Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding from the small intestine may present the Acute Care Surgeon with a formidable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Despite the current array of diagnostic studies, localization of the causative pathology may be elusive, especially when the bleeding is intermittent. When a small intestinal arteriovenous malformation is the responsible lesion, a technique combining super-selective angiography with intra-operative methylene blue injection and focused enterectomy has been described in a number of case series. The current case report utilizes this same approach with emphasis on computed tomography angiography representing a key first step in the diagnostic algorithm.
In this case report, we describe the diagnosis and treatment of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding emanating from an arteriovenous malformation in the small intestine of a 52 year old male. After an extensive work-up including upper and lower endoscopy, double balloon enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy, he was referred for computed tomography angiography. Though he was not actively bleeding, a jejunal arteriovenous malformation was localized on imaging. This prompted directed transfemoral angiography, placement of a super-selective microcatheter in the 4th jejunal arterial branch, intra-operative methylene blue injection and focused enterectomy with pathological confirmation. The patient was found to be free of gastrointestinal bleeding on 6 month follow-up.
A step-wise, rational diagnostic approach should be utilized in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. In the non-actively bleeding patient, computed tomography angiogram may facilitate the diagnosis of a small intestinal arteriovenous malformation. Methylene blue injection via a super-selective angiographic microcatheter may then allow for focused enterectomy.
Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding; Computed tomography angiography; Super-selective angiography; Intra-operative methylene blue injection
Head injury is the main cause of death among individuals younger than 45 years old. Cranial Computerized tomography (CT) is commonly used for diagnosis of head injury. Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) is a peptide originally isolated from brain ventricles. The main aim of this study is to investigate BNP as an indicator of head injury among patients presenting to emergency department (ED) with minor head trauma.
This was a prospective study conducted at the emergency department of the Numune Training and Research Hospital. A total of 162 patients who presented to the ED with minor head injury were enrolled. The patients were categorized into 2 groups as the cranial CT-negative and positive groups. The normality of the data was tested using One Sample Kolmogorov Smirnov test. Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare 2 independent groups while the Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized for comparison of more than 2 groups. A p-value of <0.05 was considered to be significant.
Ninety-six (59.3%) patients were male and 66 (40.7%) were female. The cranial CT-negative group had a median BNP level of 14.5 pg/ml while the cranial CT-positive group had a median BNP level of 13 pg/ml. There was no statistically significant difference between these two groups for serum BNP levels (p > 0.05).
This study suggested that serum BNP level wasn’t used in defined of intracranial injury.
Emergency; Head trauma; Brain natriuretic peptide
Severe acute pancreatitis has high mortality, but multiple and timely interventions can improve survival. Early in the course of the disease aggressive fluid resuscitation is needed for the prevention and treatment of shock. In conjunction with leaking capillaries this results in increased tissue edema, which may lead to intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring is essential for optimizing fluid therapy while monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure is necessary for identification patients at risk of developing abdominal compartment syndrome. Abdominal compartment syndrome develops usually within the first days after hospitalization. Conservative treatment modalities are useful in prevention but also in the treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome. If conservative management fails surgical decompression of abdomen may be needed. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and increased intra-abdominal pressure predispose patients with severe pancreatitis to secondary infections. Extrapancreatic infections predominate during the first week of the disease, whereas infection of pancreatic necrosis usually develops later. Early enteral nutrition reduces the risk of infections whereas advantage of prophylactic antibiotics is lacking evidence. Surgery for infected pancreatic necrosis is associated with high mortality when performed within the first two weeks of the disease. Therefore surgery should be postponed as late as possible, preferably later than four weeks after disease onset.
The incidence and epidemiological causes of maxillofacial (MF) trauma varies widely. The objective of this study is to point out maxillofacial trauma patients’ epidemiological properties and trauma patterns with simultaneous injuries in different areas of the body that may help emergency physicians to deliver more accurate diagnosis and decisions.
In this study we analyze etiology and pattern of MF trauma and coexisting injuries if any, in patients whose maxillofacial CT scans was obtained in a three year period, retrospectively.
754 patients included in the study consisting of 73.7% male and 26.3% female, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Mean age was 40.3 ± 17.2 years with a range of 18 to 97. 57.4% of the patients were between the ages of 18–39 years and predominantly male. Above 60 years of age, referrals were mostly woman. The most common cause of injuries were violence, accounting for 39.7% of the sample, followed by falls 27.9% and road traffic accidents 27.2%. The primary cause of injuries were violence between ages 20 and 49 and falls after 50. Bone fractures found in 56,0% of individuals. Of the total of 701 fractured bones in 422 patients the most frequent was maxillary bone 28,0% followed by nasal bone 25,3%, zygoma 20,2%, mandible 8,4%, frontal bone 8,1% and nasoethmoidoorbital bone 3,1%. Fractures to maxillary bone were uppermost in each age group.
8, 9% of the patients had brain injury and only frontal fractures is significantly associated to TBI (p < 0.05) if coexisting facial bone fracture occurred. Male gender has statistically stronger association for suffering TBI than female (p < 0, 05). Most common cause of TBI in MF trauma patients was violence (47, 8%).
158 of the 754 patients had consumed alcohol before trauma. No statistically significant data were revealed between alcohol consumption gender and presence of fracture. Violence is statistically significant (p < 0.05) in these patients.
Studies subjected maxillofacial traumas yield various etiologic factors, demographic properties and fracture patterns probably due to social, cultural and governmental differences. Young males subjected to maxillofacial trauma more commonly as a result of interpersonal violence.
Maxillofacial trauma; Mid face fracture; Emergency department
Duodenal perforation is an uncommon complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) and a rare complication of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Most are minor perforations that settle with conservative management. A few perforations however result in life-threatening retroperitoneal necrosis and require surgical intervention. There is a relative paucity of references specifically describing the surgical interventions required for this eventuality.
Five cases of iatrogenic duodenal perforation were ascertained between 2002 and 2007 at Cairns Base Hospital. Clinical features were analyzed and compared, with reference to a review of ERCP at that institution for the years 2005/2006.
One patient recovered with conservative management. Of the other four, one died after initial laparotomy. The other three survived, undergoing multiple procedures and long inpatient stays.
Iatrogenic duodenal perforation with retroperitoneal necrosis is an uncommon complication of endoscopy, but when it does occur it is potentially life-threatening. Early recognition may lead to a better outcome through earlier intervention, although a protracted course with multiple procedures should be anticipated. A number of surgical techniques may need to be employed according to the individual circumstances of the case.
Duodenum; Perforation; Endoscopy; Surgery; Necrosis
The oesophagus is a difficult challenge for the surgeon because of its lack of serosal covering, the tenuous, segmental blood supply and the common delay in the diagnosis of injury. Early diagnosis is the key to successful management. Recent introduction of newer, minimally invasive techniques have provided management alternatives for both the normal and the diseased organ that is injured with both early and delayed diagnosis.
The controversy still exists about the timing of operation for appendicitis. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes between early appendectomy and delayed appendectomy and assess the feasibility of delayed operation.
The medical records of patients with acute appendicitis who received operation between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome measures were white blood cell (WBC) count at postoperative first day, time to soft diet, complication rate, surgical site infection (SSI) rate, length of hospital stay, and readmission within 30 days.
During the study period, a total of 478 patients underwent appendectomies, and 145 patients were excluded, leaving 333 who met inclusion criteria. Based on the time from arrival at hospital to incision, they were divided into two groups: 177 (53.2%) in group A and 156 (46.8%) in group B. There were no significant differences in preoperative demographics and clinical data between two groups. The mean WBC count at postoperative first day of group B were lower than that of group A (p = 0.0039). There were no significant differences in time to soft diet, length of postoperative hospital stay, complication rate, and readmission rate between two groups. SSI including intra-abdominal abscess was also shown no significant difference (Group A, 1.7% and Group B, 3.9%; p = 0.3143).
This study revealed that delayed appendectomy was safe and feasible for adult patient although the clinical outcomes of delayed appendectomy were not superior to those of early appendectomy. We suggest that surgeons would decide the appropriate timing of appendectomy with consideration other situations such as available hospital resources.
Appendicitis; Early appendectomy; Delayed appendectomy
Unexpected inflammatory cecal masses of uncertain etiology, encountered in the emergency surgical departments can be indistinguishable, and appropriate operative management of these cases is a dilemma for the surgeons.
Over a 30-months period between January 2009 and June 2011, a series of 3032 patients who live in sub-urban underwent emergency surgery for clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis and ileocecal resection or right hemicolectomy for inflammatory cecal mass were performed in 48 patients.
28 men and 20 women from suburban between ages 16–73 presented with right iliac fossa pain. The major presenting symptom was pain in the right iliac fossa (100%). On physical examination; tenderness at or near the McBurney point was detected in 44 (91,6%) patients. The range of the leucocyte level was between 8.000 to 24.000 and mean level is 16.000. After initial laparoscopic exploration, ileocecal resection or right hemicolectomy was performed conservatively because of the uncertainty of the diagnosis. Overall 32 patients underwent ileocecal resection and 16 patients underwent right hemicolectomy. Pathology revealed appendicular phlegmon in 18 patients, perforated cecal diverticulitis in 12 patients, tuberculosis in 6 patients, appendiceal and cecal rupture in 4 patients, malign mesenquimal neoplasm in 4 patients, non-spesific granulomatous in 2 patients and appendecular endometriosis in 2 patients.
Most inflammatory cecal masses are due to benign pathologies and can be managed safely and sufficiently with ileocecal resection or right hemicolectomy. The choice of the surgical procedure depends on the experience of the surgical team.
Appendicular mass; Right hemicolectomy; Ileocecal resection
Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency and becomes serious when it perforates. Perforation is more frequent in the elderly patients. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors of perforation in elderly patients who presented with acute appendicitis.
The medical records of 214 patients over the age of 60 years who had a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of 10 years (2003-2013) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped into those with perforated and those with nonperforated appendicitis. Comparison was made between both groups in regard to demography, clinical presentation, and time delay to surgery, diagnosis, hospital stay and postoperative complications. Clinical assessment, Ultrasonography and Computerized tomography, in that order, were used for diagnosis. The incidence of perforation was also compared with a previous report from the same region 10 years earlier.
During the study period, a total of 214 patients over the age of 60 years had acute appendicitis, 103 males and 111 females. Appendix was found perforated in 87 (41%) patients, 46 (53%) males and 41 (47%) females. Of all patients, 31% were diagnosed by clinical assessment alone, 40% needed US and 29% CT scan. Of all the risk factors studied, the patient’s pre-hospital time delay was the most important risk factor for perforation. Perforation rate was not dependent on the presence of comorbid diseases or in-hospital time delay. Post operative complications occurred in 44 (21%) patients and they were three times more common in the perforated group, 33 (75%) patients in the perforated and 11 (25%) in the nonperforated group. There were 6 deaths (3%), 4 in the perforated and 2 in the nonperforated group.
Acute appendicitis in elderly patients is a serious disease that requires early diagnosis and treatment. Appendiceal Perforation increases both mortality and morbidity. All elderly patients presented to the hospital with abdominal pain should be admitted and investigated. The early use of CT scan can cut short the way to the appropriate treatment.
Acute appendicitis; Perforated appendix; Acute appendicitis in the elderly; Age and appendicitis; Peritonitis
Dental appliances are the most common cause of accidental foreign body esophageal impaction, especially in the elderly population with decreased oral sensory perception. A 47-year-old man with history of oligophrenia and recurrent epileptic seizures was referred to our hospital following dislocation and ingestion of his upper dental prosthesis. Endoscopic removal and clipping of an esophageal tear had been unsuccessfully attempted. A chest CT scan confirmed entrapment of the dental prosthesis in the upper thoracic esophagus, the presence of pneumomediastinum, and the close proximity of one of the metal clasps of the prosthesis to the left subclavian artery. A video-assisted right thoracoscopy in the left lateral decubitus position was performed and the foreign body was successfully removed. The patient was then allowed to wear the retrieved prosthesis after dentistry consultation and repair of the wire clasps by a dental technician. At the 6-month follow-up visit the patient was doing very well without any trouble in swallowing.
Esophagus; Esophageal perforation; Dental prosthesis; Thoracoscopy
In January 2012 an acute care surgery (ACS) model was introduced at St. Paul’s Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The goal of implementing an ACS service was to improve the delivery of care for emergent, non-trauma surgical patients. We examined whether the ACS model improved wait time to surgery, decreased the proportion of surgeries performed after hours, and shortened post-surgical length of stay. We also assessed whether the surgeons working in an ACS system had higher on-call satisfaction than surgeons working in a non- ACS system.
A retrospective pre-post analysis was performed using data from the Discharge Abstract Database and the Organizing Medical Networked Information database. Surgeon satisfaction was evaluated using a questionnaire that was mailed to all general surgeons in Saskatoon.
An ACS service significantly reduced wait time to surgery for patients with all acute general surgery diagnoses from 221 minutes to 192 minutes (ρ = 0.015; CI = 5.8-52.2). Post-surgery length of stay for patients operated on for acute appendicitis, or acute cholecystitis was not reduced. On average, patients with bowel obstruction had increased length of stay following ACS service implementation. Most surgeries in our study were performed between 16:00 hours and 08:00 hours but the introduction of an ACS significantly reduced the number of afterhours surgeries (60.0% vs. 72.6%) (ρ < 0.0001). Our survey had a response rate of 75%. Overall, surgeons on an ACS service had greater satisfaction with the organization of their call schedule than surgeons not on an ACS service.
Introduction of an ACS service in Saskatoon has decreased wait time to surgery and reduced the proportion of afterhours emergency surgeries, with no reduction in the length of post-surgery hospital stay. Satisfaction may be higher for surgeons in an ACS service.
Acute care surgery; General surgery; Program evaluation; Surgeon satisfaction
The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes and cost effectiveness of the gasless laparoscopic appendectomy (GLA) and conventional laparoscopic appendectomy (LA).
From Aug 2010 to Feb 2012, 100 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis in Shanghai Tongji hospital were included in the study and randomly divided into the LA and GLA groups, fifty in the GLA group and 50 in the LA group. The two groups were comparable in age, gender, body mass index, symptom duration, ASA score, and white blood cell count.
The mean surgical duration was 70.6 ± 30.8 min in the GLA group and 62.6 ± 22.0 min in the LA group (P = 0.138). The total conversion rate was 8% in the GLA group, while no conversions occurred in the LA group. Postoperative complications did not significantly differ between the two groups. Fentanyl consumption was decreased significantly in the GLA group (P = 0.019) postoperatively. The length of the total hospital stay was 4.36 ± 1.74 days in the GLA group compared with 5.68 ± 4.44 days in the LA group (P = 0.053). There was a significant decrease in the total hospital cost when the GLA group was compared with the LA group (6659 ± 1782 vs. 9056 ± 2680 Yuan, respectively, P < 0.001).
GLA and conventional LA are comparable in terms of operative duration, complications, and total hospital stay. The obvious advantage of GLA is the significantly reduced hospital cost. The demand for postoperative analgesics may also decrease following GLA. In conclusion, GLA is a safe and feasible procedure in selected patients.
Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-10001203.
Gasless laparoscopy; Laparoscopic; Appendectomy
In this study, we explored the possible causes of death and risk factors in patients who overcame the initial critical circumstance when undergoing a damage control laparotomy for abdominal trauma and succumbed later to their clinical course.
This was a retrospective study. We selected patients who fulfilled our study criteria from 2002 to 2012. The medical and surgical data of these patients were then reviewed. Fifty patients (survival vs. late death, 39 vs. 11) were enrolled for further analysis.
In a univariable analysis, most of the significant factors were noted in the initial emergency department (ED) stage and early intensive care unit (ICU) stage, while an analysis of perioperative factors revealed a minimal impact on survival. Initial hypoperfusion (pH, BE, and GCS level) and initial poor physiological conditions (body temperature, RTS, and CPCR at ED) may contribute to the patient’s final outcome. An analysis and summary of the causes of death were also performed.
According to our study, the risk factors for late death in patients undergoing DCL may include both the initial trauma-related status and clinical conditions after DCL. In our series, the cause of death for patients with late mortality included the initial brain insult and later infectious complications.
Abdominal trauma; Damage control laparotomy; Damage control surgery
Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) is a closed degloving injury resulting from blunt shearing or tangential forces. In this condition, hemolymph is collected in the closed space between the separated subcutaneous tissue and the underlying fascia. The clinical manifestation of MLL varies from soft fluctuant swelling to skin necrosis or wound sepsis. Due to its inconsistent clinical manifestations and delayed onset, it is rarely described. We present a case of a 28-month-old child who developed delayed MLL arising from pelvic fracture after a motor vehicle accident. In addition, we provide a review of MLL and describe rare cases of it in children.
Morel-Lavallee lesion; Closed degloving injury; Children
Recent research has determined Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with traumatic inferior vena cava (IVC) injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of GCS, as well as other factors previously described as determinants of mortality, in a cohort of patients presenting with traumatic IVC lesions.
A 7-year retrospective review was undertaken of all trauma patients presenting to a tertiary care trauma center with trauma related IVC lesions. Factors described in the literature as associated with mortality were assessed with univariate analysis. ANOVA analysis of variance was used to compare means for continuous variables; dichotomous variables were assessed with Fischer’s exact test. Logistic regression was performed on significant variables to assess determinants of mortality.
Sixteen patients with traumatic IVC injuries were identified, from January 2005 to December 2011. Six patients died (mortality, 37.5%); the mechanism of injury was blunt in one case (6.2%) and penetrating in the 15 others (93.7%). Seven patients underwent thoracotomy in the operating room (OR) to obtain vascular control (43.7%). Upon univariate analysis, non-survivors were significantly more likely than survivors to have lower mean arterial pressures (MAP) in the emergency room (ER) (45.6 +/- 8.6 vs. 76.5 +/- 25.4, p = 0.013), a lower GCS (8.1 +/- 4.1 vs. 14 +/- 2.8, p = 0.004), more severe injuries (ISS 60.3 +/- 3.5 vs 28.7 +/- 22.9, p = 0.0006), have undergone thoracotomy (83.3% vs. 16.6%, p = 0.024), and have a shorter operative time (105 +/- 59.8 min vs 189 +/- 65.3 min, p = 0.022). Logistic regression analysis revealed GCS as a significant inverse determinant of mortality (OR = 0.6, 0.46-0.95, p = 0.026). Other determinants of mortality by logistic regression were thoracotomy (OR = 20, 1.4-282.4, p = 0.027), and caval ligation as operative management (OR = 45, 2.28-885.6, p = 0.012).
GCS, the need to undergo thoracotomy, and caval ligation as operative management are significant predictors of mortality in patients with traumatic IVC injuries.
Vascular; Trauma; Inferior vena cava; Glasgow; Injury
The demand for bariatric surgery is increasing and the postoperative complications are seen more frequently. The aim of this paper is to review the current outcomes of bariatric surgery emergencies and to formulate a pathway of safe management.
The PubMed and Google search for English literatures relevant to emergencies of bariatric surgery was made, 6358 articles were found and 90 papers were selected based on relevance, power of the study, recent papers and laparoscopic workload. The pooled data was collected from these articles that were addressing the complications and emergency treatment of bariatric patients. 830,998 patients were included in this review.
Bariatric emergencies were increasingly seen in the Accident and Emergency departments, the serious outcomes were reported following complex operations like gastric bypass but also after gastric band and the causes were technical errors, suboptimal evaluation, failure of effective communication with bariatric teams who performed the initial operation, patients factors, and delay in the presentation. The mortality ranged from 0.14%-2.2% and increased for revisional surgery to 6.5% (p = 0.002). Inspite of this, mortality following bariatric surgery is still less than that of control group of obese patients (p = value 0.01).
Most mortality and catastrophic outcomes following bariatric surgery are preventable. The awareness of bariatric emergencies and its effective management are the gold standards for best outcomes. An algorithm is suggested and needs further evaluation.
Laparoscopic roux en-Y gastric bypass; Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band; Stomal ulceration
Introduction and aim
Each year, a significant number of people die or become handicapped due to preventable occupational accidents or occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic features, mechanism, causes, injury area, and sectoral features of occupational accidents in patients presented to our department.
Materials and methods
The study was carried out retrospectively after local ethics committee approval. Age and sex of the patients, mechanism of injury, type and exact location of injuries were all evaluated. The groups were compared using Chi-Square test, Student’s T test and Kruskall-Wallis test. p value <0.05 was accepted as statistically significant.
Totally 654 patients were included in the study. 93.4% of patients were male, and mean age was 32.96 ± 5.97 (18–73) years. Sectoral distribution of accidents was statistically significant and mostly occurred in industrial and construction workers (p < 0.05, respectively). There is a statistically significant relationship between educational level and sector of the worker (p < 0.05). While the most frequent cause of admission to emergency department was penetrating injuries (36.4%), the least was due to multiple traumas (0.5%). Distribution of occupational accidents according to injury type was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 9.79 ± 8.1. The mean cost of occupational injury was $1729.57 ± 8178.3. There was statistically significant difference between the sectors with respect to cost. Seventy-one patients (10.9%) recovered with permanent sequel and two (0.3%) died in hospital.
Occupational accidents are most commonly seen in young males, especially in primary school graduated workers, and during daytime period.
Emergency department; Occupational accident; Work; Cost
Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis is a rare condition usually associated with endocarditis or spinal surgery. However, it may also occur following abdominal penetrating trauma with associated gastrointestinal perforation. Diagnosis might be challenging and appropriate treatment is essential to ensure a positive outcome. In trans-abdominal trauma, 48 hours of broad-spectrum antibiotics is generally recommended for prophylaxis of secondary infections. A case report of vertebral osteomyelitis complicating trans-colonic injury to the retroperitoneum is presented and clinical management is discussed in the light of literature review.
Vertebral osteomyelitis; Penetrating abdominal trauma; Post-traumatic infections
Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical abdominal emergency. Immidiate diagnosis of this disease is crucial, because this condition can lead to appendiceal perforation, potential peritonitis, and even death. We read with great interest the article ‘The role of red cell distribution width (RDW) in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: a retrospective case-controlled study’ by Narci et al. and wanted to discuss whether RDW alone provide certain information about the inflammatory status of the patient with acute appendicitis.
Over the last three decades, emergency surgery for perforated sigmoid diverticulitis has evolved dramatically but remains controversial. Diverticulitis is categorized as uncomplicated (amenable to outpatient treatment) versus complicated (requiring hospitalization). Patients with complicated diverticulitis undergo computerized tomography (CT) scanning and the CT findings are used categorize the severity of disease. Treatment of stage I (phlegmon with or without small abscess) and stage II (phlegmon with large abscess) diverticulitis (which includes bowel rest, intravenous antibiotics and percutaneous drainage (PCD) of the larger abscesses) has not changed much over last two decades. On the other hand, treatment of stage III (purulent peritonitis) and stage IV (feculent peritonitis) diverticulitis has evolved dramatically and remains morbid. In the 1980s a two stage procedure (1st - segmental sigmoid resection with end colostomy and 2nd - colostomy closure after three to six months) was standard of care for most general surgeons. However, it was recognized that half of these patients never had their colostomy reversed and that colostomy closure was a morbid procedure. As a result starting in the 1990s colorectal surgical specialists increasing performed a one stage primary resection anastomosis (PRA) and demonstrated similar outcomes to the two stage procedure. In the mid 2000s, the colorectal surgeons promoted this as standard of care. But unfortunately despite advances in perioperative care and their excellent surgical skills, PRA for stage III/IV diverticulitis continued to have a high mortality (10-15%). The survivors require prolonged hospital stays and often do not fully recover. Recent case series indicate that a substantial portion of the patients who previously were subjected to emergency sigmoid colectomy can be successfully treated with less invasive nonoperative management with salvage PCD and/or laparoscopic lavage and drainage. These patients experience a surprisingly lower mortality and more rapid recovery. They are also spared the need for a colostomy and do not appear to benefit from a delayed elective sigmoid colectomy. While we await the final results ongoing prospective randomized clinical trials testing these less invasive alternatives, we have proposed (based primarily on case series and our expert opinions) what we believe safe and rationale management strategy.
Complicated diverticulitis; Hartmann’s procedure; Primary resection anastomosis; Laparoscopic lavage and drainage; Percutaneous drainage
Damage control laparotomy was first described by Dr. Harlan Stone in 1983 when he suggested that patients with severe trauma should have their primary procedures abbreviated when coagulopathy was encountered. He recommended temporizing patients with abdominal packing and temporary closure to allow restoration of normal physiology prior to returning to the operating room for definitive repair. The term damage control in the trauma setting was coined by Rotondo et al., in 1993. Studies in subsequent years have validated this technique by demonstrating decreased mortality and immediate post-operative complications. The indications for damage control laparotomy have evolved to encompass abdominal compartment syndrome, abdominal sepsis, vascular and acute care surgery cases. The perioperative critical care provided to these patients, including sedation, paralysis, nutrition, and fluid management strategies may improve closure rates and recovery. In the rare cases of inability to primarily close the abdomen, there are a number of reconstructive strategies that may be used in the acute and chronic phases of abdominal closure.
Trauma; Damage control; Abdominal compartment syndrome; Temporary abdominal closure
Injury is the first cause of death worldwide in the population aged 1 to 44. In developed countries, the most common trauma-related injuries resulting in death during childhood are traffic accidents, followed by drowning.
This retrospective study based on autopsy examinations describes the epidemiology profile of deaths by trauma-related causes in individuals younger than 18 years from 2001 to 2008 in the city of Campinas. The aim is to identify epidemiology changes throughout the years in order to develop strategies of prevention.
There were 2,170 deaths from all causes in children < 18 years old, 530 of which were due to trauma-related causes, with a male predominance of 3.4:1. The age distribution revealed that 76% of deaths occurred in the 10-17 age group. The most predominant trauma cause was firearm injury (47%). Other frequent causes were transport-related injuries (138 cases-26%; pedestrians were struck in 57.2% of these cases) and drowning (55 cases-10.4%). Asphyxia/suffocation was the cause of death in 72% of cases in children < 1 year old; drowning (30.8%) was predominant in the 1-4 age group; transport-related deaths were frequent in the 5-9 age group (56%) and the 10-14 age group (40.4%). Gun-related deaths were predominant (68%) in the 14-17 age group. 51% of deaths occurred at the scene.
There was a predominance of deaths in children and adolescents males, between 15-17 years old, mainly from gun-related homicides, and the frequency has decreased since 2004 after the disarmament statute and the combating of violence.
Wounds; Gunshot; Multiple trauma; Drowning; Brain injuries
Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) and aneurysm (TAA) are rare but catastrophic. Prompt recognition of TAD/TAA and differentiation from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is difficult yet crucial. Earlier identification of TAA/TAD based upon routine emergency department screening is necessary.
A retrospective analysis of patients that presented with acute thoracic complaints to the ED from January 2007 through June 2012 was performed. Cases of TAA/TAD were compared to an equal number of controls which consisted of patients with the diagnosis of ACS. Demographics, physical findings, EKG, and the results of laboratory and radiological imaging were compared. P-value of > 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
In total, 136 patients were identified with TAA/TAD, 0.36% of patients that presented with chest complaints. Compared to ACS patients, TAA/TAD group was older (68.9 vs. 63.2 years), less likely to be diabetic (13% vs 32%), less likely to complain of chest pain (47% vs 85%) and head and neck pain (4% vs 17%). The pain for the TAA/TAD group was less likely characterized as tight/heavy in nature (5% vs 37%). TAA/TAD patients were also less likely to experience shortness of breath (42% vs. 51%), palpitations (2% vs 9%) and dizziness (2% vs 13%) and had a greater incidence of focal lower extremity neurological deficits (6% vs 1%), bradycardia (15% vs. 5%) and tachypnea (53% vs. 22%). On multivariate analysis, increasing heart rate, chest pain, diabetes, head & neck pain, dizziness, and history of myocardial infarction were independent predictors of ACS.
Increasing heart rate, chest pain, diabetes, head & neck pain, dizziness, and history of myocardial infarction can be used to differentiate acute coronary syndromes from thoracic aortic dissections/aneurysms.
Acute coronary syndrome; Thoracic aorta; Aortic aneurysm; Aortic dissection
The aim of this study was to seek whether red cell distribution width (RDW) has a role in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. It was also aimed to show the relationship of RDW with leukocyte count and C-reactive protein (CRP) level.
This study was conducted via retrospective assessment of the hospital records of the adult patients who were operated for acute appendicitis between January 2010 and February 2013 and had a pathology report that confirmed the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The patients in the control group were selected from healthy adults of similar age who applied to check-up clinic. Age, gender, leukocyte count, CRP, and RDW values were recorded. This study is a case controlled retrospective clinical study.
A total of 590 patients in the acute appendicitis group and 121 patients in the control group were included, making up a total of 711 subjects. The mean RDW levels were 15.4 ± 1.5% in the acute appendicitis group, while 15.9 ± 1.4% in the control group. CRP, leukocyte count were significantly higher in the acute appendicitis group, and RDW level were significantly lower in the acute appendicitis group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). RDW, leukocyte count, and CRP had a sensitivity and specificity of 47% and 67%; 91% and 74%; and 97% and 41%, respectively in acute appendicitis. RDW was not correlated with CRP and leukocyte levels. However, we found a correlation between CRP and leukocyte levels.
RDW level was lower in patients with acute appendicitis. The magnitude of difference in RDW seen between acute appendicitis and controls was so slight as to be of no utility in diagnostic testing.
Acute appendicitis; C-reactive protein; Leukocyte; Red cell distribution width