Significant restriction in the ability to participate in home, work and community life results from pain, fatigue, joint damage, stiffness and reduced joint range of motion and muscle strength in people with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis of the hand. With modest evidence on the therapeutic effectiveness of conventional hand exercises, a task-oriented training program via real life object manipulations has been developed for people with arthritis. An innovative, computer-based gaming platform that allows a broad range of common objects to be seamlessly transformed into therapeutic input devices through instrumentation with a motion-sense mouse has also been designed. Personalized objects are selected to target specific training goals such as graded finger mobility, strength, endurance or fine/gross dexterous functions. The movements and object manipulation tasks that replicate common situations in everyday living will then be used to control and play any computer game, making practice challenging and engaging.
The ongoing study is a 6-week, single-center, parallel-group, equally allocated and assessor-blinded pilot randomized controlled trial. Thirty people with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis affecting the hand will be randomized to receive either conventional hand exercises or the task-oriented training. The purpose is to determine a preliminary estimation of therapeutic effectiveness and feasibility of the task-oriented training program. Performance based and self-reported hand function, and exercise compliance are the study outcomes. Changes in outcomes (pre to post intervention) within each group will be assessed by paired Student t test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test and between groups (control versus experimental) post intervention using unpaired Student t test or Mann–Whitney U test.
The study findings will inform decisions on the feasibility, safety and completion rate and will also provide preliminary data on the treatment effects of the task-oriented training compared with conventional hand exercises in people with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis of the hand.
Arthritis; Hand function; Objects of daily life; Task-oriented training; Computer games
Some studies have suggested that the early sustained lung inflation (SLI) procedure is effective in decreasing the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) and improving respiratory outcome in preterm infants. We planned the present randomized controlled trial to confirm or refute these findings.
In this study, 276 infants born at 25+0 to 28+6 weeks’ gestation at high risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) will be randomized to receive the SLI maneuver (25 cmH2O for 15 seconds) followed by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) or NCPAP alone in the delivery room. SLI and NCPAP will be delivered using a neonatal mask and a T-piece ventilator.
The primary endpoint is the need for MV in the first 72 hours of life. The secondary endpoints include the need and duration of respiratory support (NCPAP, MV and surfactant), and the occurrence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
Trial registration number:
Sustained lung inflation; Preterm infants, Resuscitation; Delivery room; Mechanical ventilation
Anterior open treatment of the inguinal hernia with a tension-free mesh has reduced the incidence of hernia recurrence. The Lichtenstein procedure is the current reference technique for inguinal hernia treatment. Chronic pain has become the main postoperative complication after surgical inguinal hernia repair, especially following Lichtenstein. Preliminary experiences with a soft mesh positioned in the preperitoneal space (PPS) by transinguinal preperitoneal (TIPP) or total extraperitoneal (TEP) technique, showed promising results considering the reduction of postoperative chronic pain. Evolution of surgical innovations for inguinal hernia repair led to an open, direct approach with preperitoneal mesh position, such as TIPP. Based on the TIPP procedure, another preperitoneal repair has been recently developed, the transrectus sheath preperitoneal (TREPP) mesh repair.
The ENTREPPMENT trial is a multicentre randomized clinical trial. Patients will be randomly allocated to anterior inguinal hernia repair according to the TREPP mesh repair or TIPP procedure. All patients with a primary unilateral inguinal hernia, eligible for operation, will be invited to participate in the trial. The primary outcome measure will be the number of patients with postoperative chronic pain. Secondary outcome measures will be serious adverse events (SAEs), including recurrence, hemorrhage, return to daily activities (for example work), operative time and hospital stay. Alongside the trial health status, an economic evaluation will be performed. To demonstrate that inguinal hernia repair according to the TREPP technique reduces the percentage of patients with postoperative chronic pain from 12% to <6%, a sample size of 800 patients is required (two-sided test, α = 0.05, 80% power).The ENTREPPMENT trial aims to evaluate the TREPP and TIPP procedures from patients’ perspective. It is hypothesized that the TREPP technique may reduce the number of patients with any form of postoperative chronic pain by 50% compared to the TIPP procedure.
Current Controlled Trials:
Chronic pain; Inguinal; Hernia; Preperitoneal; Mesh; TREPP; TIPP; Open repair; Trial; Randomized
Patients with reduced responsiveness to clopidogrel often have diminished platelet inhibition, a factor associated with increased rates of major adverse cardiovascular events. Clinical trials that have focused on reducing high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) with an additional loading dose of clopidogrel have reported varying effects. Prasugrel, a newer thienopyridine, exhibits a more consistent antiplatelet effect and more rapid onset time when compared to clopidogrel. We hypothesize that prasugrel reloading would be more effective than clopidogrel reloading in patients with HPR after an initial loading dose of clopidogrel.
Comparison of Prasugrel and Clopidogrel Reloading on High Platelet Reactivity in Clopidogrel-loaded Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PRAISE-HPR) is a prospective, randomized, open-label, active controlled study. A total of 76 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), with HPR after administration of a loading dose of clopidogrel will be randomly assigned to either prasugrel or clopidogrel groups, and patients in each group will be reloaded with 20 mg of prasugrel or 300 mg of clopidogrel. The primary endpoint will be HPR at 24 hours after PCI, as determined by the VerifyNow assay during the study period. The rate of sustained high platelet reactivity and 30-day clinical outcomes will also be measured.
PRAISE-HPR is a randomized controlled clinical trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of reloading prasugrel and clopidogrel in suppressing residual high platelet reactivity. The results will be made publicly available in the year 2013.
Prasugrel; Clopidogrel; Acute coronary syndrome; Platelet reactivity
Chinese herbal medicine is one of the most popular Chinese medicine (CM) therapies for primary insomnia. One of the important characteristics of CM is that different Chinese clinicians give different prescriptions even for the same patient. However, there must be some fixed drug patterns in every clinician’s prescriptions. This study aims to screen the effective core drug patterns in primary insomnia treatment of three prestigious Chinese clinicians.
A triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial will be performed. Three clinicians will diagnose and treat every eligible patient individually and independently, producing three prescriptions from three clinicians for every patient. Patients will equally be randomized to one of four groups – medical group A, medical group B, medical group C, or placebo group – and observed for efficacy of treatment. The sample will include primary insomnia patients meeting DSM IV-TR criteria, Spiegel scale score >18, and age 18 to 65 years. A sequential design is employed. Interim analysis will be conducted when between 80 and 160 patients complete the study. The interim study could be stopped and treated as final if a statistically significant difference between treatment and placebo groups can be obtained and core effective drug patterns can be determined. Otherwise, the study continues until the maximum sample size reaches 300. Treatment of the CM group is one of three Chinese clinicians’ prescriptions, who provide independently prescriptions based on their own CM theory and the patient’s disease condition. Assessment will be by sleep diary and Pittsburgh sleep quality index, and CM symptoms and signs will be measured. Primary outcome is total sleep time. Assessment will be carried out at the washout period, weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4 and 4th week after the end of treatment. Effectiveness analysis will be per intent to treat. A multi-dimension association rule and scale-free networks method will be used to explore the effective core drug patterns.
The effective core drug patterns will be found through analyzing several prestigious CM clinicians’ treatment information. Screening the effective core drug patterns from prestigious clinicians can accelerate the development of new CM drugs.
Primary insomnia; Chinese medicine; Randomized controlled trial; Effective core drug pattern
Disappointing results from clinical trials of disease-modifying interventions for Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), along with reliable identification of modifiable risk factors in mid life from epidemiological studies, have contributed to calls to invest in risk-reduction interventions. It is also well known that AD-related pathological processes begin more than a decade before the development of clinical signs. These observations suggest that lifestyle interventions might be most effective when targeting non-symptomatic adults at risk of AD. To date, however, the few dementia risk-reduction programs available have targeted individual risk factors and/or were restricted to clinical settings. The current study describes the development of an evidence-based, theoretically-driven multidomain intervention to reduce AD risk in adults at risk.
The design of Body Brain Life (BBL) is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate a 12-week online AD risk-reduction intervention. Eligible participants with several modifiable risk factors on the Australian National University (ANU) AD Risk Index (ANU-ADRI) are randomly allocated to an online only group, an online and face-to-face group, or an active control group. We aim to recruit 180 participants, to undergo a comprehensive cognitive and physical assessment at baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up assessment. The intervention comprises seven online modules (dementia literacy, risk factor education, engagement in physical, social, and cognitive lifestyles, nutrition, and health monitoring) designed using contemporary models of health behavior change.
The BBL program is a novel online intervention to reduce the risk of AD in middle-aged adults at risk. The trial is currently under way. It is hypothesized that participants in the intervention arms will make lifestyle changes in several domains, and that this will lead to a reduction in their AD risk profile. We also expect to show that health behavior change is underpinned by changes in psychological determinants of behavior. If successful, the findings will contribute to the development of further dementia risk reduction interventions, and thus contribute to the urgent need to lower dementia risk factors in the population to alter future projections of disease prevalence. Longer follow-up of BBL participants and replications using large samples are required to examine whether reduction in AD risk factors will be associated with reduced prevalence.
Reg. no. ACTRN12612000147886
RCT; Alzheimer’s disease; Behavior change; Internet; Physical activity; Diet; Cardiovascular risk factors
Extraction of lower first permanent molars in children is common. There is uncertainty among clinicians as to whether a ‘compensating extraction’ (removal of the upper first permanent molar to prevent it over erupting) is necessary despite current guidelines recommending this. As a result, unnecessary dental extractions may be carried out or children may be failing to receive extractions required to achieve optimal long-term oral health. In addition, the decision to extract fewer or more teeth affects management options (local anesthetic injections alone, inhalation sedation or general anesthesia) needed to support the child with the surgical procedure(s).
The SIXES (Should I eXtract Every Six) dental trial investigates clinical effectiveness and quality of life for conventional treatment (following the guideline of compensation extraction of the upper first permanent molar) compared with the alternative intervention (removal of lower first permanent molars but no extraction of the upper).
This is a multicenter, two-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial. Allocation will be web-based randomization. Practitioners in primary and secondary care settings, reflecting the points of presentation and treatment of eligible patients, will recruit 400 children, aged 7 to 11 years requiring extraction of lower first permanent molars but who have upper first permanent molars of good prognosis. Baseline measures (prior to treatment) and outcome data (at one and five years, or when the patient reaches 14 years of age) will be assessed through study models and child/parent questionnaires.
The primary outcome measure is degree of tipping of the lower second permanent molar, (favorable outcome is tipping less than 15°).
The secondary outcomes are type of anesthetic/sedation used, residual spacing (between lower second premolar and second permanent molar), orthodontic treatment requirement, quality of life, and over-eruption in the intervention group. Assessors will be blinded where possible.
SIXES dental trial investigates whether compensating extraction of upper first permanent molars should be carried out following loss of lower first permanent molars. Currently dentists and orthodontists face a dilemma in clinical decision-making, relying on the lowest level of evidence - expert opinion. SIXES will provide evidence to support decision-making and inform practices and may result in reduced tooth extractions.
Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01591265
First permanent molar; Compensating extraction; Orthodontics; Pediatric dentistry; Primary care; Randomized control trial; Dental; Oral health-related quality of life
The RASCAL (Refractory Angina Spinal Cord stimulation and usuAL care) pilot study seeks to assess the feasibility of a definitive trial to assess if addition of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to usual care is clinically superior and more cost-effective than usual care alone in patients with refractory angina.
This is an external pilot, patient-randomized controlled trial.
The study will take place at three centers in the United Kingdom - South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (The James Cook University Hospital), Dudley Group of Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, and Basildon and Thurrock University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.
The subjects will be 45 adults with refractory angina, that is, limiting angina despite optimal anti-angina therapy, Canadian Cardiovascular Society Functional Classification Class III and IV, angiographically documented coronary artery disease not suitable for revascularization, satisfactory multidisciplinary assessment and demonstrable ischemia on functional testing.
The study will be stratified by center, age and Canadian Cardiovascular Society Functional Classification.
Interventions will involve spinal cord stimulation plus usual care (‘SCS group’) or usual care alone (‘UC group’). Usual care received by both groups will include consideration of an education session with a pain consultant, trial of a transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation, serial thoracic sympathectomy and oral/systemic analgesics.
Expected outcomes will be recruitment and retention rates; reasons for agreeing/declining participation; variability in primary and secondary outcomes (to inform power calculations for a definitive trial); and completion rates of outcome measures. Trial patient-related outcomes include disease-specific and generic health-related quality of life, angina exercise capacity, intake of angina medications, frequency of angina attacks, complications and adverse events, and satisfaction.
The RASCAL pilot trial seeks to determine the feasibility and design of a definitive randomized controlled trial comparing the addition of spinal cord stimulation to usual care versus usual care alone for patients with refractory angina.
Fifteen patients have been recruited since recruitment opened in October 2011. The trial was originally scheduled to end in April 2013 but due to slow recruitment may have to be extended to late 2013.
Randomized controlled trial; Pilot study; Refractory angina; Spinal cord stimulation
Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and thienopyridine is required after placement of coronary drug-eluting stents (DES) to prevent thrombotic complications. Current clinical guidelines recommend at least 6 to 12 months of treatment after a DES implantation, but it may be beneficial to apply dual antiplatelet therapy for a longer duration.
The optimal dual antiplatelet therapy (OPTIDUAL) study aims to compare the benefits and risks of dual antiplatelet therapy applied for either 12 or 48 months. We will examine the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with DES for the treatment of coronary lesions. The OPTIDUAL study is an open-label multicenter, randomized, national trial that will include 1,966 patients treated with DES. All patients will be treated with dual antiplatelet therapy for 12 months (+/− 3). Then, patients with no MACCE or major bleeding will be randomized to receive either 36 additional months of clopidogrel plus aspirin or aspirin only. The primary end-point is the combination of death from all causes, myocardial infarction, stroke and major bleeding. The secondary end points include the individual components of the primary end-point, stent thrombosis, repeat revascularization of the treated vessel and minor bleeding.
This randomized trial is designed to assess the benefits and safety of 12 versus 48 months of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients that receive a DES. We aim to determine whether substantial prolongation of clopidogrel (a thienopyridine) after DES implantation offers an advantage over its discontinuation.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00822536
Drug-eluting stent; Clopidogrel; Coronary artery disease; Stent thrombosis; Randomized clinical trial
Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design.
Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP).
The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component.
We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials.
Providing food through schools has well documented effects in terms of the education, health and nutrition of school children. However, there is limited evidence in terms of the benefits of providing a reliable market for small-holder farmers through “home-grown” school feeding approaches. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school feeding programmes sourced from small-holder farmers on small-holder food security, as well as on school children’s education, health and nutrition in Mali. In addition, this study will examine the links between social accountability and programme performance.
This is a field experiment planned around the scale-up of the national school feeding programme, involving 116 primary schools in 58 communities in food insecure areas of Mali. The randomly assigned interventions are: 1) a school feeding programme group, including schools and villages where the standard government programme is implemented; 2) a “home-grown” school feeding and social accountability group, including schools and villages where the programme is implemented in addition to training of community based organisations and local government; and 3) the control group, including schools and household from villages where the intervention will be delayed by at least two years, preferably without informing schools and households. Primary outcomes include small-holder farmer income, school participation and learning, and community involvement in the programme. Other outcomes include nutritional status and diet-diversity. The evaluation will follow a mixed method approach, including household, school and village level surveys as well as focus group discussions with small-holder farmers, school children, parents and community members. The impact evaluation will be incorporated within the national monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system strengthening activities that are currently underway in Mali. Baselines surveys are planned for 2012. A monthly process monitoring visits, spot checks and quarterly reporting will be undertaken as part of the regular programme monitoring activities. Evaluation surveys are planned for 2014.
National governments in sub-Saharan Africa have demonstrated strong leadership in the response to the recent food and financial crises by scaling-up school feeding programmes. “Home-grown” school feeding programmes have the potential to link the increased demand for school feeding goods and services to community-based stakeholders, including small-holder farmers and women’s groups. Alongside assessing the more traditional benefits to school children, this evaluation will be the first to examine the impact of linking school food service provision to small-holder farmer income, as well as the link between community level engagement and programme performance.
School feeding; Impact evaluation; Education; Nutrition; Agriculture
Bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis (CF) is being increasingly recognized in children and adults globally, both in resource-poor and in affluent countries. However, high-quality evidence to inform management is scarce. Oral amoxycillin-clavulanate is often the first antibiotic chosen for non-severe respiratory exacerbations, because of the antibiotic-susceptibility patterns detected in the respiratory pathogens commonly associated with bronchiectasis. Azithromycin has a prolonged half-life, and with its unique anti-bacterial, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties, presents an attractive alternative. Our proposed study will test the hypothesis that oral azithromycin is non-inferior (within a 20% margin) to amoxycillin-clavulanate at achieving resolution of non-severe respiratory exacerbations by day 21 of treatment in children with non-CF bronchiectasis.
This will be a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial involving six Australian and New Zealand centers. In total, 170 eligible children will be stratified by site and bronchiectasis etiology, and randomized (allocation concealed) to receive: 1) azithromycin (5 mg/kg daily) with placebo amoxycillin-clavulanate or 2) amoxycillin-clavulanate (22.5 mg/kg twice daily) with placebo azithromycin for 21 days as treatment for non-severe respiratory exacerbations. Clinical data and a parent-proxy cough-specific quality of life (PC-QOL) score will be obtained at baseline, at the start and resolution of exacerbations, and on day 21. In most children, blood and deep-nasal swabs will also be collected at the same time points. The primary outcome is the proportion of children whose exacerbations have resolved at day 21. The main secondary outcome is the PC-QOL score. Other outcomes are: time to next exacerbation; requirement for hospitalization; duration of exacerbation, and spirometry data. Descriptive viral and bacteriological data from nasal samples and blood inflammatory markers will be reported where available.
Currently, there are no published randomized controlled trials (RCT) to underpin effective, evidence-based management of acute respiratory exacerbations in children with non-CF bronchiectasis. To help address this information gap, we are conducting two RCTs. The first (bronchiectasis exacerbation study; BEST-1) evaluates the efficacy of azithromycin and amoxycillin-clavulanate compared with placebo, and the second RCT (BEST-2), described here, is designed to determine if azithromycin is non-inferior to amoxycillin-clavulanate in achieving symptom resolution by day 21 of treatment in children with acute respiratory exacerbations.
Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR) number http://ACTRN12612000010897. http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?id=347879
Amoxycillin-clavulanate; Azithromycin; Bronchiectasis; Placebo; Pulmonary exacerbations; Randomized controlled trial
There are high rates of treatment non-completion for personality disorder and those who do not complete treatment have poorer outcomes. A goal-based motivational interview may increase service users’ readiness to engage with therapy and so enhance treatment retention. We conducted a feasibility study to inform the design of a randomized controlled trial. The aims were to test the feasibility of recruitment, randomization and follow-up, and to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of the motivational interview.
Patients in an outpatient personality disorder service were randomized to receive the Personal Concerns Inventory plus treatment as usual or treatment as usual only. The main randomized controlled trial feasibility criteria were recruitment of 54% of referrals, and 80% of clients and therapists finding the intervention acceptable. Information was collected on treatment attendance, the clarity of therapy goals and treatment engagement.
The recruitment rate was 29% (76 of 258). Of 12 interviewed at follow-up, eight (67%) were positive about the Personal Concerns Inventory. Pre-intervention interviews were conducted with 61% (23 out of 38) of the Personal Concerns Inventory group and 74% (28 out of 38) of the treatment as usual group. Participants’ therapy goals were blind-rated for clarity on a scale of 0 to 10. The mean score for the Personal Concerns Inventory group was 6.64 (SD = 2.28) and for the treatment as usual group 2.94 (SD = 1.71). Over 12 weeks, the median percentage session attendance was 83.33% for the Personal Concerns Inventory group (N = 17) and 66.67% for the treatment as usual group (N = 24). Of 59 eligible participants at follow-up, the Treatment Engagement Rating scale was completed for 40 (68%). The mean Treatment Engagement Rating scale score for the Personal Concerns Inventory group was 6.64 (SD = 2.28) and for the treatment as usual group 2.94 (SD = 1.71). Of the 76 participants, 63 (83%) completed the Client Service Receipt Inventory at baseline and 34 of 59 (58%) at follow-up.
Shortfalls in recruitment and follow-up data collection were explained by major changes to the service. However, evidence of a substantial positive impact of the Personal Concerns Inventory on treatment attendance, clarity of therapy goals and treatment engagement, make a full-scale evaluation worth pursuing. Further preparatory work is required for a multisite trial.
ClinicalTrials.Gov.UK Identifier - NCT01132976
Drop out; Personal concerns inventory; Personality disorder; Treatment engagement; Treatment motivation
Reducing smoking prevalence is a public health priority that can save more lives and money than almost any other known preventive intervention. Internet interventions have the potential for enormous public health impact given their broad reach and effectiveness. However, most users engage only minimally with even the best designed websites, diminishing their impact due to an insufficient ‘dose’. Two approaches to improve adherence to Internet cessation programs are integrating smokers into an online social network and providing free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Active participation in online communities is associated with higher rates of cessation. Integrating smokers into an online social network can increase support and may also increase utilization of cessation tools and NRT. Removing barriers to NRT may increase uptake and adherence, and may also increase use of online cessation tools as smokers look for information and support while quitting. The combination of both strategies may exert the most powerful effects on adherence compared to either strategy alone.
This study compares the efficacy of a smoking cessation website (WEB) alone and in conjunction with free NRT and a social network (SN) protocol designed to integrate participants into the online community. Using a 2 (SN, no SN) x 2 (NRT, no NRT) randomized, controlled factorial design with repeated measures at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months, this study will recruit N = 4,000 new members of an internet cessation program and randomize them to: 1) WEB, 2) WEB + SN, 3) WEB + NRT, or 4) WEB + SN + NRT. Hypotheses are that all interventions will outperform WEB and that WEB + SN + NRT will outperform WEB + NRT and WEB + SN on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 9 months. Exploratory analyses will examine theory-driven hypotheses about the mediators and moderators of outcome.
Addressing adherence in internet cessation programs is critical and timely to leverage their potential public health impact. This study is innovative in its use of a social network approach to improve behavioral and pharmacological treatment utilization to improve cessation. This approach is significant for reducing tobacco’s devastating disease burden and for optimizing behavior change in other arenas where adherence is just as critical.
Smoking cessation; Internet; Adherence; Social networks; Nicotine replacement therapy
The concept of sentinel lymph node surgery is to determine whether the cancer has spread to the very first lymph node or sentinel node. If the sentinel node does not contain cancer, then there is a high likelihood that the cancer has not spread to other lymph nodes. The sentinel node technique has been proven to be effective in different types of cancer. In this study we want to determine whether a sentinel node procedure in patients with ovarian cancer is feasible when the tracers are injected into the ovarian ligaments.
Patients with a high likelihood of having an ovarian malignancy in whom a median laparotomy and a frozen section analysis is planned and patients with endometrial cancer in whom a staging laparotomy is planned will be included.
Before starting the surgical staging procedure, blue dye and radioactive colloid will be injected into the ligamentum ovarii proprium and the ligamentum infundibulo-pelvicum. In the analysis we calculate the percentage of patients in whom it is feasible to identify sentinel nodes. Other study parameters are the anatomical localization of the sentinel node(s) and the incidence of false negative lymph nodes.
Approval number: NL40323.068.12
Name: Medical Ethical Committee Maastricht University Hospital, University of Maastricht
Affiliation: Maastricht University Hospital
Board Chair Name: Medisch Ethische Commissie azM/UM
Sentinel node; Ovarian cancer
A growing population of patients lives with severe coronary artery disease not amenable to coronary revascularization and with refractory angina despite optimal medical therapy. Percutaneous reduction of the coronary sinus is an emerging treatment for myocardial ischemia that increases coronary sinus pressure to promote a transcollateral redistribution of coronary artery in-flow from nonischemic to ischemic subendocardial territories. A first-in-man study has demonstrated that the percutaneous reduction of the coronary sinus can be performed safely in such patients. The COSIRA trial seeks to assess whether a percutaneous reduction of the coronary sinus can improve the symptoms of refractory angina in patients with limited revascularization options.
The COSIRA trial is a phase II double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized parallel trial comparing the percutaneously implanted coronary sinus Reducer (Neovasc Inc, Richmond, BC, Canada) to a sham implantation in 124 patients enrolled in Canada, Belgium, England, Scotland, Sweden and Denmark. All patients need to have stable Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) class III or IV angina despite optimal medical therapy, with evidence of reversible ischemia related to disease in the left coronary artery, and a left ventricular ejection fraction >25%. Participants experiencing an improvement in their angina ≥2 CCS classes six months after the randomization will meet the primary efficacy endpoint. The secondary objective of this trial is to test whether coronary sinus Reducer implantation will improve left ventricular ischemia, as measured by the improvement in dobutamine echocardiogram wall motion score index and in time to 1 mm ST-segment depression from baseline to six-month post-implantation.
Based on previous observations, the COSIRA is expected to provide a significant positive result or an informative null result upon which rational development decisions can be based. Patient safety is a central concern and extensive monitoring should allow an appropriate investigation of the safety related to the coronary sinus Reducer.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier - NCT01205893.
Angina; Refractory angina; Advanced coronary artery disease; Myocardial ischemia; Coronary sinus; Reducer
Intraoperative arterial hypotension can lead to severe complications in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, in particular if cerebral auto-regulation is impaired. Short-acting agents, such as phenylephrine or ephedrine, commonly used to correct intra-operative hypotension, have different hemodynamic effects. Recently, it was reported that, in healthy anesthetized subjects with intact cerebral auto-regulation, frontal lobe cerebral tissue oxygenation declined after phenylephrine bolus administration, while it was preserved after ephedrine use (Br J Anaesth 107:209–217, 2011; Neurocrit Care 12:17–23, 2010). However, the effect of both agents in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy is unknown. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of two routinely used vasopressors (phenylephrine and ephedrine) on the cerebral hemodynamics during carotid endarterectomy.
Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy will be prospectively included and randomized for correction of intraoperative hypotension with either phenylephrine (50 to 100 μg) or ephedrine (5 to 10 mg). If hypotension persists for more than five minutes after treatment, the patient will be classified as a non-responder and escape medication as preferred by the anesthesiologist will be administered. Changes in cerebral hemodynamics will be quantified by changes in transcranial Doppler-derived middle cerebral artery blood velocity and near infra-red spectroscopy-derived frontal lobe cerebral tissue oxygenation, when intra-operative hypotension is treated with phenylephrine or ephedrine in patients who undergo carotid endarterectomy with or without an adequate functioning cerebral auto-regulation.
To quantify whether the intra-operative cerebral auto-regulation is impaired or not, a decrease in breathing frequency from the normal 12 breaths per minute to 6 breaths per minute for an episode of three minutes will be performed.
Phenylephrine and ephedrine are two of the most commonly used short-acting agents to increase blood pressure in clinical anesthesiologic practice. Monitoring of middle cerebral artery blood velocity with transcranial Doppler and frontal lobe cerebral tissue oxygenation with near infra-red spectroscopy are part of the standard of care. Furthermore, there are no reports that the three-minute modification in breathing frequency described in the “intervention”-section is harmful. Therefore, the risks for participating patients are negligible and the burden minimal.
Clinical trials.gov: NCT01451294
Carotid endarterectomy; Cerebral oxygenation; Intraoperative hypotension; Phenylephrine; Ephedrine
Partial pancreatico-duodenectomy (PD) is the standard treatment for tumors of the pancreatic head. Today, preservation of the pylorus has been widely accepted as the surgical standard in this procedure. A common postoperative complication is the occurrence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE), which causes impairment of oral intake andpatients’ quality of life, prolongation of hospital stay and delay of further treatment (for example adjuvant chemotherapy). In a small number of two retrospective and one randomized studies, a modification by resection of the pylorus with preservation of the stomach has shown to reduce DGE incidence. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of pylorus resection on postoperative DGE in PD.
Patients undergoing elective PD for any indication equal or older than 18 years and who have given informed consent will be included. Patients will be randomized to either PD with pylorus preservation or PD with pylorus resection and complete stomach preservation. Sample size (n = 89 patients per group) is calculated on an assumed difference in DGE incidence of 20%. Primary study endpoint is DGE within 30 days; secondary endpoints are operation time, blood loss, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay and quality of life (QoL).
DGE is a relevant clinical problem following PD with a great impact on patients’ recovery, length of hospital stay, QoL and consecutive adjuvant therapies. As there is no causal therapy, prevention of DGE is essential to improve outcome. The technical modification of pylorus resection may offer a simple and effective method for this purpose. The present study is designed to increase the existing body of evidence and potentially change the future standard surgical procedure of PD.
German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004191.
Partial pancreatico-duodenectomy; Pylorus preservation; Pylorus resection; Randomized trial
Eyes sustaining open globe trauma (OGT) is a group at high risk of severe visual impairment. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the commonest cause of retinal redetachment in these eyes and is reported to occur in up to 45% of cases. Intensive anti-inflammatory agents have been shown to be effective at modifying experimental PVR and to be well tolerated clinically.
The Adjuncts in Ocular Trauma (AOT) Trial was designed to investigate the benefits of using intensive anti-inflammatory agents (intravitreal and sub-Tenon’s triamcinolone, oral flurbiprofen and guttae prednisolone 1.0%) perioperatively in patients undergoing vitrectomy surgery following open globe trauma.
Patients requiring posterior vitrectomy surgery following open globe trauma will be randomised to receive either standard treatment or study treatment. Both groups will receive the standard surgical treatment appropriate for their eye condition and routine perioperative treatment and care, differing only in the addition of supplementary adjunctive agents in the treatment group. The investigated primary outcome measure is anatomical success at 6 months in the absence of internal tamponade.
This is the first randomised controlled clinical trial to investigate the use of adjunctive intensive antiinflammatory agents in patients undergoing vitrectomy following open globe trauma. It will provide evidence for the role of these adjuncts in this group of patients, as well as provide data to power a definitive study.
In order to avoid publication bias, all trials should be registered at initiation and their results made easily accessible. However, some trial results are more difficult to publish than others. This report describes one such trial and highlights the need for a way of making results of trials widely available even if not presented in the traditional format. Until such time as it is required by law both to register all trials and enter their final results into the database, a lack of resources will mean that some trial results are never published. The scale of the problem of non-publication is unknown and for valid trial results any form of publication is better than none. Therefore it is essential that a quick and easy way is available to act as a safety net to catch trial results that would otherwise be lost.
Publication bias; Randomized trial; Polycythaemia; Busulphan; Radioactive phosphorous; Venesection
Women who undergo radiotherapy for gynaecological cancer (GC) can experience distressing side effects which impact on psychosocial functioning and intimate relationships. Cancer-related distress may be ameliorated by comprehensive preparation for treatment and addressing women’s informational, physical, psychological and psychosexual needs. This paper describes the protocol for a multisite randomised controlled trial (RCT) testing a novel intervention package which combines tailored specialist nursing consultations and telephone peer support with the primary aim to reduce psychological distress. Secondary aims assess patient quality of life, symptom distress, unmet supportive care needs, preparation for treatment, psychosexual functioning and vaginal stenosis.
This multifaceted intervention comprises four nurse-led consultations coupled with four phone calls from a peer support volunteer (GC survivor). The evidence-based intervention will be delivered at critical points in the illness trajectory: pre-treatment, mid-treatment, treatment completion and post-treatment. Nurses and peers undergo 2-day intensive training workshops, are guided by comprehensive study intervention manuals and receive ongoing supervision and support. Eligible patients will have a diagnosis of GC, be scheduled to receive curative radiotherapy, be aged 18 years or over and speak English. Three-hundred and six participants will be randomized to receive usual care or usual care with the intervention package. Study outcome measures will be collected at baseline, day 1 of radiotherapy and 1, 6 and 12 months post radiotherapy. Clinical assessments of vaginal toxicity will occur at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months post radiotherapy.
This timely research has the potential to substantially reduce the physical, psychosexual and supportive care needs of women with GC. Using a telephone peer support model, the intervention package ensures equitable access to support services for geographically isolated patients. The novel intervention engages peer volunteers who liaise with nurses to encourage adherence to professionally-delivered information and provide emotional support. It has been designed to be potentially transferable to a range of treatment settings and diseases. Based on pilot data, the proposed intervention was found to be useful and acceptable to patients and clinicians. If effective and feasible in the multisite RCT, the program could be widely disseminated.
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12611000744954
Peer support; Nurse; Intervention; RCT; Gynaecological cancer; Radiotherapy; Distress; Quality of life; Psychosexual function
Investigators often face challenges when recruiting participants into randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Some data suggest that telephone reminders may lead to greater participant enrollment.
Patients aged 50 to 70 years from family practice rosters were initially mailed invitations to participate in an RCT of colorectal cancer screening. Patients who did not respond were randomly allocated to follow-up invitations by either telephone or mail four weeks after the initial invitation. The primary outcome was attendance for eligibility screening with the study nurse.
After mailing invitations to 1,348 patients, 104 patients were initially enrolled in the RCT of colon cancer screening. Of 952 patients who did not respond to the initial mailed invitation, we randomly allocated 480 to follow-up invitation by telephone and 472 to follow-up invitation by mail. Attendance for eligibility screening with the study nurse was more frequent when non-responders were followed-up by telephone (84/480, 17.5%) than by mail (43/472, 9.1%) (relative risk (RR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36 to 2.71, P < 0.001). Enrollment into the RCT was also greater among patients followed-up by telephone (59/480, 12.3%) compared to those followed-up by mail (35/472, 7.4%) (RR 1.66, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.47, P=0.01).
Telephone-based follow-up results in greater enrollment compared to a mail-based method. Our findings should be of interest to investigators conducting RCTs, particularly trials of screening interventions involving asymptomatic participants for which volunteer participation may be challenging.
Randomized controlled trial; Recruitment; Telephone; Mail; Colorectal cancer screening
The use of a drug-eluting balloon for the treatment of de novo coronary artery lesions remains to be evaluated. A previous trial in patients with stable and unstable angina comparing a bare metal stent mounted on a drug-eluting balloon with a sirolimus-eluting stent failed to meet the prespecified non-inferiority criteria versus the sirolimus-eluting stent. The stent struts of a bare metal stent pre-mounted on a drug-eluting balloon may prevent the appropriate delivery of drugs to the vessel wall and may result in reduced efficacy. In the present study we will therefore evaluate the efficacy of a drug-eluting balloon for treating de novo coronary artery lesions using a strategy designed to uniformly deliver drug to the vessel with a bare metal stent.
The Comparison of Drug-Eluting Balloon first study is a prospective, randomized, open-label trial designed to demonstrate the non-inferiority of first using a drug-eluting balloon (Sequent® please; B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) followed by a bare metal stent (Coroflex® Blue; B. Braun) compared with using a drug-eluting stent (Resolute Integrity™; Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) for de novo coronary artery lesions. The primary endpoint of the study is in-segment late loss at 9 months measured by quantitative coronary angiography. Secondary endpoints include angiographic findings such as angiographic success, device success, binary angiographic restenosis, and clinical outcomes such as procedural success, all-cause death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, target lesion revascularization, and stent thrombosis. A total of 180 patients will be enrolled in the study.
The Comparison of Drug-Eluting Balloon first study will evaluate the clinical efficacy, angiographic outcomes and safety of a drug-eluting balloon first followed by a bare metal stent compared with a drug-eluting stent for the treatment of de novo coronary artery lesions.
Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01539603
Drug-eluting balloon; Bare metal stent; Drug-eluting stent; In-segment late loss
Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioural activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study will examine the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. The added effect of providing a treatment rationale will also be studied, as well as a relapse prevention program featuring cognitive behavioural therapy components.
This randomised controlled trial will include 500 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomised to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with treatment rationale; (3) behavioural activation with treatment rationale; or (4) behavioural activation without a clear treatment rationale. Post treatment, half of the participants will be offered a relapse prevention program. Primary outcome measure will be the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item. Secondary measures include diagnostic criteria for depression, as well as self-reported anxiety, physical activity and quality of life. Measurements - done via telephone and the Internet - will be collected pre-treatment, weekly during treatment period, immediately post treatment and then monthly during a 24-month follow-up period.
The results of this study will constitute an important contribution to the body of knowledge of the respective interventions. Limitations are discussed.
Depression; Behavioural activation; Physical exercise; Treatment rationale; Relapse prevention; Internet-administered
Emergency abdominal surgery carries a 15% to 20% short-term mortality rate. Postoperative medical complications are strongly associated with increased mortality. Recent research suggests that timely recognition and effective management of complications may reduce mortality. The aim of the present trial is to evaluate the effect of postoperative intermediate care following emergency major abdominal surgery in high-risk patients.
Methods and design
The InCare trial is a randomised, parallel-group, non-blinded clinical trial with 1:1 allocation. Patients undergoing emergency laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery with a perioperative Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 10 or above, who are ready to be transferred to the surgical ward within 24 h of surgery are allocated to either intermediate care for 48 h, or surgical ward care. The primary outcome measure is all-cause 30-day mortality. We aim to enrol 400 patients in seven Danish hospitals. The sample size allows us to detect or refute a 34% relative risk reduction of mortality with 80% power.
This trial evaluates the benefits and possible harm of intermediate care. The results may potentially influence the survival of many high-risk surgical patients. As a pioneer trial in the area, it will provide important data on the feasibility of future large-scale randomised clinical trials evaluating different levels of postoperative care.
Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01209663
Emergency; Surgery; APACHE II score; Intermediate care; High-dependency unit; Postoperative care; Clinical trial; Randomised; Mortality; Length of stay