In lingual orthodontic therapy, effective torque control of the incisors is crucial due to the biomechanical particularities associated with the point of force application and the tight link between third order deviations and vertical tooth position.
The aim of the present in vitro investigation was to analyze the torque capacity of a completely customized lingual appliance of the next generation (WIN) in combination with different finishing archwire dimensions.
Using a typodont of the upper arch carrying the WIN appliance, slot filling and undersized individualized β-titanium archwires were engaged. Horizontal forces ranging from 0 to 100 cN were applied at the central incisor by means of spring gauges. The resulting angular deviations were recorded and the corresponding torque moments were calculated.
For fullsize archwires (0.018”×0.018” β-titanium and 0.018”×0.025” β-titanium), an initial torque play of 0-2° had to be overcome prior to the development of an effective torque moment. Thereafter, a linear correlation between torque angle and torque moment developed for both archwire dimensions with steeper slopes calculated for the specimens with the larger dimension. A torque moment of 2 Nmm required for effective torque correction was noted after a minimum of 2-3° of twist for the 0.018”×0.018” β-titanium wires as compared to 2-4° for the 0.018”×0.025” β-titanium study sample. When undersized archwires were analyzed (0.0175”×0.0175” β-titanium), the measured torque play ranged from 5-7°. After 8-12° of torque angle, the threshold of 2 Nmm was reached. A linear relationship between twist angle and torque moment in which the steepness of the slopes was generally flatter than the ones calculated for the slot filling archwires was noted.
Given the high precision of the bracket slot-archwire-combination provided with the WIN appliance, an effective torque control can be clinically realized.
Torque angle; Torque moment; Completely customized lingual appliance
The Editors of Head & Face Medicine would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 9 (2013).
The shape and volume of the condyle is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the mandibular deviation. Curvature analysis is informative for objectively assess whether the shape of the condyles matches that of the glenoid fossa. In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) quantification of bilateral asymmetrical condyles was firstly conducted to identify the specific role of 3-D condylar configuration for mandibular asymmetry.
55 adult patients, 26 males (26 ± 5 yrs) and 29 females (26 ± 5 yrs), diagnosed with mandibular asymmetry were included. The examination of deviation of chin point, deviation of dental midlines, inclination of occlusal plane, and depth of the mandibular occlusal plane were conducted. After the clinical investigation, computed tomography images from the patients were used to reconstruct the 3-D mandibular models. Then the condylar volume, surface size, surface curvature and bone mineral density were evaluated independently for each patient on non-deviated and deviated sides of temporomandibular joint.
Both the condylar surface size and volume were significantly larger on deviated side (surface size: 1666.14 ± 318.3 mm2, volume: 1981.5 ± 418.3 mm3). The anterior slope of the condyle was flatter (0.12 ± 0.06) and the posterior slope (0.39 ± 0.08) was prominently convex on the deviated side. The corresponding bone mineral density values were 523.01 ±118.1 HU and 549.07 ±120. 6 HU on anterior and posterior slopes.
The incongruence presented on the deviated side resulted in a reduction in contact areas and, thus, an increase in contact stresses and changes of bone density. All aforementioned results suggest that the difference existing between deviated and non-deviated condyles correlates with facial asymmetrical development. In mandibular asymmetry patients, the 3-D morphology of condyle on deviated side differ from the non-deviated side, which indicates the association between asymmetrical jaw function and joint remodeling.
Temporomandibular joint; Mandibular asymmetry; Condylar morphology; Curvature analysis; Computed tomography
The ultimate goal of rhinoplasty is to achieve a controllable, reliable and an aesthetically pleasing result. Various approaches and instruments have been introduced for the correction of the bony walls of the nose to improve predictability of the procedure and to minimize the associated trauma. We conducted a cadaveric study comparing the results of osteotomy of the nasal wall using a diamond surgical burr with those using a 2-mm osteotome.
Material and methods
Bilateral osteotomy of the nasal wall was performed on 10 cadavers. The 20 lateral nasal osteotomies were carried out on 7 females and 3 males of an age range between 61-91 years. A 2-mm osteotome was used percutaneously to perforate the lateral nasal wall of the right side. On the left side a 2-mm diamond surgical burr was introduced via an intraoral approach to thin out the lateral nasal wall. The in-fracture of the nasal bone was accomplished by controlled finger pressure. The nasal mucosa was inspected endoscopically and also dissected to identify any perforations or lacerations. The pattern of nasal fracture and the presence of any fragmentation of the bony segments were assessed clinically.
The in-fracturing of the nasal bone was accomplished by gentle pressure on the left side, but required more force on the contra lateral side. On the left side the in-fractured lateral nasal wall remained as one piece and no irregularities were seen. On the right side 3-5 bony fragments of irregular sizes and shapes were detected. There were 3-4 tears of the nasal mucosa, where the osteotome was applied. However, no mucosal tears were detected at the side, where the surgical burr was used.
Osteotomy of the lateral nasal wall with a diamond burr via intraoral approach is more precise and associated with fewer complications in comparison with the use of the osteotome.
Lateral osteotomy; Osteotome; Diamond burr
The main problems of autogenous bone transplants are their unpredictable atrophy and their loss of structure. One key factor lies in the poor revascularization of simple onlay grafts. The the aim of this study was to evaluate the revascularization processes in autogenous bone grafts from the iliac crest to the alveolar ridge.
In a sheep model, autogenous bone grafts were harvested from the iliac crest. A combination of a resorbable collagen membrane (CM) and deproteinized bovine bone material (DBBM) was used to modify the bone graft (experiment 2). This was compared with a simple onlay bone graft (control group, experiment 1). The amount of vessels in bone and connective tissue (CT), and the amount of CT were analyzed. The expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) was compared between the two experimental groups using immunohistochemical analysis.
The ratio of the amount of vessels in bone and CT changed over time, and more vessels could be detected in bone at 12–16 weeks of graft healing. The number of vessels were significantly higher in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. More CT was found in experiment 1, whereas the amount of CT in both experiments decreased over time.
This study shows a more intensive and extensive revascularization in experiment 2, as significantly more vessels were detected. The decreased amount of CT in experiment 2 clarifies its clinical superiority.
GBR; Collagen membrane; Revascularization; Connective tissue; Bone graft; vWF
Pure titanium is the material of choice for contemporary dental implants. However, superficial reaction of the moderately rough titanium surface with atmospheric components decreases its hydrophilicity. INICELL® represents a chemical alteration and hydrophilization of a moderately rough i. e. sand-blasted and acid-etched titanium surface. The hydrophilicity leads to a more homogenous adsorption of proteins on the implant surface in-vitro, supporting the activation of a higher number of platelets and the generation of a homogenous, complete fibrin matrix in the early phases of osseointegration. This in turn helps to reduce the healing time and enhances the predictability of osseointegration in compromised bony situations.
The objective of this case series trial was therefore to investigate if early loading (after 8 weeks) of hydrophilic INICELL implants is feasible in patients with reduced bone quality.
In 10 patients, 35 hydrophilic implants were placed in sites revealing bone quality class 3 and 4, and uncovered after 4 weeks. Eight weeks later implants were released for loading if the tactile resistance was ≥35 Ncm. Lower resistances resulted in 12 weeks initial healing period. Insertion torque, ISQ, tactile resistance and vertical bone level were evaluated at implant installation, after 4 weeks (uncovering), 8 or 12 weeks (loading), and 12 weeks and one year after loading.
Mean implant insertion torque was 21 Ncm. 31 (88.6%) showed a tactile resistance of >35 Ncm after eight weeks and were released for prosthetic loading. Eight weeks after insertion, one implant (2.9%) had to be removed following a soft tissue complication. One implant had to be removed after 4 weeks due to a technical complication (fractured Osstell-abutment), it was therefore excluded from the analysis.
33 of 34 implants (97%) were loaded to occlusion and were in situ/functional one year after implantation. ISQs increased from 43 at baseline to 63 at eight weeks, and 72 at three months after loading. Then, ISQ remained constant until one year after loading.
Within the limitations of this prospective case series, hydrophilic implants may allow for shortening of the initial healing period even in bone with compromised density.
Titanium implants; Hydrophilic surface; Healing time; Bone quality; Weak bone
This prospective study was aimed at assessing cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients’ opinions and attitudes towards their upper lip and nose and the number of secondary corrective surgical interventions electively undertaken to upper lip and nose that were carried out during a 2 year follow-up period.
Materials and methods
During a 2 year follow-up period CLP outpatients were recruited for the study who attended follow-up examinations at a cleft lip and palate craniofacial center and received a recommendation for secondary corrective facial surgery. The participants filled in a questionnaire that included questions regarding the patients’ opinions and attitudes towards appearance of lip and nose and need for secondary corrective facial surgery. During an additional interval of 2 years the rate of patients who underwent secondary corrective surgery to lip and nose was documented.
Out of 362 CLP patients 37 (mean age 13.6 ± 7.6 years) received a recommendation for secondary corrective surgery to upper lip and/or nose. 22 patients (mean age 12.6 ± 6.3 years) filled in the questionnaire (response rate of 62.1%). The satisfaction with the overall facial appearance following the first corrective operation was statistically significantly better than the satisfaction with the nose (p = .016). The satisfaction with facial symmetry (5.6 ± 2.0) did not differ statistically significantly from the overall satisfaction with the facial appearance (6.2 ± 1.8; p = .093). Significantly fewer patients (n = 9) opted for corrective surgery compared to the number of patients who got the recommendation to have secondary corrective surgery done (n = 22, p < .0005).
The findings of the present study may reflect a high overall patient satisfaction with the primary treatment outcome following surgery for CLP. Perceived patient need for secondary operation for the lip/nose may be as low as 5%.
Cleft lip and palate; Upper lip; Facial aesthetics; Nose; Secondary corrective surgery
Radiographic examination is considered ‘justified’ only when detection of a condition that would change the mechanisms and timing of treatment is possible. Radiographic safety guidelines have restricted the indication of lateral cephalometric radiographs (LCRs) to presence of distinct skeletal Class II or Class III. However, they are taken routinely in clinical practice and considered to be part of the ‘gold’ standard for orthodontic diagnosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that lateral cephalometric radiograph (LCR) evaluation would not alter the extraction/non-extraction decision in orthodontic treatment planning of skeletal Class I patients.
Materials and methods
Intraoral and extraoral photographs, dental casts and extraoral radiographs of 60 skeletal Class I patients were prepared digitally for assessment using a presentation software. One experienced (EO) and inexperienced orthodontist (IO) was asked to decide on extraction or non-extraction on a Likert-type linear scale for treatment planning. This procedure was repeated 4 weeks later with a mixed order of patients and the LCRs being omitted. Kappa, Weighted Kappa (WK) and McNemar scores were computed to test decision consistency and Bland-Altman plots together with 95% limits of agreement were used to determine measurement accuracy and presence of systematic bias.
Both EO (WK = 0.67) and IO (WK = 0.64) had good level of decision agreement with and without LCR evaluation. EO did not present a shift towards extraction nor non-extraction with LCR evaluation (McNemar = 0.999) whereas IO showed a tendency to extraction (McNemar = 0.07) with LCR data. Including LCR evaluation created a systematic inconsistency between EO and IO (Line of equality = 0.8, Confidence interval = 0.307-0.707).
Lateral cephalometric radiograph evaluation did not influence the extraction decision in treatment planning of skeletal Class I patients. Reconsidering the necessity of lateral cephalograms in orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class I patients may reduce the amount of ionizing radiation. Key words: Lateral cephalometric radiograph, extraction, treatment planning, skeletal Class I.
Cherubism is classified within the group of benign osteo-fibrous lesions. Aside from facial deformities, it may account for major complications. It has been observed that the disease is caused by a mutation in the gene SH3BP2 (SH3-domain binding protein 2), which is located at chromosome 4pl6.3. Here we present two cases of familial cherubism, uncle and nephew, with variable clinical involvement (“Expressivity”), and one case of a woman (sister and mother, respectively), who transmitted cherubism without suffering the disease. In this article we have shown that, in familial cherubism cases, the mutation is inherited through an autosomal dominant transmission. Mutations affecting gene SH3BP2 cause variable clinical involvement (variable expressivity), involvement can be moderate, severe or may result merely in asymptomatic carriers. Since the possibility of transmission reaches 50% of chances, we believe that it is important to develop genetic counseling for both patients and carriers, in order to prevent or minimize new affected offspring.
Cherubism; SH3BP2; Expressivity
Significant vasovagal reaction is one of the untoward events in the course of simple extractions. The present study then aimed to record the patients’ heart rate during the extraction procedure.
Materials and methods
Informed consents were obtained in advance. Patients were placed in the dental chair and their heart rate was measured before /and prior to the anesthetic injection, during, and after dental extraction on a pulse oxymeter device. Data were analyzed using paired t-test.
Sixty one patients were included. The mean heart rates of these patients prior, during, and after extraction were 88, 86 and 81, respectively. Two by two comparisons showed a significant decrease in the mean heart rate during extraction compared to the baseline and also after extraction compared to both before and during extraction (p < 0.05 for all three).
Despite the presence of sufficient local anesthesia and performing the extraction with the least trauma, a significant decrease in heart rate is evident.
Tooth extraction; Trigeminocardiac reflex; Bradycardia; Heart rate
To measure surface skin dose from various cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners using point-dosimeters.
Materials & methods
A head anthropomorphic phantom was used with nanoDOT optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters (Landauer Corp., Glenwood, IL) attached to various anatomic landmarks. The phantom was scanned using multiple exposure protocols for craniofacial evaluations in three different CBCT units and a conventional x-ray imaging system. The dosimeters were calibrated for each of the scan protocols on the different imaging systems. Peak skin dose and surface doses at the eye lens, thyroid, submandibular and parotid gland levels were measured.
The measured skin doses ranged from 0.09 to 4.62 mGy depending on dosimeter positions and imaging systems. The average surface doses to the lens locations were ~4.0 mGy, well below the threshold for cataractogenesis (500 mGy). The results changed accordingly with x-ray tube output (mAs and kV) and also were sensitive to scan field of view (SFOV). As compared to the conventional panoramic and cephalometric imaging system, doses from all three CBCT systems were at least an order of magnitude higher.
Peak skin dose and surface doses at the eye lens, thyroid, and salivary gland levels measured from the CBCT imaging systems were lower than the thresholds to induce deterministic effects. However, our findings do not justify the routine use of CBCT imaging in orthodontics considering the lifetime-attributable risk to the individual.
Skin dose; Cone-beam computed tomography; OSL dosimeters
Demineralization of the dental enamel is a finding associated with fixed orthodontic treatment. When an indirect bonding procedure is used in children and adolescents the area beneath the bracket base may be affected.
To evaluate if the addition of an extra layer of a hydrophilic resin, to a conventional indirect bonding protocol, can reduce the incidence of demineralization beneath the bracket base.
40 patients under 18 years of age were treated with completely customized lingual appliances. Two different bonding protocols were used either with or without the application of an additional layer of hydrophilic resin. Demineralization beneath the bracket base, after de-bonding, was evaluated by standardized intra-oral photographs.
The addition of an extra layer of a hydrophilic resin helps to reduce the number of demineralized areas beneath the bracket bases significantly (three times less). The severity of the few remaining defects were minor and without any clinical consequence.
When bonding a completely customized lingual appliance in children and adolescents, an extra layer of a hydrophilic resin should be added to the teeth.
To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature.
Material and methods
Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis.
The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%).
Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile.
Radicular cyst; Bacteria; Predominant; Culture
The purpose of this study was to identify possible dentoskeletal parameters associated with variation of anterior tooth inclination in Angle Class II subdivisions.
Pre-treatment lateral radiographs of 144 Class II patients (68 males, 76 females) aged 9 to 17 years were classified for upper incisor inclination into three groups (proclined, normally inclined, retroclined) homogeneous for gender and skeletal jaw relationship. The effect of age on the 22 cephalometric variables was controlled by covariance analysis.
Multivariate analysis of the cephalometric parameters indicated significant inter-group differences. Systematic associations with incisor inclination were revealed using rank correlation: Lower incisor proclination, Wits appraisal and gonial angle significantly decreased (0.04 ≥ p ≥ 0.002), while intercisal angle, mandibular total and corpus length and nasolabial angle increased (0.04 ≥ p ≥ 0.001) with decreasing incisor proclination.
Clear-cut classification criteria and control of confounding effects may clarify conflicting previous findings on dentoskeletal differences between Class II subdivisions in the mixed dentition. Only minor dentoskeletal differences appear to be associated with incisor inclination. The increased interincisal and nasolabial angle in Class II division 2 subjects are due to reclination of both upper and lower incisors. Jaw positions and chin prominence are not significantly different between the subdivisions. However, Wits appraisal is decreased in Class II division 2. The increased mandibular length observed in Class II division 2 requires further scrutinization.
Orthodontics; Cephalometry; Malocclusion; Angle Class II; Tooth inclination; Retrospective studies
The disease specific five-year survival rate especially for patients with advanced oral cancer has not improved significantly over the period of time. The most effective way of combating this dilemma is an early detection, diagnosis and eradication of early-stage lesions and their precursors. The use of VELscope® using an autofluorescence as a diagnostic tool might be useful in early detection of oral malignant lesions.
Materials and methods
120 patients with suspicious oral premalignant lesions were examined with two examination methods. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 was examined conventional with white-light and group 2 was examined additionally to the white-light-examination with an autofluorescence visualization device, VELscope®. Biopsies were obtained from all suspicious areas identified in both examination groups (n = 52). The diagnostic strategies were compared regarding sensitivity and specificity.
Based upon the result, use of the VELscope® leads to a higher sensitivity (22.0%), but regarding specificity the additional use of the VELscope® is inferior (8.4%).
The VELscope device is a simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa, which can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions.
Oral cancer; Autofluorescence; VELscope®; Early cancer detection
Recently, research has focused intensely on age-related tissue changes, not only in the field of dermatology but also in dental sciences. Although many new insights into age-related morphological, ultrastructural and biochemical changes in the periodontal ligament tissue have been gained, the basic question of whether there is a quantitative change in cell number remains unanswered or, at least to date, unpublished. Thus, the aim of this study was to detect age-related changes of the periodontal ligament regarding fibroblast density.
Material and methods
33 lateral tooth-bearing segments of the maxilla were obtained from deceased human individuals of different age, ranging from 7 to 63 years. The buccal segment of the periodontal ligament of the mesiobuccal root of the first maxillary molar was evaluated histomorphometrically to obtain the fibroblast density.
The results clearly indicate a steady and statistically significant decline of fibroblast number with age.
It may be concluded that fibroblast density in the physiological human periodontal ligament tissue decreases with age, thus causing an initial delay in physiological, pathological or externally induced processes that require remodeling of the periodontal ligament, e.g. traumatic occlusion or orthodontic tooth movement. It may be assumed that an orthodontic tooth movement in elderly patients requires more time in the initial treatment phase and should be done with lighter forces.
Fibroblast; Periodontal ligament; Aging; Human; Orthodontic
Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners.
Materials and methods
The sample comprised 100 patients (17–75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengths of a total of 1600 teeth were measured twice in pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs. Afterwards, relative changes of the root length during treatment were calculated by a root-crown-ratio taking pre- and post-treatment root and crown lengths into consideration. A reduction of this ratio was considered as a shortening of the initial root length. Additionally, tooth movements of the front teeth were assessed by lateral cephalograms and the 3-dimensonal set up of each patient.
All patients had a reduction of the pre-treatment root length with a minimum of two teeth. On average 7.36 teeth per patient were affected. 54% of 1600 measured teeth showed no measurable root reduction. A reduction of >0%-10% of the pre-treatment root length was found in 27.75%, a distinct reduction of >10%-20% in 11.94%. 6.31% of all teeth were affected with a considerable reduction of >20%. We found no statistically significant correlation between relative root length changes and the individual tooth, gender, age or sagittal and vertical orthodontic tooth movement; except for extrusion of upper front teeth, which was considered as not clinical relevant due to the small amount of mean 4% ARR.
The present study is the first analyzing ARR in patients with a fully implemented orthodontic treatment with aligners (i.e. resolving anterior crowding). The variety was high and no clinical relevant influence factor could be detected. A minimum of two teeth with a root length reduction was found in every patient. On average, 7.36 teeth per patient were affected.
Apical root resorption; Thermoplastic appliances; Aligners; Orthodontic; Tooth movement; Anterior crowding
We describe a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) associated with odontoma occurring in the posterior mandible of a 32-year-old man. Although calcifications are commonly found in the AOT, the presence of rudimentary dental structures is a very rare phenomenon. Cases with similar aspects have been described as ameloblastic dentinoma, ameloblastic odontoma, adenoameloblastic odontoma and AOT associated with odontoma. After a careful analysis of the literature we describe the clinical aspects of this tumor. Further case reports and surveys of odontogenic tumors are necessary to define whether AOT associated with odontoma is a variant of AOT or a distinct clinicopathologic condition.
Esthesioneuroblatoma (Olfactory neuroblastoma) is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the olfactory epithelium with bimodal age distribution between with first peak in second decades and second peak in sixth decade. Proptosis due to esthesioneuroblastoma is one of the rare causes. They have a long natural history characterized by frequent local or regional recurrence. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the imaging modalities for diagnosing these tumors. A multidisciplinary approach with surgery and radiation therapy is an excellent treatment options for these tumors with chemotherapy being used to treat advanced or recurrent disease.
Esthesioneuroblastoma; Olfactory neuroblastoma; Nasal cavity; Proptosis; Computed tomography
The aim of orbital wall reconstruction is to reestablish anatomically exact orbital volumes to avoid long-term complications. Navigation could facilitate complex reconstructions.
Quality of the orbital reconstruction (n = 94) was measured based on (A) volume changes and (B) on 3D shape deviations compared to the unaffected side. Volume analysis included segmentation of the orbital cavity in the pre- and post-operative 3D data set (VoXim®, IVS Solutions, Germany), and shape analysis was performed by vector-based 3D tools (Comparison®, 3Dshape, Germany).
Orbital volume of the unaffected side ranged from 26.6 ml ± 2.8 ml in male and 25.2 ml ± 2.6 ml in female (CT). Significant orbital enlargement was found in orbital fractures with involvement of the posterior third of the orbital floor and in comminuted fracture pattern. Reconstructed orbital volume ranged from 26.9 ± 2.7 ml in male and 24.26 ± 2.5 ml in female (CBCT). 3D Analysis of the color mapping showed minor deviations compared to the mirrored unaffected side.
Measurements demonstrate that even in comminuted orbital fractures true-to-original reconstruction is feasible.
Orbital fractures; Computer-assisted surgery; Orbital volume; Imaging analysis platform
A 2 Year old boy presented with painful ballooning of both eyes with the 2 days history of trauma to the head while playing. His vaccination was complete. On examination he was afebrile. The Eyes were ballooned with blackish crust over both lids. On local examination, eye swelling was tense with severe tenderness. The diagnosis of Preseptal cellulitis was made .We did an Emergency drainage and pus was sent for culture that came out to be positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis with multiple drug resistance. The coverage was given by Imipenem + cilastatin and child had wonderful recovery.
Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that arises in subcutaneous tissue, with that in the oral cavity extremely rare. We present a case of malignant OFMT in the tongue. A 26-year-old male noticed a painless mass in the tongue, which was extracted at a general hospital. Four years later, the tumor recurred and was resected at our department. Histologically, the recurrent tumor was composed of the closely packed cells positive for vimentin and S-100 proliferating in a nodular fashion. It showed high cellularity and mitotic activity. In the primary tumor, some tumor cells were arranged in a diffuse or cord-like manner within an abundant fibromyxoid matrix, along with a small amount of metaplastic ossification, corresponding with the histopathological characteristic of OFMT. Accordingly, a diagnosis of malignant OFMT arising in typical OFMT was established. This is the first reported case of malignant OFMT in the tongue. Long-term follow-up is needed for confirmation of prognosis and biological behavior.
Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor; Tongue; Malignant; Recurrence
Peripheral odontoma arising in the extraosseous soft tissues is rare and if not removed early, may enlarge over time and eventually erupt in the oral cavity.
A 15-year-old girl presented with “denticles on the gingiva”. During the intraoral examination, seven small tooth-like structures were found. These were exposed in the anterior left gingiva between the permanent maxillary lateral incisor and canine teeth, and the left first premolar was absent. Radiographic examination revealed irregular tooth-like structures without evidence of bone involvement.
The lesion was surgically removed, and the specimens were analyzed histopathologically. The diagnosis of compound odontoma was established.
This is the twelfth reported case of peripheral odontoma in the gingiva and the first one that erupted in the oral cavity.
Peripheral odontoma; Compound odontoma; Erupted
To assess the amount of maxillary and mandibular inter-radicular bone mass and determine the most reliable mini-screw placement sites.
Materials and methods
Retrospective Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images of 40 Angle Class I subjects (20 females, 20 males, aged 16 to 32) were obtained. Measurements on the buccal (BI), medial (MI) and lingual (LI) sides of the inter-radicular spaces were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mm from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) in an apical direction.
The male and female BI scores ranged from 2.99±0.73 mm to 6.18±1.03 mm and 2.69±0.84 mm to 6.21±1.22 mm respectively. The male and female MI scores ranged from 1.36±0.38 mm to 4.50±0.99 and 1.53±0.66 to 4.77±1.99 mm respectively. LI scores ranged from 2.37±0.70 to 6.47±1.0 mm and 2.45±0.56 mm and 6.66±1.33 mm respectively. In both maxillary and mandibular arch, the inter-radicular space increased in the apical direction except for the buccal and medial inter-radicular spaces between the maxillary first and second molars.
The medial inter-radicular spaces are the decisive parameter for mini-screw placement. In the maxillary arch, regions between central and lateral incisors, lateral incisor and canine, first and second molars are not viable for mini-screw insertion. The residual inter-radicular regions are proper for implantation at 3 mm above the CEJ. In the mandible, the regions between incisors and canines are too narrow for mini-screw insertion and the reliable sites for mini-screws are regions between premolars, molars or first molar and second premolar at 2 mm below the CEJ.