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Year of Publication
1.  The association between metal allergy, total knee arthroplasty, and revision 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):378-383.
Background and purpose
It is unclear whether delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions against implanted metals play a role in the etiopathogenesis of malfunctioning total knee arthroplasties. We therefore evaluated the association between metal allergy, defined as a positive patch test reaction to common metal allergens, and revision surgery in patients who underwent knee arthroplasty.
Patients and methods
The nationwide Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register, including all knee-implanted patients and revisions in Denmark after 1997 (n = 46,407), was crosslinked with a contact allergy patch test database from the greater Copenhagen area (n = 27,020).
Results
327 patients were registered in both databases. The prevalence of contact allergy to nickel, chromium, and cobalt was comparable in patients with and without revision surgery. However, in patients with 2 or more episodes of revision surgery, the prevalence of cobalt and chromium allergy was markedly higher. Metal allergy that was diagnosed before implant surgery appeared not to increase the risk of implant failure and revision surgery.
Interpretation
While we could not confirm that a positive patch test reaction to common metals is associated with complications and revision surgery after knee arthroplasty, metal allergy may be a contributor to the multifactorial pathogenesis of implant failure in some cases. In cases with multiple revisions, cobalt and chromium allergies appear to be more frequent.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.999614
PMCID: PMC4443448  PMID: 25582229
2.  Doubtful effect of continuous intraarticular analgesia after total knee arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):373-377.
Background and purpose
Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) is well established for effective postoperative pain relief in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). To prolong the effect of LIA, infusion pumps with local intraarticular analgesia can be used. We evaluated the effect of such an infusion pump for the first 48 h postoperatively regarding pain, knee function, length of stay (LOS) in hospital, and complications.
Patients and methods
200 patients received peroperative LIA and a continuous intraarticular elastomeric infusion pump set at 2 mL/h. The patients were randomized either to ropivacaine (7.5 mg/mL) or to NaCl (9 mg/mL) in the pump. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain (0–100 mm), analgesic consumption, side effects of medicine, range of motion (ROM), leg-raising ability, LOS, and complications during the first 3 months were recorded.
Results
On the first postoperative day, the ropivacaine group had lower VAS pain (33 vs. 40 at 12 noon and 36 vs. 43 at 8 p.m.; p = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively), but after that all recorded variables were similar between the groups. During the first 3 months, the ropivacaine group had a greater number of superficial and deep surgical wound infections (11 patients vs. 2 patients, p = 0.02). There were no other statistically significant differences between the groups.
Interpretation
Continuous intraarticular analgesia (CIAA) with ropivacaine after TKA has no relevant clinical effect on VAS pain and does not affect LOS, analgesic consumption, ROM, or leg-raising ability. There may, however, be a higher risk of wound-healing complications including deep infections.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.991629
PMCID: PMC4443449  PMID: 25428755
3.  Costs analysis and comparison of usefulness of acute MRI and 2 weeks of cast immobilization for clinically suspected scaphoid fractures 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):303-309.
Background and purpose
Fractures of the scaphoid are often not detected on initial plain radiographs. Conventional management of clinically suspected scaphoid fractures is cast immobilization for 2 weeks and then reassessment. Early MRI is a diagnostic alternative. We compared the cost and usefulness of the early MRI diagnostic strategy with that of conventional management.
Patients and methods
This prospective pseudo-randomized study included patients between 18 and 49 years of age who attended Bergen Accident and Emergency Department, Bergen, Norway during 1 year in 2009–2010, after sustaining an acute wrist trauma in the previous week and with a clinically suspected scaphoid fracture. 61 patients were investigated with acute MRI, while 63 patients received standard treatment as a control group. We used cost-minimization analysis to estimate the cost of the 2 patient groups.
Results
Concerning cost, there were no statistically significant differences in the total direct medical costs or in indirect costs between the groups. Concerning usefulness, patients in the MRI group without a fracture (n = 35) used a cast for fewer days (mean 1 day) than patients in the control group with no fractures (n = 52) (mean 14 days; p < 0.001). They had less than half the number of days on sick leave than patients in the control group (mean 7 days vs. 15 days; p = 0.002).
Interpretation
In a Norwegian setting, an early MRI was of value in patients with clinically suspected scaphoid fracture and normal plain radiographs.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.986627
PMCID: PMC4443450  PMID: 25409256
4.  The Kaiser Permanente Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):286-292.
Background and purpose
Shoulder arthroplasty is being performed in the United States with increasing frequency. We describe the medium-term findings from a large integrated healthcare system shoulder arthroplasty registry.
Patients and methods
Shoulder arthroplasty cases registered between January 2005 and June 2013 were included for analysis. The registry included patient characteristics, surgical information, implant data, attrition, and patient outcomes such as surgical site infections, venous thromboembolism, and revision procedures.
Results
During the study period, 6,336 primary cases were registered. Median follow-up time for all primaries was 3.3 years; 461 cases were lost to follow-up by ending of health plan membership. Primary cases were predominantly female (56%) and white (81%), with an average age of 70 years. The most common reason for surgery was osteoarthritis in 60% of cases, followed by acute fracture (17%) and rotator cuff tear arthropathy (15%). In elective shoulder arthroplasty procedures, 200 all-cause revisions (4%) were reported, with glenoid wear being the most common reason.
Interpretation
Most arthroplasties were elective procedures: over half performed for osteoarthritis. Glenoid wear was the most common reason for revision of primary shoulder arthroplasty in elective cases.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1024565
PMCID: PMC4443451  PMID: 25727949
5.  Good sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for detecting pseudotumors in 83 failed metal-on-metal hip replacements 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):339-344.
Background and purpose
Ultrasound is used for imaging of pseudotumors associated with metal-on-metal (MoM) hips. Ultrasound has been compared with magnetic resonance imaging, but to date there have been no studies comparing ultrasound findings and revision findings.
Methods
We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative ultrasound for detecting pseudotumors in 82 patients with MoM hip replacement (82 hips). Ultrasound examinations were performed by 1 of 3 musculoskeletal radiologists, and pseudotumors seen by ultrasound were retrospectively classified as fluid-filled, mixed-type, or solid. Findings at revision surgery were retrieved from surgical notes and graded according to the same system as used for ultrasound findings.
Results
Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 83% (95% CI: 63–93) and a specificity of 92% (CI: 82–96) for detecting trochanteric region pseudotumors, and a sensitivity of 79% (CI: 62–89) and a specificity of 94% (CI: 83–98) for detecting iliopsoas-region pseudotumors. Type misclassification of pseudotumors found at revision occurred in 8 of 23 hips in the trochanteric region and in 19 of 33 hips in the iliopsoas region.
Interpretation
Despite the discrepancy in type classification between ultrasound and revision findings, the presence of pseudotumors was predicted well with ultrasound in our cohort of failed MoM hip replacements.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.1001970
PMCID: PMC4443452  PMID: 25582840
6.  The incidence of late prosthetic joint infections 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):321-325.
Background and purpose
Late prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are a growing medical challenge as more and more joint replacements are being performed and the expected lifespan of patients is increasing. We analyzed the incidence rate of late PJI and its temporal trends in a nationwide population.
Patients and methods
112,708 primary hip and knee replacements performed due to primary osteoarthritis (OA) between 1998 and 2009 were followed for a median time of 5 (1–13) years, using data from nationwide Finnish health registries. Late PJI was detected > 2 years postoperatively, and very late PJI was detected > 5 years postoperatively.
Results
During the follow-up, involving 619,299 prosthesis-years, 1,345 PJIs were registered: cumulative incidence 1.20% (95% CI: 1.13–1.26) (for knees, 1.41%; for hips, 0.92%). The incidence rate of late PJI was 0.069% per prosthesis-year (CI: 0.061–0.078), and it was greater after knee replacement than after hip replacement (0.080% vs. 0.057%, p = 0.006). The incidence rate of very late PJI was 0.051% per prosthesis-year (CI: 0.042–0.063), 0.058% for knees and 0.044% for hips (p = 0.2). The incidence rate of late PJI varied between 0.041% and 0.107% during the years of observation without any temporal trend (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93–1.03). Very late PJI increased from 0.026% in 2004 to 0.056% in 2010 (IRR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02–1.20).
Interpretation
In our nationwide study, the incidence rate of late PJI after hip or knee arthroplasty was approximately 0.07% per prosthesis-year. The incidence of very late PJI appeared to increase.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1035173
PMCID: PMC4443453  PMID: 25813645
8.  Postoperative blood transfusion strategy in frail, anemic elderly patients with hip fracture 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):363-372.
Background and purpose
Hip fracture (HF) in frail elderly patients is associated with poor physical recovery and death. There is often postoperative blood loss and the hemoglobin (Hb) threshold for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in these patients is unknown. We investigated whether RBC transfusion strategies were associated with the degree of physical recovery or with reduced mortality after HF surgery.
Patients and methods
We enrolled 284 consecutive post-surgical HF patients (aged ≥ 65 years) with Hb levels < 11.3 g/dL (7 mmol/L) who had been admitted from nursing homes or sheltered housing. Allocation was stratified by residence. The patients were randomly assigned to either restrictive (Hb < 9.7 g/dL; < 6 mmol/L) or liberal (Hb < 11.3 g/dL; < 7 mmol/L) RBC transfusions given within the first 30 days postoperatively. Follow-up was at 90 days.
Results
No statistically significant differences were found in repeated measures of daily living activities or in 90-day mortality rate between the restrictive group (where 27% died) and the liberal group (where 21% died). Per-protocol 30-day mortality was higher with the restrictive strategy (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1–5.2; p = 0.03). The 90-day mortality rate was higher for nursing home residents in the restrictive transfusion group (36%) than for those in the liberal group (20%) (HR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1–3.6; p = 0.01).
Interpretation
According to our Hb thresholds, recovery from physical disabilities in frail elderly hip fracture patients was similar after a restrictive RBC transfusion strategy and after a liberal strategy. Implementation of a liberal RBC transfusion strategy in nursing home residents has the potential to increase survival.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1006980
PMCID: PMC4443456  PMID: 25586270
9.  Muscular forces affect the glycosaminoglycan content of joint cartilage 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):388-392.
Background and purpose
Unloading alters the thickness of joint cartilage. It is unknown, however, to what extent unloading leads to a loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the cartilage tissue. We hypothesized that muscle forces, in addition to axial loading, are necessary to maintain the joint cartilage GAG content of the knee and the upper and lower ankle.
Patients and methods
The HEPHAISTOS orthosis was worn unilaterally by 11 men (mean age 31 (23–50) years old) for 56 days. The orthosis reduces activation and force production of the calf muscles while it permits full gravitational loading of the lower leg. MRI measurements of the knee and ankle were taken before the intervention, during the intervention (on day 49), and 14 days after the end of the intervention. Cartilage segmentation was conducted semiautomatically for the knee joint (4 segments) and for the upper (tibio-talar) and lower (subtalar) ankle joints (2 segments each). Linear mixed-effects (LME) models were used for statistical analysis.
Results
8 volunteers completed the MRI experiment. In the lower ankle joint, differences in ΔT1 were found between the end of the intervention and 14 days after (p = 0.004), indicating a decrease in GAG content after reloading. There were no statistically significant differences in ΔT1 values in the knee and upper ankle joints.
Interpretation
Our findings suggest that in addition to gravitational load, muscular forces affect cartilage composition depending on the local distribution of forces in the joints affected by muscle contraction.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.989382
PMCID: PMC4443457  PMID: 25417835
10.  Direct anterior Hueter approach is a safe and effective approach to perform a bipolar hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):358-362.
Background and purpose
The direct anterior (DA) approach in total hip arthroplasty has recently been associated with faster functional recovery than the posterolateral (PL) approach. We hypothesized that the same should hold for the DA approach in bipolar hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures.
Patients and methods
82 patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture and candidates for bipolar hemiarthroplasty were enrolled after IRB approval in this prospective non-randomized comparative study (DA: n = 38; PL: n = 44). The postoperative protocols were similar in both groups. Evaluation included surgical complications, component placement, and early functional outcomes, assessed 6 weeks postoperatively using a timed up-and-go (TUG) test. The incidence of dislocation was assessed by telephone interview at least 1 year after the surgery.
Results
The DA-group patients had better results in the TUG test than the PL-group patients 6 weeks after surgery: half were under 19 seconds as opposed to only one third for PL (p = 0.06). We did not record any intraoperative femoral fracture or any lateral femoral cutaneous neuropraxia in the DA group. We observed a significant difference (p = 0.04) in lateral offset between the PL group (4.2 (SD 6.4) mm) and the DA group (−1.6 (SD 8.5) mm). Stem alignment was similar between groups. The dislocation rate for DA patients was lower than for PL patients (1 of 38 cases vs. 9 of 44 cases; p = 0.02).
Interpretation
Our findings indicate that relative to the posterolateral approach, the direct anterior approach for bipolar hemiarthroplasty may improve gait in the early postoperative period and decrease the dislocation rate.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.1002987
PMCID: PMC4443458  PMID: 25583401
11.  Collagenase treatment of Dupuytren’s contracture using a modified injection method 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):310-315.
Background and purpose
Treatment of Dupuytren’s contracture (DC) with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) consists of injection followed by finger manipulation. We used a modified method, injecting a higher dose than recommended on the label into several parts of the cord, which allows treatment of multiple joint contractures in 1 session and may increase efficacy. We studied the occurrence of skin tears and short-term outcome with this procedure.
Patients and methods
We studied 164 consecutive hands with DC, palpable cord, and extension deficit of ≥ 20º in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and/or proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (mean patient age 70 years, 82% men). A hand surgeon injected all the content of 1 CCH vial (approximately 0.80 mg) into multiple spots in the cord and performed finger extension under local anesthesia after 1 or 2 days. A nurse recorded skin tears on a diagram and conducted a standard telephone follow-up within 4 weeks. A hand therapist measured joint contracture before injection and at a median of 23 (IQR: 7–34) days after finger extension.
Results
A skin tear occurred in 66 hands (40%). The largest diameter of the tear was ≤ 5 mm in 30 hands and > 10 mm in 14 hands. Hands with skin tear had greater mean pretreatment MCP extension deficit than those without tear: 59º (SD 26) as opposed to 32º (SD 23). Skin tear occurred in 21 of 24 hands with MCP contracture of ≥ 75º. All tears healed with open-wound treatment. No infections occurred. Mean improvement in total (MCP + PIP) extension deficit was 55º (SD 28).
Interpretation
Skin tears occurred in 40% of hands treated with collagenase injections, but only a fifth of them were larger than 1 cm. Tears were more likely in hands with severe MCP joint contracture. All tears healed without complications. Short-term contracture reduction was good.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1019782
PMCID: PMC4443459  PMID: 25695745
12.  Adverse reaction to metal debris after Birmingham hip resurfacing arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):345-350.
Background and purpose
Concern has emerged about local soft-tissue reactions after hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA). The Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR) was the most commonly used HRA device at our institution. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) with this device.
Patients and methods
From 2003 to 2011, BHR was the most commonly used HRA device at our institution, with 249 implantations. We included 32 patients (24 of them men) who were operated with a BHR HRA during the period April 2004 to March 2007 (42 hips; 31 in men). The mean age of the patients was 59 (26–77) years. These patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum metal ion measurements, the Oxford hip score questionnaire, and physical examination. The prevalence of ARMD was recorded, and risk factors for ARMD were assessed using logistic regression models. The mean follow-up time was 6.7 (2.4–8.8) years.
Results
6 patients had a definite ARMD (involving 9 of the 42 hips). 8 other patients (8 hips) had a probable ARMD. Thus, there was definite or probable ARMD in 17 of the 42 hips. 4 of 42 hips were revised for ARMD. Gender, bilateral metal-on-metal hip replacement and head size were not factors associated with ARMD.
Interpretation
We found that HRA with the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing may be more dangerous than previously believed. We advise systematic follow-up of these patients using metal ion levels, MRI/ultrasound, and patient-reported outcome measures.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.1004015
PMCID: PMC4443460  PMID: 25582189
14.  Resurfacing shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritis 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):293-297.
Background and purpose
There is no consensus on which type of shoulder prosthesis should be used in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We describe patients with RA who were treated with shoulder replacement, regarding patient-reported outcome, prosthesis survival, and causes of revision, and we compare outcome after resurfacing hemi-arthroplasty (RHA) and stemmed hemi-arthroplasty (SHA).
Patients and methods
We used data from the national Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry and included patients with RA who underwent shoulder arthroplasty in Denmark between 2006 and 2010. Patient-reported outcome was obtained 1-year postoperatively using the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder index (WOOS), and rates of revision were calculated by checking revisions reported until December 2011. The patient-reported outcome of RHA was compared to that of SHA using regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and previous surgery.
Results
During the study period, 167 patients underwent shoulder arthroplasty because of rheumatoid arthritis, 80 (48%) of whom received RHA and 34 (26%) of whom received SHA. 16 patients were treated with total stemmed shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), and 24 were treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA). 130 patients returned a completed questionnaire, and the total mean WOOS score was 63. The cumulative 5-year revision rate was 7%. Most revisions occurred after RHA, with a revision rate of 14%. Mean WOOS score was similar for RHA and for SHA.
Interpretation
This study shows that shoulder arthroplasty, regardless of design, is a good option in terms of reducing pain and improving function in RA patients. The high revision rate in the RHA group suggests that other designs may offer better implant survival. However, this should be confirmed in larger studies.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1018761
PMCID: PMC4443462  PMID: 25673155
15.  Non-union in 3 of 15 osteotomies of the distal radius without bone graft 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):316-320.
Background and purpose
Open-wedge osteotomies of the distal radius create a void that is usually filled with either iliac crest bone graft or bone substitute. Previous studies have suggested that this is unnecessary. We investigated the safety of omitting the filling procedure.
Patients and methods
We included 15 patients with a dorsal malunion of a distal radius fracture. A palmar approach and angle-stable plates were used. The patients were followed until there was radiographic and clinical healing.
Results
Non-union occurred in 3 of the 15 patients. The study, which had been planned to include 25 patients, was then discontinued. 6 osteotomies created a trapezoid void (no cortical contact); 3 of these did not unite after the index procedure (p = 0.04), but did subsequently, after autogenous bone grafting. A trapezoid void was significantly associated with non-union (p = 0.04).
Interpretation
When a trapezoid defect is created, one should consider bone substitute or autogenous bone graft. This has been shown to be safe in other studies.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1007415
PMCID: PMC4443463  PMID: 25619425
16.  The “true” incidence of surgically treated deep prosthetic joint infection after 32,896 primary total hip arthroplasties 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):326-334.
Background and purpose
It has been suggested that the risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA) may be underestimated if based only on arthroplasty registry data. We therefore wanted to estimate the “true” incidence of PJI in THA using several data sources.
Patients and methods
We searched the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) for primary THAs performed between 2005 and 2011. Using the DHR and the Danish National Register of Patients (NRP), we identified first revisions for any reason and those that were due to PJI. PJIs were also identified using an algorithm incorporating data from microbiological, prescription, and clinical biochemistry databases and clinical findings from the medical records. We calculated cumulative incidence with 95% confidence interval.
Results
32,896 primary THAs were identified. Of these, 1,546 had first-time revisions reported to the DHR and/or the NRP. For the DHR only, the 1- and 5-year cumulative incidences of PJI were 0.51% (0.44–0.59) and 0.64% (0.51–0.79). For the NRP only, the 1- and 5-year cumulative incidences of PJI were 0.48% (0.41–0.56) and 0.57% (0.45–0.71). The corresponding 1- and 5-year cumulative incidences estimated with the algorithm were 0.86% (0.77–0.97) and 1.03% (0.87–1.22). The incidences of PJI based on the DHR and the NRP were consistently 40% lower than those estimated using the algorithm covering several data sources.
Interpretation
Using several available data sources, the “true” incidence of PJI following primary THA was estimated to be approximately 40% higher than previously reported by national registries alone.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1011983
PMCID: PMC4443464  PMID: 25637247
17.  The Cedell method (cerclage wire and staple) leads to less reoperations than the AO method 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):384-387.
Background and purpose
Fractures of the lateral malleolus often require open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Despite uneventful fracture healing, many patients will suffer from long-term detriments after ORIF, such as local tenderness that requires hardware removal. In Sweden, there are 2 major fixation methods, either the AO method (plate and screws) or the Cedell method (cerclage wire and staple). The purpose of this study was to establish whether there is a difference in extraction frequency between the 2 methods.
Patients and methods
We performed a retrospective comparative study of all isolated fractures through the lateral malleolus that were operated at Skåne University Hospital, Sweden, during the period January 2007 to December 2010. 347 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria (dislocated Weber B isolated fractures of the lateral malleolus) and were categorized according to fixation method. The numbers of reoperations, with preceding indication, were established from the charts. The median follow-up time was 59 (38–86) months after the primary surgery.
Results
22% of the 110 patients treated with the AO method underwent a reoperation, as compared to 8% of the 237 patients treated with the Cedell method (p < 0.001). The median time to extraction was 16 (4–55) months.
Interpretation
Less implant removal is needed with the Cedell method than with the conventional AO method. This favors the use of the Cedell method in uncomplicated Weber B lateral ankle fractures, provided that other clinical parameters are comparable.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.988526
PMCID: PMC4443465  PMID: 25417836
18.  The rate of prosthetic joint infection is underestimated in the arthroplasty registers 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):277-278.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1042320
PMCID: PMC4443466  PMID: 25909277
19.  Treatment of proximal humerus fractures in the elderly 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):280-285.
Background and purpose
There is no consensus on the treatment of proximal humerus fractures in the elderly.
Patients and methods
We conducted a systematic search of the medical literature for randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials from 1946 to Apr 30, 2014. Predefined PICOS criteria were used to search relevant publications. We included randomized controlled trials involving 2- to 4-part proximal humerus fractures in patients over 60 years of age that compared operative treatment to any operative or nonoperative treatment, with a minimum of 20 patients in each group and a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Outcomes had to be assessed with functional or disability measures, or a quality-of-life score.
Results
After 2 independent researchers had read 777 abstracts, 9 publications with 409 patients were accepted for the final analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between nonoperative treatment and operative treatment with a locking plate for any disability, for quality-of-life score, or for pain, in patients with 3- or 4-part fractures. In 4-part fractures, 2 trials found similar shoulder function between hemiarthroplasty and nonoperative treatment. 1 trial found slightly better health-related quality of life (higher EQ-5D scores) at 2-year follow-up after hemiarthroplasty. Complications were common in the operative treatment groups (10–29%).
Interpretation
Nonoperative treatment over locking plate systems and tension banding is weakly supported. 2 trials provided weak to moderate evidence that for 4-part fractures, shoulder function is not better with hemiarthroplasty than with nonoperative treatment. 1 of the trials provided limited evidence that health-related quality of life may be better at 2-year follow-up after hemiarthroplasty. There is a high risk of complications after operative treatment.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.999299
PMCID: PMC4443467  PMID: 25574643
20.  Fast-track pathway for reduction of dislocated hip arthroplasty reduces surgical delay and length of stay 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):335-338.
Background and purpose
Dislocation is one of the most common complications following hip arthroplasty. Delay until reduction leads to pain for the patient, and may increase the risk of complications. We investigated the safety aspect of a fast-track pathway for dislocated hip arthroplasties and evaluated its effect on surgical delay and length of stay (LOS).
Patients and methods
402 consecutive and unselected dislocations (253 patients) were admitted at our institution between May 10, 2010 and September 31, 2013. The fast-track pathway for early reduction was introduced on January 9, 2011. Fast-track patients with a suspected dislocation (with no radiographic verification) were moved directly to the post-anesthesia care unit and then straight to the operating room. Dislocation was confirmed under fluoroscopy with reduction under general anesthesia. Surgical delay (in hours), LOS (in hours), perioperative complications, and complications during the hospital stay were recorded. Dislocation status for fast-track patients (confirmed or unconfirmed by fluoroscopy) was also recorded.
Results
Both surgical delay (2.5 h vs. 4.1 h; p < 0.001) and LOS (26 h vs. 31 h; p < 0.05) were less in patients admitted through the fast-track pathway than in patients on regular pathway. Perioperative complications (1.6% vs. 3.7%) and complications during the hospital stay (11% vs. 15%) were also less, but not statistically significantly so. Only 1 patient admitted through fast-track pathway had a fracture instead of a dislocation; all the other fast-track patients with suspected dislocation actually had dislocations.
Interpretation
The fast-track pathway for reduction of dislocated hip arthroplasty results in less surgical delay and in reduced LOS, without increasing perioperative complications or complications during the patient’s stay.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1007416
PMCID: PMC4443468  PMID: 25619606
21.  Muscle atrophy and metal-on-metal hip implants 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):351-357.
Background and purpose
Muscle atrophy is seen in patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip implants, probably because of inflammatory destruction of the musculo-tendon junction. However, like pseudotumors, it is unclear when atrophy occurs and whether it progresses with time. Our objective was to determine whether muscle atrophy associated with MOM hip implants progresses with time.
Patients and methods
We retrospectively reviewed 74 hips in 56 patients (32 of them women) using serial MRI. Median age was 59 (23–83) years. The median time post-implantation was 83 (35–142) months, and the median interval between scans was 11 months. Hip muscles were scored using the Pfirrmann system. The mean scores for muscle atrophy were compared between the first and second MRI scans. Blood cobalt and chromium concentrations were determined.
Results
The median blood cobalt was 6.84 (0.24–90) ppb and median chromium level was 4.42 (0.20–45) ppb. The median Oxford hip score was 34 (5–48). The change in the gluteus minimus mean atrophy score between first and second MRI was 0.12 (p = 0.002). Mean change in the gluteus medius posterior portion (unaffected by surgical approach) was 0.08 (p = 0.01) and mean change in the inferior portion was 0.10 (p = 0.05). Mean pseudotumor grade increased by 0.18 (p = 0.02).
Interpretation
Worsening muscle atrophy and worsening pseudotumor grade occur over a 1-year period in a substantial proportion of patients with MOM hip implants. Serial MRI helps to identify those patients who are at risk of developing worsening soft-tissue pathology. These patients should be considered for revision surgery before irreversible muscle destruction occurs.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1006981
PMCID: PMC4443469  PMID: 25588091
22.  Anatomic shoulder replacement for primary osteoarthritis in patients over 80 years 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):298-302.
Background and purpose
Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) gives good outcome in the treatment of primary osteoarthritis, but it is not known whether this also applies to patients over 80 years old.
Patients and methods
We retrospectively assessed outcome in patients over the age of 80 after anatomic TSA, performed for primary osteoarthritis with a preoperative intact rotator cuff (group O, n = 32). We compared it with outcome in a group of patients under the age of 70 (group Y, n = 32). Subjective outcome, Constant score, and radiological findings were analyzed.
Results
At a mean follow-up time of 7 years, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. In group O, 24 patients were very satisfied and in group Y, 23 patients were very satisfied; the subjective shoulder value was 81% in both groups. Mean Constant score was 65 in group O and 67 in group Y. Moderate or severe radiological upper migration of the humeral head was detected in 1 patient in group O and in 3 patients in group Y. One patient in group Y was revised for glenoid loosening.
Interpretation
Good to excellent results can be expected after anatomic TSA in patients over the age of 80. Our findings suggest that they have similar results to those in patients around 70 years of age.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1006036
PMCID: PMC4443470  PMID: 25586167
23.  Why do we operate proximal humeral fractures? 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(3):279.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1042321
PMCID: PMC4443471  PMID: 25885421
24.  Yrjö Tapio Konttinen 1952–2014 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(2):145-146.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2015.1022103
PMCID: PMC4404763  PMID: 25708854
25.  The role of microbial biofilms in prosthetic joint infections 
Acta Orthopaedica  2015;86(2):147-158.
Abstract
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) still remains a significant problem. In line with the forecasted rise in joint replacement procedures, the number of cases of PJI is also anticipated to rise. The formation of biofilm by causative pathogens is central to the occurrence and the recalcitrance of PJI. The subject of microbial biofilms is receiving increasing attention, probably as a result of the wide acknowledgement of the ubiquity of biofilms in the natural, industrial, and clinical contexts, as well as the notorious difficulty in eradicating them. In this review, we discuss the pertinent issues surrounding PJI and the challenges posed by biofilms regarding diagnosis and treatment. In addition, we discuss novel strategies of prevention and treatment of biofilm-related PJI.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.966290
PMCID: PMC4404764  PMID: 25238433

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