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1.  Hospital tests and patient related factors influencing time-to-theatre in 1000 cases of suspected appendicitis: a cohort study 
Acute appendicitis is increasingly being managed in the setting of a dedicated emergency theatre. However understanding of hospital factors that influence time-to-theatre (TTT) is poor. Thus, the aim of this study is to identify factors that influence TTT and to observe the effect of prolonged TTT on patient outcome.
A retrospective review of an electronic prospectively maintained database was performed over a 2 year period. Factors thought to influence TTT were highlighted. A delay was defined as TTT >8 hours. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.
1,000 cases of suspected acute appendicitis were identified. Median age was 19 years. Appendicectomy was performed in 90.7%. 68.1% underwent laparoscopic appendicectomy. Overall mean TTT was 12 hours, 27 minutes. There was a significant association between delayed TTT and female gender (p = 0.017), older age (p = 0.001), pre-operative radiology (<0.001), normal WCC (p < 0.001), normal neutrophils (p < 0.001) and histological non-perforated appendix (p < 0.001). However, on multivariate analysis, younger age, a neutrophilia and presence of a perforation had a shorter TTT. Delayed TTT did not affect outcome variables including post-operative collection (3.59% v 4.38%, p = 0.528), readmission rate (6.54% v 5.72%, p = 0.403) and length of stay (3.1 days v 3.34 days, p = 0.823).
This study highlights key hospital factors that influence TTT in patients with suspected appendicitis. Identification of these influential factors adds greatly to our understanding of patient prioritisation. Finally, TTT delays greater than 8 hour do not appear to affect short-term patient outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4328835
Appendicitis; Delay; Time; Factors; Appendicectomy; Appendectomy; Outcome; Readmission; Complications
2.  Alcohol-related hospitalizations of adult motorcycle riders 
To provide an overview of the demographic characteristics of adult motorcycle riders with alcohol-related hospitalizations.
Data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions at a level I trauma center between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Out of 16,548 registered patients, detailed information was retrieved regarding 1,430 (8.64%) adult motorcycle riders who underwent a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) test. A BAC level of 50 mg/dL was defined as the cut-off value for alcohol intoxication.
In this study, alcohol consumption was more frequently noted among male motorcycle riders, those aged 30–49 years, those who had arrived at the hospital in the evening or during the night, and those who did not wear a helmet. Alcohol consumption was associated with a lower percentage of sustained severe injury (injury severity score ≥25) and lower frequencies of specific body injuries, including cerebral contusion (0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42–0.80), lung contusion (0.5; 95% CI = 0.24–0.90), lumbar vertebral fracture (0.1; 95% CI = 0.01–0.80), humeral fracture (0.5; 95% CI = 0.27–0.90), and radial fracture (0.6; 95% CI = 0.40–0.89). In addition, alcohol-intoxicated motorcycle riders who wore helmets had significantly lower frequencies of cranial fracture (0.4; 95% CI = 0.29–0.67), epidural hematoma (0.5; 95% CI = 0.29–0.79), subdural hematoma (0.4; 95% CI = 0.28–0.64), subarachnoid hemorrhage (0.5; 95% CI = 0.32–0.72), and cerebral contusion (0.4; 95% CI = 0.25–0.78).
Motorcycle riders who consumed alcohol presented different characteristics and bodily injury patterns relative to sober patients, suggesting the importance of helmet use to decrease head injuries in alcohol-intoxicated riders.
PMCID: PMC4293814  PMID: 25589900
Trauma; Blood alcohol concentration (BAC); Injury severity score (ISS); Motorcycle; Helmet
3.  Retrospective study of the effectiveness of Intra-Aortic Balloon Occlusion (IABO) for traumatic haemorrhagic shock 
Intra-aortic balloon occlusion (IABO) is useful for proximal vascular control, by clamping the descending aorta, in traumatic haemorrhagic shock. However, there are limited clinical studies regarding its effectiveness. This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of IABO for traumatic haemorrhagic shock.
This retrospective, observational study included trauma patients who underwent IABO at the Emergency and Critical Care Center of Nippon Medical School Tama-Nagayama Hospital between January 2009 and March 2013. 14 patients were included to this study who were in shock on arrival (systolic blood pressure [SBP] <90 mmHg or shock index ≥1), underwent IABO for resuscitation and temporary haemostasis, and subsequently underwent haemostatic intervention (operation or transcatheter arterial embolization). Patient characteristics, physiological status, SBP, heart rate (HR), initial fluid and blood transfusion, time course, and total occlusion time were compared before and after IABO as well as between the survived (n = 5) and non-survived (n = 9) groups.
The majority of patients experienced blunt injuries, with an average injury severity score of 29.5. The liver, pelvis, spleen, and mesenterium represented the majority of injured organs. SBP, but not HR, was significantly higher after IABO than before IABO (123.1 vs. 65.5 mmHg, P = 0.0001). The revised trauma score and probability of survival were significantly different between the survived and non-survived groups (both, P = 0.04). The survived group required significantly less blood transfusion volume than the non-survived group (20 vs. 33.7 red blood cell units, P = 0.04). In addition, the survived group required a significantly shorter total occlusion time than the non-survived group (46.2 vs. 224.1 min, P = 0.002).
IABO was used for relatively severe trauma patients. SBP was significantly higher after IABO, but was not related to survival. However, blood transfusion volume and total occlusion time were related to survival; therefore, it is important to reduce or shorten these parameters, i.e., immediate definitive haemostasis. IABO is effective for traumatic haemorrhagic shock; however, it is also important to consider these points and potential complications.
PMCID: PMC4297416  PMID: 25598838
Trauma; Haemorrhagic shock; Proximal vascular control; Intra-aortic balloon occlusion (IABO)
4.  Cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. How time-critical are the so called “golden 72 hours”? Or better “golden 24 hours” and “silver 25–72 hour”? A case control study 
Early cholecystectomy within 72 hours has been shown to be superior to late or delayed cholecystectomy with regard to outcome and cost of treatment. Recently, immediate cholecystectomy within 24 hours of onset of symptom was proposed as standard procedure for the management of fit patients presenting with acute cholecystitis. We sort to find out if there are any differences in surgical outcomes between patients managed within 24 h and those managed 25-72 h following symptom begin for acute cholecystitis.
Patients and methods
A retrospective analysis was performed. The outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 24 h were compared to those of patients managed 25-72 h following symptom onset for acute cholecystitis.
35 patients managed 25-72 h following begin of symptoms were matched with 35 patients with similar baseline features, medical comorbidities and disease severity managed within 24 hours of symptom onset. There were no significant differences in the duration of surgery, postoperative complications, rate of conversion and length of hospital stay.
Immediate laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis within 24 hour of symptom onset is not superior to surgery 25–72 hour after symptoms begin. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis therefore can be safely performed anytime within the golden 72 h.
PMCID: PMC4274710  PMID: 25538792
Acute cholecystitis; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Early cholecystectomy; Immediate cholecystectomy; Gallbladder inflammation; Tokyo guidelines; Timing of cholecystectomy
5.  Acute cholecystitis: WSES position statement 
The management of acute calculous cholecystitis still offers room for debate in terms of diagnosis, severity scores, treatment options and timing for surgery.
Material and methods
A systematic review about the treatment of acute cholecystitis has been completed. The recommendations of recent guidelines have also been examined taking into account the results of the review.
The evidence available in the literature supports the recommendation about laparoscopic cholecystectomy as treatment of choice for acute cholecystitis. Surgery should be performed as soon as possible after the diagnosis because early treatment reduces total hospital stay and does not increase complication or conversion rates. The antibiotics can play different roles and attention should be posed to the risk of emerging resistance. A surgical or percutaneous drainage of the gallbladder is advocated by some authors in the advanced forms of inflammation or patients with severe co-morbidities; however, the available evidence does not support it, and further studies are necessary to clarify its role.
PMCID: PMC4242474  PMID: 25422672
6.  World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for management of skin and soft tissue infections 
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) encompass a variety of pathological conditions ranging from simple superficial infections to severe necrotizing soft tissue infections. Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are potentially life-threatening infections of any layer of the soft tissue compartment associated with widespread necrosis and systemic toxicity. Successful management of NSTIs involves prompt recognition, timely surgical debridement or drainage, resuscitation and appropriate antibiotic therapy. A worldwide international panel of experts developed evidence-based guidelines for management of soft tissue infections. The multifaceted nature of these infections has led to a collaboration among surgeons, intensive care and infectious diseases specialists, who have shared these guidelines, implementing clinical practice recommendations.
PMCID: PMC4242587  PMID: 25422671
7.  Patient delay is the main cause of treatment delay in acute limb ischemia: an investigation of pre- and in-hospital time delay 
The prognosis of acute limb ischemia is severe, with amputation rates of up to 25% and in-hospital mortality of 9-15%. Delay in treatment increases the risk of major amputation and may be present at different stages, including patient delay, doctors´ delay and waiting time in the emergency department. It is important to identify existing problems in order to reduce time delay.
The aim of this study was to collect data for patients with acute limb ischemia and to evaluate the time delay between the different events from onset of symptoms to specialist evaluation and further treatment with focus on pre-hospital and in-hospital time delays.
We conducted a prospective cross-sectional cohort study including all patients suspected with acute limb ischemia who were admitted to the emergency department of a community hospital in a six months period. Temporal delay in the different phases between the time of occurrence of symptoms and completion of treatment was recorded prospectively. All patients who underwent intervention had a 30 days follow-up with regard to major amputation of the leg and survival.
A total of 42 patients (21 men and 21 women) age 73 (20–95) years (median (range)) was identified.
From onset of symptoms to first contact with a doctor the time for all patients were 24 (0–1200) hours. Thirty patients needed immediate intervention. In the group of fourteen patients who had immediate operation, the median time from vascular evaluation to revascularization was 324.5 (122–873) minutes and in the group of eight patients that went through an imaging procedure before an operation the median delay was 822 (494–1185) minutes from specialist assessment to revascularization. The median time for revascularization among four patients, who were treated with arterial thrombolysis was 5621 (1686–8376) minutes.
At 30 days follow up, six patients had had the ischemic limb amputated above the ankle and four patients had died.
We found that the largest time delay was between onset of symptoms and first contact to a medical doctor. A greater public awareness is needed, so as to facilitate urgent revascularisation and improve outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4232613  PMID: 25400690
Acute limb ischemia; ALI; Treatment delay; Fast track department; Diagnostic packages; Patient delay
8.  Impact of high prevalence of pseudomonas and polymicrobial gram-negative infections in major sub-/total traumatic amputations on empiric antimicrobial therapy: a retrospective study 
Emergency treatment of major sub-/total traumatic amputations continue to represent a clinical challenge due to high infection rates and serious handicaps. Effective treatment is based on two columns: surgery and antimicrobial therapy. Detailed identification of pathogen spectrum and epidemiology associated with these injuries is of tremendous importance as it guides the initial empiric antibiotic regimen and prevents adverse septic effents.
In this retrospective study 51 patients with major traumatic amputations (n = 16) and subtotal amputations (n = 35) treated from 2001 to 2010 in our trauma center were investigated. All patients received emergency surgery, debridement with microbiological testing within 6 h after admission and empircic antimicrobial therapy. Additionally to baseline patient characteristics, the incidence of positive standardized microbiologic testing combined with clinical signs of infection, pathogen spectrum, administered antimicrobial agents and clinical complications were analyzed.
70.6% of the patients (n = 36) acquired wound infection. In 39% wounds were contaminated on day 1, whereas the mean length of duration until first pathogen detection was 9.1 ± 13.4 days after injury. In 37% polymicrobial colonization and 28% Pseudomonas were responsible for wound infections during hospitalization. In 45% the empirc antimicrobial therapy focussed on Gram positive strains did not cover the detected bacteria, according antimicrobial resistogram. It was significantly more often found in infections associated with Pseudomonas (p 0.02) or polymicrobial wound infections.
This epidemiologic study reveals a pathogen shift from Gram-positive to Gram-negative strains with high incidence of Pseudomonas and polymicrobial infections in sub-/total major traumatic amputations. Therefore, empiric antimicrobial treatment historically focussing on Gram-positive strains must be adjusted. We recommend the use of Piperacillin/Tazobactam for these injuries. As soon as possible antimicrobial treatment should be changed from empiric to goal directed therapy according to the microbiological tests and resistogram results.
PMCID: PMC4216372  PMID: 25364376
Trauma; Open fracture; Amputation; Infection; Pathogen; Pseudomonas; Antimicrobial therapy
9.  Resuscitative thoracotomies and open chest cardiac compressions in non-traumatic cardiac arrest 
Since the popularisation of closed chest cardiac compressions in the 1960s, open chest compressions in non-traumatic cardiac arrest have become a largely forgotten art. Today, open chest compressions are only rarely performed outside operating theatres. Early defibrillation and high quality closed chest compressions is the dominating gold standard for the layman on the street as well as for the resuscitation specialist. In this paper we argue that the concept of open chest direct cardiac compressions in non-traumatic cardiac arrest should be revisited and that it might be due for a revival. Numerous studies demonstrate how open chest cardiac compressions are superior to closed chest compressions in regards to physiological parameters and outcomes. Thus, by incorporating resuscitative thoracotomies and open chest compressions in our algorithms for non-traumatic cardiac arrest we may improve outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4210589  PMID: 25352911
Resuscitation; Cardiac arrest; Open chest cardiac compressions; Thoracotomy; Non-traumatic; CPR
10.  The HAC trial (harmonic for acute cholecystitis): a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing the use of harmonic scalpel to monopolar diathermy for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cases of acute cholecystitis 
The HARMONIC SCALPEL (H) is an advanced ultrasonic cutting and coagulating surgical device with important clinical advantages, such as: reduced ligature demand; greater precision due to minimal lateral thermal tissue damage; minimal smoke production; absence of electric corrents running through the patient. However, there are no prospective RCTs demonstrating the advantages of H compared to the conventional monopolar diathermy (MD) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in cases of acute cholecystitis (AC).
This study was a prospective, single-center, randomized trial (Trial Registration Number: NCT00746850) designed to investigate whether the use of H can reduce the incidence of intra-operative conversion during LC in cases of AC, compared to the use of MD. Patients were divided into two groups: both groups underwent early LC, within 72 hours of diagnosis, using H and MD respectively (H = experimental/study group, MD = control group). The study was designed and conducted in accordance with the regulations of Good Clinical Practice.
42 patients were randomly assigned the use of H (21 patients) or MD (21 patients) during LC. The two groups were comparable in terms of basic patient characteristics. Mean operating time in the H group was 101.3 minutes compared to 106.4 minutes in the control group (p=ns); overall blood loss was significantly lower in the H group. Conversion rate was 4.7% for the H group, which was significantly lower than the 33% conversion rate for the control group (p<0.05). Post-operative morbidity rates differed slightly: 19% and 23% in the H and control groups, respectively (p=ns). Average post-operative hospitalization lasted 5.2 days in the H group compared to 5.4 days in the control group (p=ns).
The use of H appears to correlate with reduced rates of laparoscopic-open conversion. Given this evidence, H may be more suitable than MD for technically demanding cases of AC.
PMCID: PMC4223749  PMID: 25383091
Acute cholecystitis; Laparoscopic cholecistectomy; Harmonic scalpel; Biliary surgery; Safety; CBD complications; Conversion rate; Randomized controlled trial
11.  Hartmann’s procedure vs loop colostomy in the treatment of obstructive rectosigmoid cancer 
Colorectal carcinoma is the most common malignant gastrointestinal tumour. There is still a considerable controversy when it comes to urgent surgical treatment of obstructive carcinoma of the left colon and rectum.
Seventy-five patients from the randomized trial were followed up. This study was designed as a stratified randomized trial with four stratums according to age and ASA score (older/younger than 60 years and ASA score <>3). Each of the four groups is then divided into two sub-groups according to the operating technique: loop colostomy or Hartmann’s procedure.
There were no difference found in hospitalization among the groups (loop colostomy vs. Hartmann’s procedure) in the same stratus (P = 0.3192, P = 0.5760, P = 0.9023 respectively), except in the case of doing reconstructive procedure after loop colostomy (P = 0.0049) in the fourth stratum (patients younger than 60 years with ASA score lower than 3). Type of operation had no influence over the blood test values observed on admittance and during hospitalization (P = 0.319, P = 0.871, P = 0.7, P = 0.843, P = 0.52 respectively for the blood values). In terms of surgical and non-surgical complications it has been shown that there is no statistically significant difference between patients treated by two methods. Age, gender, ASA score, type of operation and surgical complications were not singled out as a risk factor for fatal outcome (P = 0.199, P = 0.155, P = 0.764, P = 0.452 and P = 0.724 respectively). The only factors that are singled out as a risk factor for death are the emergence of non-surgical complications and angina pectoris (P = 0.006, P = 0.001).
There is no difference in surgical treatment of large bowel obstruction caused by rectosigmoid carcinoma. Neither of those two methods showed significant advantage in treatment of large bowel obstruction caused by rectosigmoid cancer.
PMCID: PMC4198663  PMID: 25324896
Hartmann’s procedure; Loop colostomy; Obstructive rectosigmoid cancer; ASA score
12.  Non-operative management attempted for selective high grade blunt hepatosplenic trauma is a feasible strategy 
There is growing evidence of clinical data recently for successful outcomes of non-operative management (NOM) for blunt hepatic and spleen injuries (BHSI). However, the effectiveness of NOM for high-grade BHSI remains undefined. The aim of the present study was to review our experience with NOM in high-grade BHSI and compare results with the existing related data worldwide.
In this retrospectively protocol-driven study, 150 patients with grade 3–5 BHSI were enrolled during a 3-year period. Patients were divided into immediate laparotomy (immediate OP) and initial non-operative (initial NOM) groups according to hemodynamic status judged by duty trauma surgeon. Patients who received initial NOM were divided into successful NOM (s-NOM) and failed NOM (f-NOM) subgroups according to conservative treatment failure. We analyzed the clinical characteristics and the outcomes of patients.
Twenty-eight (18.7%) patients underwent immediate operations, and the remaining 122 (81.3%) were initially treated with NOM. Compared with the initial NOM group, the immediate OP group had significantly lower hemoglobin levels, a higher incidence of tube thoracostomy, contrast extravasation and large hemoperitoneum on computed tomography, a higher injury severity score, increased need for transfusions, and longer length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospitalization. Further analysis of the initial NOM group indicated that NOM had failed in 6 (4.9%) cases. Compared with the s-NOM subgroup, f-NOM patients had significantly lower hemoglobin levels, more hospitalized transfusions, and longer ICU LOS.
NOM of high-grade BHSI in selected patients is a feasible strategy. Notwithstanding, patients with initial low hemoglobin level and a high number of blood transfusions in the ICU are associated with a high risk for NOM failure.
PMCID: PMC4193125  PMID: 25309622
Non-operative management; Blunt hepatic injury; Blunt splenic injury; Blunt hepatic and splenic injuries
13.  Catastrophic hemorrhage of adrenal pheochromocytoma following thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction: case report and literature review 
We describe here the case of a 62-year-old man with acute abdominal syndrome and severe hemorrhagic shock following successful thrombolysis for acute cardiac infarction. Emergency surgical exploration revealed extensive intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage resulting from the rupture of a large adrenal tumor. The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed by histological findings. The patient died a few hours after surgery from multiorgan failure despite resuscitation attempts. This report discusses the diagnosis difficulties, treatment approach, and relevant literature.
PMCID: PMC4177258  PMID: 25276225
Hemorrhage; Pheochromocytoma; Thrombolysis; Hémorragie; Phéochromocytome; Thrombolyse
14.  A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of delayed primary wound closure in contaminated abdominal wounds 
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to compare surgical site infection (SSI) between delayed primary (DPC) and primary wound closure (PC) in complicated appendicitis and other contaminated abdominal wounds. Medline and Scopus were searched from their beginning to November 2013 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SSI and length of stay between DPC and PC. Studies’ selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were done by two independent authors. The risk ratio and unstandardised mean difference were pooled for SSI and length of stay, respectively. Among 8 eligible studies, 5 studies were done in complicated appendicitis, 2 with mixed complicated appendicitis and other types of abdominal operation and 1 with ileostomy closure. Most studies (75%) had high risk of bias in sequence generation and allocation concealment. Among 6 RCTs of complicated appendicitis underwent open appendectomy, the SSI between PC and DPC were not significantly different with a risk ratio of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.46, 1.73). DPC had a significantly 1.6 days (95% CI: 1.41, 1.79) longer length of stay than PC. Our evidence suggested there might be no advantage of DPC over PC in reducing SSI in complicated appendicitis. However, this was based on a small number of studies with low quality. A large scale RCT is further required.
PMCID: PMC4162947  PMID: 25221617
Delayed primary closure; Wound closure; Wound infection; Surgical site infection; Appendicitis; Meta-analysis
15.  Isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery treated using open emergency surgery 
Isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (IDSMA) remains a rare diagnosis. However, new diagnostic means such as computed tomography makes it possible to detect even asymptomatic patients. If patients present symptomatic on admission, the risk of bowel infarction makes immediate therapy necessary. Today, endovascular techniques are often successfully used; however, open surgery remains important for special indications. In this paper, we present two cases with IDSMA and show why open surgical repair is still important in current treatment concepts.
Two cases with ISDMA that presented in our department from January 1, 2014 to June 1, 2014 are described. Data collection was performed retrospectively. Additionally, a review of articles which reported small cases series on patients with IDSMA within the past five years is provided.
Both patients underwent open surgical repair following interdisciplinary consultation. Both patients were transferred to the intensive care unit after surgical repair and needed bowel rest, nasogastric suction and intravenous fluid therapy. CT scans were performed within the first week after operation. Platelet aggregation inhibitors were used in both cases as postoperative medication. Both patients survived and are able to participate in everyday activities.
Open surgical repair remains important in cases of anatomic variants of visceral arteries and suspected bowel infarction. Therefore, it is important that knowledge about open surgical techniques still be taught and trained.
PMCID: PMC4137619  PMID: 25140196
Superior mesenteric artery; Dissection; Bowel infarction; Open surgery; Aorta
16.  Triage using a self-assessment questionnaire to detect potentially life-threatening emergencies in gynecology 
Acute pelvic pain is a common reason for emergency room visits that can indicate a potentially life-threatening emergency (PLTE). Our objective here was to develop a triage process for PLTE based on a self-assessment questionnaire for gynecologic emergencies (SAQ-GE) in patients experiencing acute pelvic pain.
In this multicenter prospective observational study, all gynecological emergency room patients seen for acute pelvic pain between September 2006 and April 2008 completed the SAQ-GE after receiving appropriate analgesics. Diagnostic procedures were ordered without knowledge of questionnaire replies. Laparoscopy was the reference standard for diagnosing PLTE; other diagnoses were based on algorithms. In two-thirds of the population, SAQ-GE items significantly associated with PLTEs (P < 0.05) by univariate analysis were used to develop a decision tree by recursive partitioning; the remaining third served for validation.
Of 344 derivation-set patients and 172 validation-set patients, 96 and 49 had PLTEs, respectively. Items significantly associated with PLTEs were vomiting, sudden onset of pain, and pain to palpation. Sensitivity of the decision tree based on these three features was 87.5% (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 81%-94%) in the derivation set and 83.7% in the validation set. Derivation of the decision tree provided probabilities of PLTE of 13% (95% CI, 6%-19%) in the low-risk group, 27% (95% CI, 20%-33%) in the intermediate-risk group and 62% (95% CI, 48%-76%) in the high-risk group, ruling out PLTE with a specificity of 92.3%; (95% CI, 89%-96%). In the validation dataset, PLTE probabilities were 16.3% in the low-risk group, 30.6% in the intermediate-risk group, and 44% in the high-risk group, ruling out the diagnosis of PLTE with a specificity of 88.6%.
A simple triage model based on a standardized questionnaire may assist in the early identification of patients with PLTEs among patients seen in the gynecology emergency room for acute pelvic pain.
PMCID: PMC4150681  PMID: 25180047
Gynecologic emergencies; Triage; Sensitivity; Questionnaire
18.  Strangulated or incarcerated spontaneous lumbar hernia as exceptional cause of intestinal obstruction: case report and review of the literature 
Lumbar hernias are rare conditions and about 300 cases have been reported since the first description by Barbette in 1672. Therefore strangulation or incarceration are also exceptionally encountered. We present a 62 -year-old-man who had strangulated left lumbar hernia and consequent mechanical small-bowel obstruction, alongside with a non strangulated right lumbar hernia. Through a median laparotomy, an intestinal necrosis was found. A bowel resection with end to end anastomosis was performed and the lumbar hernias were repaired on both sides. The recovery was uneventfull. To the best of our knowlwdge thanks to the litterature review presented here, this is the 19th case of incarcerated or strangulated spontaneous lumbar hernia described in the surgical litterature since 1889.
PMCID: PMC4118656  PMID: 25089151
Lumbar hernia; Strangulation; Incarceration; Review
19.  Predictors of in-hospital mortality and complications in very elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery 
With the increasing aging population demographics and life expectancies the number of very elderly patients (age ≥ 80) undergoing emergency surgery is expected to rise. This investigation examines the outcomes in very elderly patients undergoing emergency general surgery, including predictors of in-hospital mortality and morbidity.
A retrospective study of patients aged 80 and above undergoing emergency surgery between 2008 and 2010 at a tertiary care facility in Canada was conducted. Demographics, comorbidities, surgical indications, and perioperative risk assessment data were collected. Outcomes included length of hospitalization, discharge destination, and in-hospital mortality and morbidity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and complications.
Of the 170 patient admissions, the mean age was 84 years and the in-hospital mortality rate was 14.7%. Comorbidities were present in 91% of this older patient population. Over 60% of the patients required further services or alternate level of care on discharge. American Society of Anesthesiologist Physical Status (ASA) Classification (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.774-15.817, p = 0.003) and the development of an in-hospital complications (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.210-5.187, p = 0.013) were independent predictors of postoperative mortality. Chronological age or number of comorbidities was not predictive of surgical outcome.
Mortality, complication rates and post-discharge care requirements were high in very elderly patients undergoing emergency general surgery. Advanced age and medical comorbidities alone should not be the limiting factors for surgical referral or treatment. This study illustrates the importance of preventing an in-hospital complication in this very vulnerable population. ASA class is a robust tool which is predictive of mortality in the very elderly population and can be used to guide patient and family counseling in the emergency setting.
PMCID: PMC4105124  PMID: 25050133
Elderly; Acute care; Emergency; Surgery; Morbidity; Mortality
20.  Analysis and injury paterns of walnut tree falls in central anatolia of turkey 
Falls are the second most common cause of injury-associated mortality worldwide. This study aimed to analysis the injuries caused by falls from walnut tree and assess their mortality and morbidity risk.
This is a retrospective hospital-based study of patients presenting to emergency department (ED) of Ahi Evran Univercity between September and October 2012. For each casualty, we computed the ISS (defined as the sum of the squares of the highest Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score in each of the three most severely injured body regions). Severe injury was defined as ISS ≥ 16. The duration of hospital stay and final outcome were recorded. Statistical comparisons were carried out with Chi-Square test for categorical data and non-parametric spearman correlation tests were used to test the association between variables. A p value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Fifty-four patients admitted to our emergency department with fall from walnut tree. Fifty (92.6%) patients were male. The mean age was 48 ± 14 years. Spinal region (44.4%) and particularly lumbar area (25.9%) sustained the most of the injuries among all body parts. Wedge compression fractures ranked first among all spinal injuries. Extremities injuries were the second most common injury. None of the patients died. Morbidity rate was 9.25%.
Falls from walnut trees are a significant health problem. Preventive measures including education of farmers and agricultural workers and using mechanized methods for harvesting walnut will lead to a dramatic decrease in mortality and morbidity caused by falls from walnut trees.
PMCID: PMC4085373  PMID: 25006346
Emergency; Falls; Walnut
21.  Endoscopic reduction of a volvulus of the sigmoid colon in pregnancy: case report and a comprehensive review of the literature 
Sigmoid volvulus is a rare, but serious, complication that can occur during pregnancy. We present a case of a 33-year-old pregnant female in the third trimester with a sigmoid volvulus. Detorsion of the volvulus was performed during colonoscopy. The patient underwent an elective sigmoidectomy at a later date. Prompt diagnosis of the volvulus sigmoid is critical to minimize fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Sigmoidoscopic detorsion or surgical resection are the treatment options, depending on bowel viability. A review of the literature was done.
PMCID: PMC4107753  PMID: 25057285
Sigmoid volvulus; Pregnancy; Endoscopic reduction
22.  Establishment and implementation of an effective rule for the interpretation of computed tomography scans by emergency physicians in blunt trauma 
Computed tomography (CT) can detect subtle organ injury and is applicable to many body regions. However, its interpretation requires significant skill. In our hospital, emergency physicians (EPs) must interpret emergency CT scans and formulate a plan for managing most trauma cases. CT misinterpretation should be avoided, but we were initially unable to completely accomplish this. In this study, we proposed and implemented a precautionary rule for our EPs to prevent misinterpretation of CT scans in blunt trauma cases.
We established a simple precautionary rule, which advises EPs to interpret CT scans with particular care when a complicated injury is suspected per the following criteria: 1) unstable physiological condition; 2) suspicion of injuries in multiple regions of the body (e.g., brain injury plus abdominal injury); 3) high energy injury mechanism; and 4) requirement for rapid movement to other rooms for invasive treatment. If a patient meets at least one of these criteria, the EP should exercise the precautions laid out in our newly established rule when interpreting the CT scan. Additionally, our rule specifies that the EP should request real-time interpretation by a radiologist in difficult cases. We compared the accuracy of EPs’ interpretations and resulting patient outcomes in blunt trauma cases before (January 2011, June 2012) and after (July 2012, January 2013) introduction of the rule to evaluate its efficacy.
Before the rule’s introduction, emergency CT was performed 1606 times for 365 patients. We identified 44 cases (2.7%) of minor misinterpretation and 40 (2.5%) of major misinterpretation. After introduction, CT was performed 820 times for 177 patients. We identified 10 cases (1.2%) of minor misinterpretation and two (0.2%) of major misinterpretation. Real-time support by a radiologist was requested 104 times (12.7% of all cases) and was effective in preventing misinterpretation in every case. Our rule decreased both minor and major misinterpretations in a statistically significant manner. In particular, it conspicuously decreased major misinterpretations.
Our rule was easy to practice and effective in preventing EPs from missing major organ injuries. We would like to propose further large-scale multi-center trials to corroborate these results.
PMCID: PMC4085233  PMID: 25006345
Blunt trauma; Computed tomography; Rule; Misinterpretation
23.  Cost of care and antibiotic prescribing attitudes for community-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections in Italy: a retrospective study 
Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) are a common cause of morbidity worldwide, and in spite of improvements in patient care, therapeutic failure still occurs, impacting in-hospital resource consumption. This study aimed to assess the costs associated with the treatment of community-acquired cIAIs, from the Italian National Health Service perspective.
This retrospective study analyzed the charts of patients who were discharged from four Italian university hospitals between January 1 and December 31, 2009 with a primary diagnosis of community-acquired cIAIs. Patient characteristics, diagnosis, surgical procedure, antibiotic therapy, and length of hospital stay were all recorded and the cost of total hospital care was estimated. Costs were calculated in Euros at 2009 values.
The records of 260 patients (mean age 48.9 years; 57% males) were analyzed. The average cost of care for a patient hospitalized due to cIAI was €4385 (95% CI 3650–5120), with an average daily cost of €419 (95% CI 378–440). Antibiotic therapy represented just under half (44.3%) of hospitalization costs. The strongest predictor of the increase in hospital costs was clinical failure: patients who clinically failed received an average of 8.2 additional days of antibiotic therapy and spent 11 more days in hospital compared with patients who responded to first-line therapy (both p < 0.05 vs. patients who were successfully treated). Furthermore, they incurred €5592 in additional hospitalization costs (2.88 times the cost associated with clinical success) with 53% (€2973) of the additional costs attributable to antibiotic therapy. Overall, antibiotic appropriateness rate was 78.8% (n = 205), and was significantly higher in patients receiving combination therapy compared with those treated with monotherapy (97.3% vs. 64.6%).
The results of this study suggest that hospitals need to be aware of the clinical and economic consequences of antibiotic therapy of cIAIs and to reduce overall resource use and costs by improving the rate of success with appropriate initial empiric therapy.
PMCID: PMC4099017  PMID: 25028594
Antibiotics; Community-acquired intra-abdominal infections; Cost of care; Direct costs; Hospitalization
24.  Lemierre’s disease: a case with bilateral iliopsoas abscesses and a literature review 
Lemierre’s disease is characterized by sepsis, often with an oropharyngeal source, secondary septic emboli and internal jugular vein thrombosis (Lancet 1:701–3, 1936. Clin Microbiol Rev 20(4):622–59, 2007). Septic emboli affecting many bodily sites have been reported, including the lungs, joints, bones, and brain. The case report describes an unusual case of Lemierre’s disease in a 64 year old gentleman causing profound sepsis, acute kidney injury, bilateral iliopsoas abscesses and a right hand abscess. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Lemierre’s disease in the context of bilateral psoas abscesses, and highlights the ambiguity surrounding the definition of Lemierre’s disease. The clinical literature review highlights the difficulty in definitively diagnosing the condition and offers some suggestions for recognising and refining the diagnostic criterion of Lemierre’s.
PMCID: PMC4046005  PMID: 24904685
Lemierre; Fusobacterium; Fusobacterium Necrophorum; Bilateral; Iliopsoas abscess
25.  Complicated intra-abdominal infections worldwide: the definitive data of the CIAOW Study 
Sartelli, Massimo | Catena, Fausto | Ansaloni, Luca | Coccolini, Federico | Corbella, Davide | Moore, Ernest E | Malangoni, Mark | Velmahos, George | Coimbra, Raul | Koike, Kaoru | Leppaniemi, Ari | Biffl, Walter | Balogh, Zsolt | Bendinelli, Cino | Gupta, Sanjay | Kluger, Yoram | Agresta, Ferdinando | Saverio, Salomone Di | Tugnoli, Gregorio | Jovine, Elio | Ordonez, Carlos A | Whelan, James F | Fraga, Gustavo P | Gomes, Carlos Augusto | Pereira, Gerson Alves | Yuan, Kuo-Ching | Bala, Miklosh | Peev, Miroslav P | Ben-Ishay, Offir | Cui, Yunfeng | Marwah, Sanjay | Zachariah, Sanoop | Wani, Imtiaz | Rangarajan, Muthukumaran | Sakakushev, Boris | Kong, Victor | Ahmed, Adamu | Abbas, Ashraf | Gonsaga, Ricardo Alessandro Teixeira | Guercioni, Gianluca | Vettoretto, Nereo | Poiasina, Elia | Díaz-Nieto, Rafael | Massalou, Damien | Skrovina, Matej | Gerych, Ihor | Augustin, Goran | Kenig, Jakub | Khokha, Vladimir | Tranà, Cristian | Kok, Kenneth Yuh Yen | Mefire, Alain Chichom | Lee, Jae Gil | Hong, Suk-Kyung | Lohse, Helmut Alfredo Segovia | Ghnnam, Wagih | Verni, Alfredo | Lohsiriwat, Varut | Siribumrungwong, Boonying | El Zalabany, Tamer | Tavares, Alberto | Baiocchi, Gianluca | Das, Koray | Jarry, Julien | Zida, Maurice | Sato, Norio | Murata, Kiyoshi | Shoko, Tomohisa | Irahara, Takayuki | Hamedelneel, Ahmed O | Naidoo, Noel | Adesunkanmi, Abdul Rashid Kayode | Kobe, Yoshiro | Ishii, Wataru | Oka, Kazuyuki | Izawa, Yoshimitsu | Hamid, Hytham | Khan, Iqbal | Attri, AK | Sharma, Rajeev | Sanjuan, Juan | Badiel, Marisol | Barnabé, Rita
The CIAOW study (Complicated intra-abdominal infections worldwide observational study) is a multicenter observational study underwent in 68 medical institutions worldwide during a six-month study period (October 2012-March 2013). The study included patients older than 18 years undergoing surgery or interventional drainage to address complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs).
1898 patients with a mean age of 51.6 years (range 18-99) were enrolled in the study. 777 patients (41%) were women and 1,121 (59%) were men. Among these patients, 1,645 (86.7%) were affected by community-acquired IAIs while the remaining 253 (13.3%) suffered from healthcare-associated infections. Intraperitoneal specimens were collected from 1,190 (62.7%) of the enrolled patients.
827 patients (43.6%) were affected by generalized peritonitis while 1071 (56.4%) suffered from localized peritonitis or abscesses.
The overall mortality rate was 10.5% (199/1898).
According to stepwise multivariate analysis (PR = 0.005 and PE = 0.001), several criteria were found to be independent variables predictive of mortality, including patient age (OR = 1.1; 95%CI = 1.0-1.1; p < 0.0001), the presence of small bowel perforation (OR = 2.8; 95%CI = 1.5-5.3; p < 0.0001), a delayed initial intervention (a delay exceeding 24 hours) (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.5-3.7; p < 0.0001), ICU admission (OR = 5.9; 95%CI = 3.6-9.5; p < 0.0001) and patient immunosuppression (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 2.1-6.7; p < 0.0001).
PMCID: PMC4039043  PMID: 24883079

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