Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. Epidemiological evidence indicates that microbial pathogens may contribute to cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans. However, the mechanisms whereby the parasite impacts cognition remain poorly understood. Animal models of T. gondii infection may aid in elucidating the underpinnings of cognitive dysfunction. Here, we (1) overview the literature on the association of T. gondii infection and cognitive impairment, (2) critically analyze current rodent models of cognitive deficits resulting from T. gondii infection, and (3) explore possible mechanisms whereby the parasite may affect cognitive function.
infection; immune system; kynurenine; learning and memory; gene–; environment interactions; Toxoplasma
In light of the evidence for brain white matter (WM) abnormalities in schizophrenia, study of normal WM maturation in adolescence may provide critical insights relevant to the neurodevelopment of the disorder. Voxel-wise diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have consistently demonstrated increases in fractional anisotropy (FA), a putative measure of WM integrity, from childhood into adolescence. However, the WM tracts that show FA increases have been variable across studies. Here, we aimed to assess which WM tracts show the most pronounced changes across adolescence.
DTI was performed in 78 healthy subjects aged 8–21 years, and voxel-wise analysis conducted using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In addition, we performed the first meta-analysis of TBSS studies on WM development in adolescence.
In our sample, we observed bilateral increases in FA with age, which were most significant in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and anterior thalamic radiation. These findings were confirmed by the meta-analysis, and FA increase in the bilateral SLF was the most consistent finding across studies. Moreover, in our sample, FA of the bilateral SLF showed a positive association with verbal working memory performance and partially mediated increases in verbal fluency as a function of increasing age.
These data highlight increasing connectivity in the SLF during adolescence. In light of evidence for compromised SLF integrity in high-risk and first-episode patients, these data suggest that abnormal maturation of the SLF during adolescence may be a key target in the neurodevelopment of schizophrenia.
adolescence; development; diffusion tensor imaging; superior longitudinal fasciculus; verbal fluency; working memory
The negative symptoms of schizophrenia include deficits in motivation, for which there is currently no treatment available. Animal models provide a powerful tool for identifying the potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the motivation deficits of schizophrenia with the aim of discovering novel treatment targets. The success of such an approach critically depends on meticulously detailed analysis of motivational phenotypes in patients and in animal models. Here, we review the results of recent human behavioral and imaging studies of motivation, and we relate those findings to the results from animal studies, including a mouse model of striatal dopamine D2 receptor hyperfunction. The motivational deficit in patients with schizophrenia is not due to an inability to experience pleasure in the moment as hedonic reaction appears intact in patients. Instead, the motivation deficit represents a reduced capacity for anticipating future pleasure resulting from goal-directed action. The diminished anticipation appears to be a consequence of an inability to accurately represent the expected reward values of actions. A strikingly similar phenotype in incentive motivation has also been described in mice with striatal dopamine D2 receptor hyperfunction. These convergent findings identify potential pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie the deficit in anticipatory motivation, and importantly, the mouse model provides a tool for investigating novel treatment strategies, which we discuss here.
negative symptoms; anhedonia; incentive motivation; animal models
: Evidence for the effectiveness of treatments for subjects at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for developing psychosis remains inconclusive.
: A new cognitive behavioral intervention specifically targeted at cognitive biases (ie, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [CBT] for UHR patients plus treatment as usual [TAU] called CBTuhr) is compared with TAU in a group of young help-seeking UHR subjects.
: A total of 201 patients were recruited at 4 sites and randomized. In most cases, CBTuhr was an add-on therapy because most people were seeking help for a comorbid disorder. The CBT was provided for 6 months, and the follow-up period was 18 months.
: In the CBTuhr condition, 10 patients transitioned to psychosis compared with 22 in the TAU condition (χ
(1) = 5.575, P = .03). The number needed to treat (NNT) was 9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.7–89.9). At 18-month follow-up the CBTuhr group was significantly more often remitted from an at-risk mental state, with a NNT of 7 (95% CI: 3.7–71.2). Intention-to-treat analysis, including 5 violations against exclusion criteria, showed a statistical tendency (χ
(1) = 3.338, P = .06).
: Compared with TAU, this new CBT (focusing on normalization and awareness of cognitive biases) showed a favorable effect on the transition to psychosis and reduction of subclinical psychotic symptoms in subjects at UHR to develop psychosis.
cognitive behavioral therapy; ultrahigh risk; cognitive biases; prevention; psychosis; schizophrenia
proteomics; proteome; mass spectrometry schizophrenia; pathways; systems biology
Objective: A history of childhood trauma is common in individuals who later develop psychosis. Similar neuroanatomical abnormalities are observed in people who have been exposed to childhood trauma and people with psychosis. However, the relationship between childhood trauma and such abnormalities in psychosis has not been investigated. This study aimed to explore the association between the experience of childhood trauma and hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in a first-episode psychosis (FEP) population. Methods: The study employed an observational retrospective design. Twenty-one individuals, who had previously undergone magnetic resonance imaging procedures as part of the longitudinal Northern Ireland First-Episode Psychosis Study, completed measures assessing traumatic experiences and were included in the analysis. Data were subject to correlation analyses (r and r
pb). Potential confounding variables (age at FEP and delay to scan from recruitment) were selected a priori for inclusion in multiple regression analyses. Results: There was a high prevalence of lifetime (95%) and childhood (76%) trauma in the sample. The experience of childhood trauma was a significant predictor of left hippocampal volume, although age at FEP also significantly contributed to this model. There was no significant association between predictor variables and right hippocampal volume. The experience of childhood trauma was a significant predictor of right and total amygdalar volumes and the hippocampal/amygdalar complex volume as a whole. Conclusions: The findings indicate that childhood trauma is associated with neuroanatomical measures in FEP. Future research controlling for childhood traumatic experiences may contribute to explaining brain morphology in people with psychosis.
psychosis; trauma; hippocampus; amygdala
Background: The “clinical high risk” (CHR) construct was developed to identify individuals at imminent risk of developing psychosis. However, most individuals identified as CHR do not convert to psychosis, and it is unknown whether these nonconverting individuals actually recover from an at-risk state.
Methods: Eighty-four prospectively identified patients meeting CHR criteria, and 58 healthy comparison subjects were followed in a 2-year longitudinal study. Analyses examined rates of conversion, clinical, and functional recovery. Proportional cause-specific hazard models were used to examine the effects of baseline and time-varying predictors on conversion and remission. Trajectories of symptoms and psychosocial functioning measures were compared across outcome groups.
Results: Competing risk survival analyses estimated that 30% of CHR subjects convert to psychosis by 2 years, while 36% symptomatically remit and 30% functionally recover by 2 years. Lower levels of negative and mood/anxiety symptoms were related to increased likelihood of both symptomatic and functional recovery. CHR subjects who remitted symptomatically were more similar to healthy controls in terms of both their baseline and longitudinal symptoms and functioning than the other outcome groups.
Conclusions: Nonconverting CHR cases represented a heterogeneous group. Given that nonconverted subjects who remitted symptomatically also presented initially with less severe prodromal symptomatology and showed a distinct normative trajectory of both symptoms and psychosocial functioning over time, it may be possible to refine the CHR criteria to reduce the number of “false positive” cases by eliminating those who present with less severe attenuated positive symptoms or show early improvements in terms of symptoms or functioning.
psychosis; prodrome; conversion; at-risk; schizophrenia; functioning
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6p21.3-22.1, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, as common risk factors for schizophrenia (SZ). Other studies implicate viral and protozoan exposure. Our study tests chromosome 6p SNPs for effects on SZ risk with and without exposure. Method: GWAS-significant SNPs and ancestry-informative marker SNPs were analyzed among African American patients with SZ (n = 604) and controls (n = 404). Exposure to herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Toxoplasma gondii (TOX) was assayed using specific antibody assays. Results: Five SNPs were nominally associated with SZ, adjusted for population admixture (P < .05, uncorrected for multiple comparisons). These SNPs were next analyzed in relation to infectious exposure. Multivariate analysis indicated significant association between rs3130297 genotype and HSV-1 exposure; the associated allele was different from the SZ risk allele. Conclusions: We propose a model for the genesis of SZ incorporating genomic variation in the HLA region and neurotropic viral exposure for testing in additional, independent African American samples.
HLA; gene; HSV-1; cytomegalovirus; schizophrenia; African American; kwd>
Background: People at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis have an elevated risk of developing a psychotic disorder, but it is difficult to predict which individuals will make a transition to frank illness. We investigated whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with a phonological fluency task at presentation could distinguish subjects who subsequently developed psychosis from those who did not. Methods: Sixty-five subjects (41 with an UHR and 24 healthy controls) were assessed at clinical presentation using fMRI, in conjunction with a verbal fluency task. [18F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) data were also available in a subgroup of 21 UHR and 14 healthy controls subjects. UHR subjects were followed clinically for at least 2 years. Results: Compared with UHR subjects who did not become psychotic, UHR subjects who subsequently developed psychosis showed increased activation in bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), brainstem (midbrain/basilar pons), the left hippocampus, and greater midbrain-PFC connectivity. Furthermore, exploratory analysis of [18F]-DOPA PET data showed that transition to psychosis was associated with elevated dopaminergic function in the brainstem region. Conclusions: In people at high risk of psychosis, increased activation in a network of cortical and subcortical regions may predict the subsequent onset of illness. Functional neuroimaging, in conjunction with clinical assessment and other investigations, may facilitate the prediction of outcome in subjects who are vulnerable to psychosis.
prodromal psychosis; schizophrenia; prefrontal cortex; dopamine; MRI; 18F-DOPA PET
schizophrenia; delusions; hallucinations
Background: Reliable prognostic biomarkers are needed for the early recognition of psychosis. Recently, multivariate machine learning methods have demonstrated the feasibility to predict illness onset in clinically defined at-risk individuals using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. However, it remains unclear whether these findings could be replicated in independent populations. Methods: We evaluated the performance of an MRI-based classification system in predicting disease conversion in at-risk individuals recruited within the prospective FePsy (Früherkennung von Psychosen) study at the University of Basel, Switzerland. Pairwise and multigroup biomarkers were constructed using the MRI data of 22 healthy volunteers, 16/21 at-risk subjects with/without a subsequent disease conversion. Diagnostic performance was measured in unseen test cases using repeated nested cross-validation. Results: The classification accuracies in the “healthy controls (HCs) vs converters,” “HCs vs nonconverters,” and “converters vs nonconverters” analyses were 92.3%, 66.9%, and 84.2%, respectively. A positive likelihood ratio of 6.5 in the converters vs nonconverters analysis indicated a 40% increase in diagnostic certainty by applying the biomarker to an at-risk population with a transition rate of 43%. The neuroanatomical decision functions underlying these results particularly involved the prefrontal perisylvian and subcortical brain structures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the early prediction of psychosis may be reliably enhanced using neuroanatomical pattern recognition operating at the single-subject level. These MRI-based biomarkers may have the potential to identify individuals at the highest risk of developing psychosis, and thus may promote informed clinical strategies aiming at preventing the full manifestation of the disease.
early recognition; psychosis; machine learning; magnetic resonance imaging; biomarkers
Background: Neuropsychological deficits predate overt psychosis and overlap with the impairments in the established disease. However, to date, no single neurocognitive measure has shown sufficient power for a prognostic test. Thus, it remains to be determined whether multivariate neurocognitive pattern classification could facilitate the diagnostic identification of different at-risk mental states (ARMS) for psychosis and the individualized prediction of illness transition.
Methods: First, classification of 30 healthy controls (HC) vs 48 ARMS individuals subgrouped into 20 “early,” 28 “late” ARMS subjects was performed based on a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Second, disease prediction was evaluated by categorizing the neurocognitive baseline data of those ARMS individuals with transition (n = 15) vs non transition (n = 20) vs HC after 4 years of follow-up. Generalizability of classification was estimated by repeated double cross-validation.
Results: The 3-group cross-validated classification accuracies in the first analysis were 94.2% (HC vs rest), 85.0% (early at-risk subjects vs rest), and, 91.4% (late at-risk subjects vs rest) and 90.8% (HC vs rest), 90.8% (converters vs rest), and 89.0% (nonconverters vs rest) in the second analysis. Patterns distinguishing the early or late ARMS from HC primarily involved the verbal learning/memory domains, while executive functioning and verbal IQ deficits were particularly characteristic of the late ARMS. Disease transition was mainly predicted by executive and verbal learning impairments.
Conclusions: Different ARMS and their clinical outcomes may be reliably identified on an individual basis by evaluating neurocognitive test batteries using multivariate pattern recognition. These patterns may have the potential to substantially improve the early recognition of psychosis.
individualized psychosis prediction; multivariate analysis; neurocognitive test battery
Speech of people with schizophrenia is often difficult to follow. There is evidence that neuropsychological deficits associated with schizophrenia explain some of the variance in speech disorder, but its nature and causes overall are not well understood. This study rated speech samples from 60 schizophrenic outpatients for thought disorder, conceptual disorganization, linguistic structural breakdown, and communication failure. A battery of neuropsychological tests potentially relevant to coherent speech production was administered, and associations between these variables and the speech measures were assessed. Consistent with previous research, the measure of functional effect, communication failure, was more highly associated with neuropsychological test performance than were the measures of putative cause: thought disorder, conceptual disorganization, or linguistic structural breakdown. Performance on tests of attention, immediate memory, working memory, organizational sequencing, and conceptual sequencing all were significantly related to the frequency of communication failures in the speech. In hierarchical regression, attention, working memory, and conceptual sequencing each contributed significantly and together explained 29% of the variance. Some other potential contributors to test in future research include auditory attention, internal source memory, emotional disturbances, and social cognitive deficits.
communication; thought disorder; cognitive impairment; language
schizophrenia; paliperidone palmitate; systematic review; meta-analysis
Latent infection with neurotropic herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV1), has been generally considered benign in most immunocompetent individuals except for rare cases of encephalitis. However, several recent studies have shown impaired cognitive functions among individuals with schizophrenia exposed to HSV1 compared with schizophrenia patients not exposed to HSV1. Such impairments are robust and are prominently observed in working memory, verbal memory, and executive functions. Brain regions that play a key role in the regulation of these domains have shown smaller volumes, along with correlation between these morphometric changes and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. One study noted temporal decline in executive function and gray matter loss among HSV1-exposed first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, a proof-of-concept double-blind placebo-controlled trial indicated improvement in cognitive performance following supplemental anti-herpes–specific medication among HSV1 seropositive schizophrenia patients. Cross-sectional studies have also identified an association between HSV1 exposure and lesser degrees of cognitive impairment among healthy control individuals and patients with bipolar disorder. These studies fulfill several Bradford-Hill criteria, suggesting etiological links between HSV1 exposure and cognitive impairment. Exposure to other human herpes viruses such as cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) may also be associated with cognitive impairment, but the data are less consistent. These studies are reviewed critically and further lines of enquiry recommended. The results are important from a public health perspective, as HSV1 exposure is highly prevalent in many populations.
cognition; schizophrenia; herpes; neuroscience; neuroimaging; HSV1
Objective: The corollary discharge mechanism is theorized to dampen sensations resulting from our own actions and distinguish them from environmental events. Deficits in this mechanism in schizophrenia may contribute to misperceptions of self-generated sensations as originating from external stimuli. We previously found attenuated speech-related suppression of auditory cortex in chronic patients, consistent with such deficits. Whether this abnormality precedes psychosis onset, emerges early in the illness, and/or progressively worsens with illness chronicity, is unknown. Methods: Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from schizophrenia patients (SZ; n = 75) and age-matched healthy controls (HC; n = 77). A subsample of early illness schizophrenia patients (ESZ; n = 39) was compared with patients at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR; n = 35) and to a subgroup of age-matched HC (n = 36) during a Talk-Listen paradigm. The N1 ERP component was elicited by vocalizations as subjects talked (Talk) and heard them played back (Listen). Results: As shown previously, SZ showed attenuated speech-related N1 suppression relative to HC. This was also observed in ESZ. N1 suppression values in CHR were intermediate to HC and ESZ and not statistically distinguishable from either comparison group. Age-corrected N1 Talk-Listen difference z scores were not correlated with illness duration in the full SZ sample. Conclusions: Putative dysfunction of the corollary discharge mechanism during speech is evident early in the illness and is stable over its course. The intermediate effects in CHR patients may reflect the heterogeneity of this group, requiring longitudinal follow-up data to address if speech-related N1 suppression abnormalities are a risk marker for conversion to psychosis.
psychosis; clinical high-risk; self-monitoring; forward model; corollary discharge
The links between infectious agents and risk for schizophrenia have been widely debated, but few investigations have focused on “epidiagnostic” effects, eg, whether exposures to infectious agents alter key clinical aspects of the disorder, such as cognitive impairment. The present theme issue evaluates epidiagnostic cognitive effects of two common infectious agents, namely Herpes Simplex Virus, type 1 and Toxoplasma gondii.
schizophrenia; cognition; herpes; virus; Toxoplasma gondii
The association between urbanicity and risk of schizophrenia is well established. The incidence of schizophrenia has been observed to increase in line with rising levels of urbanicity, as measured in terms of population size or density. This association is expressed as Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR), and the results are usually presented by comparing the most urban with the most rural environment. In this study, we undertook to express the effect of urbanicity on the risk of schizophrenia in a linear form and to perform a meta-analysis of all available evidence. We first employed a simple regression analysis of log (IRR) as given in each study on the urbanicity category, assuming a uniform distribution and a linear association. In order to obtain more accurate estimates, we developed a more sophisticated method that generates individual data points with simulation from the summary data presented in the original studies, and then fits a logistic regression model. The estimates from each study were combined with meta-analysis. Despite the challenges that arise from differences between studies as regards to the number and relative size of urbanicity levels, a linear association was observed between the logarithm of the odds of risk for schizophrenia and urbanicity. The risk for schizophrenia at the most urban environment was estimated to be 2.37 times higher than in the most rural environment. The same effect was found when studies measuring the risk for nonaffective psychosis were included.
schizophrenia; psychosis; review; urban environment
curious case; schizophrenia; aggression
Spatial working memory (WM) processing has 3 distinct phases: encoding, maintenance, and retrieval and its dysfunction is a core feature in schizophrenia. We examined phase-specific brain activations associated with spatial WM in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia (genetic high risk, GHR), ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects, patients with schizophrenia, and healthy controls. We used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 17 GHR subjects, 21 UHR subjects, 15 clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls, while subjects were performing a spatial delayed-response task. During the encoding phase, the GHR group showed increased activation in the fronto-parietal regions, whereas the UHR and schizophrenia groups showed significantly less activation in these regions than did the healthy control group. Especially, frontal activation was strongest in GHR subjects, followed by healthy controls, and occurred to a lesser degree in the UHR group, with the least activation occurring in the schizophrenia group. During the maintenance phase, the thalamus showed a differential activation, similar to frontal activation pattern during the encoding phase. During the retrieval phase, no prominent differential activations were found. Increased activations were observed in the superior temporal gyrus during the encoding and maintenance phases in the GHR, UHR, and schizophrenia groups relative to healthy controls. Our findings suggest that functional deficits associated with spatial WM processing emerge in the UHR before the onset of schizophrenia and compensatory neural processes exist in the GHR with genetic liability to schizophrenia.
spatial working memory; functional MRI; schizophrenia; first-degree relative; ultra-high risk
Impairment in everyday functioning (also referred to as “disability”) is a central feature of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder, as well as other neuropsychiatric conditions. There is a genetic contribution to both SZ and bipolar illness (BPI), and the primary putative determinant of impairments in everyday functioning across these 2 conditions, cognitive impairments, also show substantial heritability and in fact have been proposed to be endophenotypes for these disorders. In this article, we review data and make our case that impairments in functional capacity, the functional abilities that result in functional disability, may also be a heritable trait that is common across neuropsychiatric illnesses such BPI and SZ. While there has been little previous research on the heritability of these abilities, it is an area receiving substantial research attention. We consider advances in the measurement of cognitive functioning in SZ that may facilitate the discovery of genetic influences on functional capacity. Functional capacity measures are proximal to real-world impairments, measured with suitable psychometric precision to be used in heritability analyses, and appear to be minimally influenced by environmental factors that may cause disability such as environmental factors, symptoms, and disability compensation. Our conclusion is that these functional capacity measures have potential to be the target of genetic analyses and that these measures should be considered across neuropsychiatric conditions where impairments in everyday functioning are present.
schizophrenia; disability; endophenotypes
The N1 and the mismatch negativity (MMN) responses observed in electroencephalographic and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings reflect sensory processing, sensory memory, and adaptation and are usually abnormal in patients with schizophrenia. However, their differential sensitivity to ultra-high-risk (UHR) status is controversial. The current study evaluated the sensitivity of MEG N1m, N1m adaptation, and magnetic counterpart of MMN (MMNm) in 16 UHR subjects, 15 schizophrenia patients, and 18 healthy controls (HCs) during a passive auditory oddball task. N1m adaptation was assessed using the difference in N1m dipole moment between the first and last standard tones in a standard stimulus sequence. N1m adaptation occurred in HCs, whereas neither the UHR nor the schizophrenia groups showed adaptation to the standard tone on repeated presentations. The UHR group had values between those for HCs and schizophrenia patients. Additionally, MMNm dipole moment was reduced in both the UHR and patient groups compared with HCs, whereas the UHR and schizophrenia groups did not differ from each other. These findings indicated that both N1m adaptation and MMNm were altered in UHR subjects and in schizophrenia patients, despite unaffected N1m dipole moment to the first standard tones. Moreover, both UHR and schizophrenia groups failed to show adaptation of the N1m to repeated standard tones. This failure in adaptation was more severe in patients than UHR subjects, suggesting that auditory adaptation may be sensitive to the progression of the illness and be an early biomarker of UHR for psychosis. Deficits in auditory sensory memory, on the other hand, may be similarly impaired in both groups.
N1m adaptation; MMNm; magnatoencephalography; ultra-high-risk for psychosis; patients with schizophrenia
Background: Despite impressive advancements in early interventions in psychosis, there is an urgent need of robust neurobiological markers to improve the predictive value of psychosis transition. Available structural imaging literature in the field is undermined by several methodological caveats and a number of confounders such as exposure to antipsychotic treatment. Methods: Fourteen voxel-based morphometry studies of antipsychotic-naive subjects at enhanced clinical risk for psychosis (high risk [HR]) or experiencing a first-episode psychosis (FEP) were included. Formal meta-analysis of effect sizes and “signed differential mapping” voxel-based meta-analysis were combined to control the results for sample sizes, strength of individual findings, and confounding variables. Results: Formal effect size meta-analysis indicated consistent gray matter (GM) reductions both in subjects at enhanced clinical risk for psychosis and in first-episode subjects when compared with control groups. Voxel-based meta-analysis showed GM reductions in the temporal, limbic prefrontal cortex within the HR group and in the temporal insular cortex and cerebellum within the FEP group. Psychosis onset was characterized by GM decreases in temporal, anterior cingulate, cerebellar, and insular regions. GM alterations in the temporal regions directly related to severity of psychotic symptoms. There was no publication bias. Heterogeneity across studies was low. Sensitivity analyses confirmed robustness of the above results. Conclusions: Vulnerability to psychosis is associated with consistent GM decreases in prefrontal and temporolimbic areas. The onset of full disease is accompanied by temporoinsular, anterior cingulate, and cerebellar GM reductions. Neuroanatomical alterations in temporal regions may underlie the clinical onset of psychotic symptoms.
neuroimaging; psychosis; MRI; VBM; high risk; first episode; prodromal; schizophrenia; dopamine