cognitive impairments at 3 years (33.3%) than at 1 (9.5%) and 2 years (9.1%) post-operatively. No statistical difference in the ability to carry out activities of daily living or functional decline with increasing time post-operatively. However, patients perceived a significant health decline with the greater time that passed following surgery.
Our study showed that half of the patients over the age of 80 are surviving up to 3 years post-operatively. While post-operative functional status appears to be stable across the 3 cohorts of patients, perceived health status declines over time. Understanding the long-term post-operative impact on cognitive impairment, functional status, and quality of life in elderly patients who undergo acute care surgery allows health care professionals to predict their patients’ likely post-operative needs.
Elderly; Emergency Surgery; Health Outcomes
A brachial artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare but serious condition that can be limb threatening. A number of reports have found that it may be the result of damage to the blood vessels around the brachial artery, either directly or indirectly, due to trauma or systemic diseases. We present our experience of delayed pseudoaneurysm rupture of the brachial artery in a rehabilitation patient with burns of the upper extremity who underwent fasciotomy and musculocutaneous flap coverage. We also provide a review of the brachial artery pseudoaneurysm.
Pseudoaneurysm; Brachial artery; Burn; Reconstruction
Long standing increase of the intravesical pressure resulting from urinary bladder outlet obstruction can cause both secondary bladder diverticula and groin hernias. In rare cases, a diverticulum can be pulled by a hernia sac and becomes a component of the hernia itself. Such cases were encountered in inguinal, perineal and obturator hernias. However, to our knowledge, there has been only one case reported in the literature of a bladder diverticulum herniated in to the femoral canal.
Literature search using PubMed was performed to identify all published cases of herniation of bladder diverticula in to the femoral canal.
Literature search revealed only one case before the present one.
Urinary bladder diverticula should be considered as a possible content of femoral hernias especially in males with long standing obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. As the clinical features of such a case are not specific, a high index of suspicion along with proper imaging studies are of great help in making a timely diagnosis to improve the outcome.
Femoral hernia; Urinary bladder diverticula; Cystogram; Bladder outlet obstruction
Midgut malrotation is an anomaly of intestinal rotation that occurs during fetal development and usually presents in the neonatal period. We present a rare case of malrotation in a 14-year-old patient who presented with cramping, generalized right abdominal pain, and vomiting for a duration of one day. A computed tomography abdominal scan and upper gastrointestinal contrast studies showed malrotation of the small bowel without volvulus. Laparoscopy revealed typical Ladd’s bands and a distended flabby third and fourth duodenal portion extrinsically obstructing the misplaced duodeno-jejunal junction. The Ladd procedure, including widening of the mesenteric base and appendectomy, was performed. Symptoms completely resolved in a half-year follow up period. Patients with midgut malrotation may present with vague abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, or intestinal ischemia. The laparoscopic Ladd procedure is feasible and safe, and it appears to be as effective as the standard open Ladd procedure in the diagnosis and treatment of teenage or adult patients with intestinal malrotation.
Malrotation; Laparoscopic surgery; Ladd procedure; Acute abdomen; Teenager
Timing of surgical intervention is critical for outcomes of patients diagnosed with surgical emergencies. Facing the challenge of multiple patients requiring emergency surgery, or of limited resource availability, the acute care surgeon must triage patients according to their disease process and physiological state. Emergency operations from all surgical disciplines should be scheduled by an agreed time frame that is based on accumulated data of outcomes related to time elapsed from diagnosis to surgery. Although literature exists regarding the optimal timing of various surgical interventions, implementation of protocols for triage of surgical emergencies is lacking. For institutions of a repetitive triage mechanism, further discussion on optimal timing of surgery in diverse surgical emergencies should be encouraged. Standardizing timing of interventions in surgical emergencies will promote clinical investigation as well as a commitment by administrative authorities to proper operating theater provision for acute care surgery.
Diagnostic accuracy of first-line sonographic evaluation by obstetrics/gynecology residents in determining the need for emergency surgery in women with acute pelvic pain is unknown. Aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine ultrasound evaluation by obstetrics/gynecology residents, available 24 hours a day, in patients with acute pelvic pain.
A cross-sectional retrospective study included consecutive patients who underwent emergency laparoscopy for acute pelvic pain at a teaching hospital gynecologic emergency unit, between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2006. The laparoscopic diagnosis was the reference standard. Gynecologic and nongynecologic conditions requiring immediate surgery to avoid severe morbidity or death were defined as surgical emergencies. In all patients, obstetrics/gynecology residents routinely performed clinical examination and standardized ultrasonography was routinely recorded. Sonograms were re-interpreted for the study, blinded to physical examination and laparoscopic findings, according to evidence-based predetermined criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were computed for clinical data alone, sonographic data alone, and the combination of both.
Emergency laparoscopy was performed in 234 patients, diagnosing 139 (59%) surgical emergencies. Clinical and sonographic examinations performed by the residents each independently predicted a need for emergency surgery. Combining both examinations was superior over each examination alone and had an acceptable false-negative rate of 1%.
First-line combined clinical and sonographic examination by obstetrics/gynecology residents is effective in ruling out surgical emergencies in patients with acute pelvic pain.
Acute pelvic pain; Physical examination; Ultrasonography; Laparoscopy; Gynecologic emergency; Sensitivity; Specificity
Due to high rate of operative mortality and morbidity non-operative management of blunt liver and spleen trauma was widely accepted in stable pediatric patients, but the general surgeons were skeptical to adopt it for adults. The current study is analysis of so far largest sample (1071) of hemodynamically stable blunt liver, spleen, kidney and pancreatic trauma patients managed non operatively irrespective of severity of a single /multiple solid organ injury or other associated injuries with high rate of success.
Experience of 1071 blunt abdominal trauma patients treated by NOM at a tertiary care National Trauma Centre in Oman (from Jan 2001 to Dec 2011) was reviewed, analyzed to determine the indications, methods and results of NOM. Hemodynamic stability along with ultra sound, CT scan and repeated clinical examination were the sheet anchors of NOM. The patients were grouped as (1) managed by NOM successfully, (2) failure of NOM and (3) directly subjected to surgery.
During the 10 year period, 5400 polytrauma patients were evaluated for abdominal trauma of which 1285 had abdominal injuries, the largest sample study till date. Based on initial findings 1071 patients were admitted for NOM. Out of 1071 patients initially selected 963 (89.91%) were managed non operatively, the remaining 108 (10.08%) were subjected to laparotomy due to failure of NOM. Laparotomy was performed on 214(19.98%) patients as they were unstable on admission or had evidence of hollow viscous injury.
NOM for blunt abdominal injuries was found to be highly successful in 89.98% of the patients in our study. Management depended on clinical and hemodynamic stability of the patient. A patient under NOM should be admitted to intensive care / high dependency for at least 48-72 hours for close monitoring of vital signs, repeated clinical examinations and follow up investigations as indicated.
Non-operative management; Advanced Trauma life Support; Surgery
Fournier’s gangrene is a rare, rapidly progressive, necrotizing fasciitis of the external genitalia and perineum. Case series have shown a mortality rate of 20% to 40% with an incidence of as high as 88% in some reports. In this study we aimed to share our experience in the management of Fournier’s gangrene and to identify risk factors that affect mortality.
The medical records of 50 patients with Fournier’s gangrene who presented at the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez from January 2003 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively to analyze the outcome and identify the risk factors and prognostic indicators of mortality.
Ten males and five females were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 54 years (range 23–81). The most common predisposing factor was diabetes mellitus (34%). E. coli was the most frequent bacterial organisms cultured. All patients were treated with a common approach of resuscitation, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and wide surgical excision. The mortality rate was 24%. The advanced age, renal failure on admission, extension of infection to the abdominal wall, occurrence of septic shock and need for postoperative mechanical ventilation are the main prognostic factors of mortality. In multivariate analysis, none of these variables is an independent predictor of mortality.
Fournier’s gangrene is still a very severe disease with high mortality rates. Early recognition of infection associated with invasive and aggressive treatment is essential for attempting to reduce these prognostic indices.
Fournier’s gangrene; Mortality; Outcome analysis
Bowel obstruction resulting from intestinal tuberculosis has been reported to be more prevalent in developing countries including Tanzania. This study was undertaken to describe the clinicopathological profile, surgical management and outcome of tuberculous intestinal obstruction in our local setting and to identify factors responsible for poor outcome among these patients.
This was a prospective descriptive study of patients operated for tuberculous intestinal obstruction at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) in northwestern Tanzania from April 2008 to March 2012. Ethical approval to conduct the study was obtained from relevant authorities. Statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0.
A total of 118 patients with tuberculous intestinal obstruction were studied. The male to female ratio was 1.8: 1. The median age was 26 years (range 11-67 years). The modal age group was 21-30 years. Thirty-one (26.3%) patients had associated pulmonary tuberculosis and 25 (21.2%) patients were HIV positive with a median CD4+ count of 225 cells /μl. Small bowel strictures were the most common operative findings accounting for 72.9% of cases. The ileo-caecal region was the commonest area of involvement in 68 (57.6%) patients. The right hemicolectomy with ileo-transverse anastomosis was the most frequent surgical procedure performed in 66 (55.9%) patients. Postoperatively all the patients received antituberculous drugs for a period of one year. Postoperative complication rate was 37.3% and surgical site infection (SSI) was the most frequent complication in 42.8% of cases. HIV positivity and low CD4+ count were the main predictors of SSI (p < 0.001). The overall median length of hospital stay was 24 days. Patients who had postoperative complications stayed longer in the hospital and this was statistically significant (p = 0.011). Mortality rate was 28.8% and it was significantly associated with co-existing medical illness, delayed presentation, HIV positivity, low CD 4 count (<200 cells/μl), ASA class and presence of complications (p < 0.001). The follow up of patients was generally poor as more than fifty percent of patients were lost to follow up.
Tuberculous bowel obstruction remains rampant in our environment and contributes significantly to high morbidity and mortality. The majority of patients present late when the disease becomes complicated. A high index of suspicion, proper evaluation and therapeutic trial in suspected patients is essential for an early diagnosis and timely definitive treatment, in order to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.
Bowel obstruction; Intestinal tuberculosis; Clinicopathological profile; Surgical management; Outcome; Tanzania
Entrapped anorectal foreign bodies are being encountered more frequently in clinical practice. Although entrapped foreign bodies are most often related to sexual behavior, they can also result from ingestion or sexual assault.
Between 1999 and 2009, 15 patients with foreign bodies in the rectum were diagnosed and treated, at Izmir Training and Research Hospital, in Izmir. Information regarding the foreign body, clinical presentation, treatment strategies, and outcomes were documented. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these unusual patients.
All patients were males, and their mean age was 48 years (range, 33–68 years). The objects in the rectum of these 15 patients were an impulse body spray can (4 patients), a bottle (4 patients), a dildo (2 patient), an eggplant (1 patient), a brush (1 patient), a tea glass (1 patient), a ball point pen (1 patient) and a wishbone (1 patient, after oral ingestion). Twelve objects were removed transanally by anal dilatation under general anesthesia. Three patients required laparotomy. Routine rectosigmoidoscopic examination was performed after removal. One patient had perforation of the rectosigmoid and 4 had lacerations of the mucosa. None of the patients died.
Foreign bodies in the rectum should be managed in a well-organized manner. The diagnosis is confirmed by plain abdominal radiographs and rectal examination. Manual extraction without anaesthesia is only possible for very low-lying objects. Patients with high- lying foreign bodies generally require general anaesthesia to achieve complete relaxation of the anal sphincters to facilitate extraction. Open surgery should be reserved only for patients with perforation, peritonitis, or impaction of the foreign body.
Foreign body; Rectum; Anorectal trauma
Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is still an existing disease that occurs frequently in the 21st century despite of the wide availability of antiulcer medication and Helicobacter eradication. The current study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that its outcome might be improved by using the laparoscopy. The outcome of treatment in terms of complications, mortality and hospital stay with relevant to laparoscopy was analyzed.
Patients and methods
This prospective descriptive study was carried on the period of 3 years from July 2009 till July 2012. All patients with acute abdominal pain that was clinically diagnosed as having perforated peptic ulcer were included. Excluded from this study were those patients with concomitant bleeding from the ulcer and evidence of gastric outlet obstructions. Also excluded were those with evidence of large perforation more than 10 mm and patients with symptoms of more than 36 h durations for fear of septic shock.
Forty seven patients were studied out of a total 53 PPU patients; they were 41 males and 6 females with the male to female ratio of 6.8:1. Their age ranged from 19 to 55 years with the mean age of 39.5 ± 8.6 years. Forty five patients were successfully treated by laparoscopy while only 2 cases that were early presented with signs of hypovolumic shock were converted into laparotomy due to severe bleeding. The mean hospital stay was 75 ± 12.6 h. Post operative complications included death of one patient in the postoperative period at the Intensive care unit (ICU) plus post operative fever in the 2 patients who underwent laparotomy and it was amenable to treatment.
Laparoscopic repair of a perforated peptic ulcer is an amenable and feasible technique within the hands of experienced laparoscopic surgeon when the cases are early and properly diagnosed.
Perforated peptic Ulcer; Laparoscopy
The Editors of World Journal of Emergency Surgery would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 7 (2012).
The aim of the study was to evaluate the local thrombolytic therapy (LTT) in combination with laparoscopy, in management of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI).
From January 2000 to January 2010, patients who were admitted to the hospital with AMI due to acute arterial occlusion were analysed retrospectively. Patients presenting with acute abdomen with a suspicion of AMI were evaluated with computerized tomography angiography (CTA). Patients who had findigs of AMI on CTA, were underwent selective mesenteric angiography and LTT eventhough without peritoneal signs. LTT was carried out before or after laparoscopy or laparotomy, and initiated with recombinant plasminogen activator.
LTT was performed in 13 (17.1%), out of 76 patients. From the remaining patients, 56 underwent necrotic bowel resection and 7 underwent tromboembolectomy. The median age was 62 years (45–87). The median duration of symptoms was 24 h. Four (30.7%) patients presented within 24 h onset of symptoms, whilst 9 (69.3%) patients presented after 24 h onset of symptoms. There were 5 (39.5%) patients, who presented with abdominal pain without peritoneal signs on physical examination and 8 (61.5%) patients, who had peritoneal signs. The mortality rate was 20% (1/5) in the first group who presented without peritoneal signs, whilst it was 62.5% (5/8) in the remaining.
Early intervention in AMI is the key to better results. CTA combined with early laparoscopy and LTT may have beneficial effects at this setting.
Acute mesenteric ischemia; Thrombolysis; Laparoscopy; Second-look; CT-Angiography
Animal related injuries are a major but neglected emerging public health problem and contribute significantly to high morbidity and mortality worldwide. No prospective studies have been done on animal related injuries in our setting. This study was conducted to determine the management patterns and outcome of animal related injuries and their social impact on public health policy in the region.
This was a descriptive prospective study of animal related injury patients that presented to Bugando Medical Centre between September 2007 and August 2011. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 17.0.
A total of 452 (8.3%) animal-related injury patients were studied. The modal age group was 21-30 years. The male to female ratio was 2.1:1. Dog-bites (61.1%) were the most common injuries. Musculoskeletal (71.7%) region was the most frequent body region injured. Soft tissue injuries (92.5%) and fractures (49.1%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. Only 140 (31.0%) patients were hospitalized and most of them (97.1%) were treated surgically. Wound debridement was the most common procedure performed in 91.2% of patients. Postoperative complication rate was 15.9%, the commonest being surgical site infections (SSI) in 55.1% of patients. SSI was significantly associated with late presentation and open fractures (P < 0.001). The overall median duration of hospitalization was 16 days. Patients who had severe injuries, long bone fractures and those with hemiplegia stayed longer in the hospital (P < 0.001). Mortality rate was 10.2% and was significantly high in patients with severe injuries, severe head injury, tetanus and admission SBP < 90 mmHg (P < 0.001). The follow up of patients was poor.
Animal related injuries constitute a major public health problem in our setting and commonly affect the young adult male in their economically productive age-group. Measures towards prevention and proper treatment and follow up are important in order to reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from this form of trauma
Animal related injuries; Injury patterns; Outcome; Tanzania