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1.  The Wisdom of Crowds (Vox Populi) and Antidepressant Use 
Under certain conditions, groups of people may (collectively) make better judgments than experts. Galton connected this phenomenon to the phrase vox populi in a 1907 paper. Arguably, an example of the phenomenon may be found in recent stabilization of the frequency of antidepressant use, following decades of increases. There is no evidence that a change in physi-cian behaviour has caused this stabilization. The stable frequency more likely reflects decisions made by thousands of individual people based on their personal experiences. This may provide a statement from the vox populi on an optimal frequency of antidepressant use in contemporary populations under current conditions, a topic that has eluded the consensus of experts.
doi:10.2174/1745017901510011001
PMCID: PMC4321202
Antidepressant medications; major depression; medication use; monitoring; pharmacoepidemiology; population health.
2.  The Impact of Peplau's Therapeutic Communication Model on Anxiety and Depression in Patients Candidate for Coronary Artery Bypass 
Background and Objective:
Anxiety and depression are among the psychological disorders in heart surgeries. Establishing a simple communication is essential to reduce anxiety and depression. Hence, the objective of the present studywas to examine the impact of Peplau therapeutic communication model on anxiety and depression in patients, who were candidate for coronary artery bypass in Al-Zahra Heart Hospital, Shiraz during 2012-2013.
Methods:
This is a clinical trial in which 74 patients were randomly divided into intervention and control groups, each consisted of 37 patients. Anxiety and depression levels were assessed before, and two and four months after intervention using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Seven therapeutic communication sessions were held in four stages. Data were analyzed with the SPSS (version 16) using analysis of covariance.
Results:
The mean anxiety and depression levels decreased in the intervention group after the therapeutic communication (p<0.01). Anxiety scores in the intervention group before and after intervention were 10.23 and 9.38, respectively. While the corresponding scores in the control group were 10.26 and 11.62, respectively. Depression scores in the intervention group before and after intervention were 11 and 9.13, respectively. The corresponding scores in the control group were 11.30 and 12.08, respectively.
Conclusion:
The results demonstrated the positive role of therapeutic communication in reducing anxiety and depression of the patients. Therefore, the therapeutic communication is recommended as a simple, cost effective and efficient method in this area.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010159
PMCID: PMC4262794  PMID: 25505931
Anxiety; communication; coronary artery bypass surgery; depression; Peplau; therapeutic communication.
3.  Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders 
In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010140
PMCID: PMC4258697  PMID: 25493093
Bipolar disorder; combined treatment; dysthymic disorder; major depressive disorder; psychotherapy.
4.  The Use of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale in a Population of Teenager Pregnant Women in Mexico: A Validation Study 
Background
:Depression may occur in teenager pregnant women. The use of a validated tool for screening depression is highly recommended. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) is a screening tool for depression used in women during the postnatal period and pregnancy. However, the EPDS has not been validated in teenager pregnant women. Therefore, we sought to validate a Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS in a population of teenager pregnant women. Methods: One hundred and twenty teenager pregnant women attending routine prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico participated in the study. All participants submitted a revised Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS and were examined by a psychiatrist to evaluate the presence of depression by using DSM-IV criteria. Results: Of the 120 teenager pregnant women studied, 2 had major depression and 25 had minor depression according to the DSM-IV criteria. The optimal EPDS cut-off for screening combined major and minor depression in teenager pregnant women was 8/9. At this threshold, we found a sensitivity of 70.4%, a specificity of 84.9%, a positive predictive value of 47.6%, a negative predictive value of 91.0%, and an area under the curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.07). Conclusion: The EPDS can be used for screening depression in Mexican teenager pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010129
PMCID: PMC4258699  PMID: 25493092
Cut off; depression scale; epidemiology; pregnancy; screening; validation.
5.  Medical Patients’ Treatment Decision Making Capacity: A Report from a General Hospital in Greece 
This study aimed to assess the decision-making capacity for treatment of patients hospitalized in an internal medicine ward of a General Hospital in Greece, and to examine the views of treating physicians regarding patients’ capacity. All consecutive admissions to an internal medicine ward within a month were evaluated. A total of 134 patients were approached and 78 patients were interviewed with the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) questionnaire. Sixty-eight out of 134 patients (50.7%) were incompetent to decide upon their treatment. The majority of them (n=56, 41.8%) were obviously incapable because they were unconscious, or had such marked impairment that they could not give their own names, and the rest (n=12, 8.9%) were rated as incompetent according to their performance in the MacCAT-T. Neurological disorders, old age and altered cognitive function according to MMSE were negatively correlated with decision making capacity. Physicians sometimes failed to recognize patients’ incapacity. Rates of decision-making incapacity for treatment in medical inpatients are high, and incapacity may go unrecognized by treating physicians. Combined patient evaluation with the use of the MacCAT-T and MMSE, could be useful for the determination of incapable patients.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010133
PMCID: PMC4260233  PMID: 25505489
Decision-making capacity for treatment; informed consent; MacCAT-T; medical patients.
6.  Effects of Chronic Exercise on Severity, Quality of Life and Functionality in an Elderly Parkinson’s Disease Patient: Case Report 
Exercise produces potential influences on physical and mental capacity in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, and can be made a viable form of therapy to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD). We report the chronic effects of a regular physical exercise protocol on cognitive and motor functions, functional capacity, and symptoms in an elderly PD patient without dementia. The patient participated of a program composed of proprioceptive, aerobic and flexibility exercises, during 1 hour, three days a week, for nine months. Patient used 600 mg of L-DOPA daily, and 1 hour prior to each exercise session. Assessment was conducted in three stages, 0-3, 3-6 and 6 to 9 months, using percentual variation to the scales Hoehn and Yahr, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Parkinson Activity Scale (PAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III). Reassessment showed clear changes in clinical parameters for Hoehn and Yahr (4 to 2.5), MMSE (14 to 22), PAS (13 to 29), BDI (9 to 7) and UPDRS-III (39 to 27) at the end of 9 months. According to our data, exercise seems to be effective in promoting the functional capacity and the maintenance of cognitive and motor functions of PD patients. Regular exercise protocols can be implemented as an adjunctive treatment for reducing the severity of PD.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010126
PMCID: PMC4238027  PMID: 25419223
Exercise; functional capacity; Parkinson’s disease; severity.
7.  Childhood Adversities and Traumata in Lebanon: A National Study 
Background: The goal of this paper is to map the total occurrence and evaluate the risk of co-occurrence of childhood adversities (CA) and a wide variety of childhood traumatic events (including war) in a national sample. Method: The nationally representative sample included 2,857 respondents and the instrument used was the Composite International Diagnostic Interview which screened for all CAs and traumatic events. Results: 27.9% experienced CAs; the most common were parental death and parental mental/substance use disorder. 70.6% experienced a war-related traumatic event during their lifetime, and around half of them (38.1%) experienced it below the age of 18 years. 51.3% of the subjects experienced a traumatic event not related to war during their lifetime, and 19.2% experienced it before the age of 18 years. Sexual abuse, being a refugee during war, and experiencing a natural disaster were associated with female gender. Having any CA was associated with active war exposure (OR: 4.2, CI: 2.0-8.6); war-related direct personal trauma (OR: 3.9, CI: 1.5-10.0); war-related trauma to others (OR: 2.4, CI: 1.3-4.4); non-war direct personal trauma (OR: 3.8, CI: 2.0-7.4); and any non-war childhood traumatic event (OR: 1.9, CI: 1.1-3.1). Conclusion:Childhood is awash with adversities and traumatic events that co-occur and should be measured simultaneously; otherwise, the effects of a subset of traumata or adversities could be wrongly thought to be the contributor to negative outcomes under study.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010116
PMCID: PMC4211136  PMID: 25356085
Adolescence; Childhood; Childhood adversities; Lebanon; Traumatic events; War trauma.
8.  Built Environment and Elderly Population Health: A Comprehensive Literature Review 
Global population aging over recent years has been linked to poorer health outcomes and higher healthcare expenditure. Policies focusing on healthy aging are currently being developed but a complete understanding of health determinants is needed to guide these efforts. The built environment and other external factors have been added to the International Classification of Functioning as important determinants of health and disability. Although the relationship between the built environment and health has been widely examined in working age adults, research focusing on elderly people is relatively recent. In this review, we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the evidence on the built environment and health in the elderly.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010103
PMCID: PMC4211137  PMID: 25356084
Built environment; elderly people; literature review; mental health; physical health; quality of life; well-being.
9.  Transcranial Brain Stimulation Techniques For Major Depression: Should We Extend TMS Lessons to tDCS? 
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive brain stimulation techniques that, by means of magnetic fields and low intensity electrical current, respectively, aim to interefere with and modulate cortical excitability, at the level of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, in patients with major depression and poor response to standard antidepressants. While the clinical efficacy of TMS in major depression has been extensively investigated over the last 10 years, tDCS has attracted research interest only in the last years, with fewer randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in the field. Nevertheless, in spite of the different rationale and mechanism of action of the two techniques, tDCS recent acquisitions, in relation to the treatment of major depression, seem to parallel those previously obtained with TMS, in terms of treatment duration to achieve optimal benefit and patient's history of drug-resistance. After briefly introducing the two techniques, the article examines possible common pathways of clinical use for TMS and tDCS, emerging from recent RCTs and likely orienting future investigation with non invasive brain stimulation for the treatment of major depression.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010092
PMCID: PMC4192830  PMID: 25317200
Brain stimulation; major depression; transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).
10.  Clinical and Organizational Factors Related to the Reduction of Mechanical Restraint Application in an Acute Ward: An 8-Year Retrospective Analysis 
Background:
The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency of mechanical restraint use in an acute psychiatric ward and to analyze which variables may have significantly influenced the use of this procedure. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Servizio Psichiatrico di Diagnosi e Cura (SPDC) of Modena Centro. The following variables of our sample, represented by all restrained patients admitted from 1-1-2005 to 31-12-2012, were analyzed: age, gender, nationality, psychiatric diagnoses, organic comorbidity, state and duration of admission, motivation and duration of restraints, nursing shift and hospitalization day of restraint, number of patients admitted at the time of restraint and institutional changes during the observation period. The above variables were statistically compared with those of all other non-restrained patients admitted to our ward in the same period. Results: Mechanical restraints were primarily used as a safety procedure to manage aggressive behavior of male patients, during the first days of hospitalization and night shifts. Neurocognitive disorders, organic comorbidity, compulsory state and long duration of admission were statistically significantly related to the increase of restraint use (p<.001, multivariate logistic regression). Institutional changes, especially more restricted guidelines concerning restraint application, were statistically significantly related to restraint use reduction (p<.001, chi2 test, multivariate logistic regression). Conclusion: The data obtained highlight that mechanical restraint use was influenced not only by clinical factors, but mainly by staff and policy factors, which have permitted a gradual but significant reduction in the use of this procedure through a multidimensional approach.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010094
PMCID: PMC4196251  PMID: 25320635
Acute psychiatric ward; clinical factors; mechanical restraints; organizational factors; reduced application; retrospective analysis.
11.  Absence of Positive Results for Flexible Assertive Community Treatment. What is the next Approach? 
Aims were to review results of the five psychiatric studies on Flexible Assertive Community Treatment (FACT) published during 2007-2013, and to compare FACT with Resource-group Assertive Community Treatment (RACT) which specifically focuses on empowerment and rehabilitation of clients in the stable phase. During 2007 articles appeared in scientific journals arguing in favor of the need for the development of the treatment method Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). A particularly notable article was one that featured a Dutch version of ACT, namely FACT. The initiative received great sympathy given that clinical practice and research showed that both American and British versions of ACT were in need of new impulses to be able to maintain an optimal level of care. Seven years have passed since the Dutch model was international presented and five empirical studies about FACT have been published and therefore a first critical examination of FACT was conducted. The review indicated that the five empirical studies failed to show that FACT involves improvement of the clients in terms of symptoms, functioning, or well-being. The conclusions were that at present there is no evidence for FACT and that RACT with its small, flexible ACT teams, where the client him/herself is included and decides on the treatment goals, might be able to provide new impulses and a new vitality to the treatment mode of an assertive community treatment.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010087
PMCID: PMC4197527  PMID: 25320634
Assertive community treatment; assertive outreach; FACT; optimal treatment; RACT; resource group.
12.  Sailing for Rehabilitation of Patients with Severe Mental Disorders: Results of a Cross Over Randomized Controlled Trial 
This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of a sailing and learning-to-sail rehabilitation protocol in a sample of patients diagnosed with severe mental disorders. The study was a randomized, crossover, waiting-list controlled trial, following recruitment in the Departments of Mental Health of South Sardinia. Participants were outpatients diagnosed with severe mental disorders, recruited through announcements to the directors of the Departments of Mental Health of South Sardinia. Out of the 40 patients enrolled in the study, those exposed to rehabilitation with sailing during a series of guided and supervised sea expeditions near the beach of Cagliari (Sardinia), where the aim to explore the marine environment while sailing was emphasized, showed a statistically significant improvement of their clinical status (measured by BPRS) and, as well, of their general functioning (measured by HoNOS Scale) against the control group. The improvement was maintained at follow-up for some months only: after 12 months, the patients returned to their baseline values on the measures of psychopathology and showed a worsening trend of their quality of life. Sailing can represent a substitute of important experiences that the patients with severe mental disorders miss because of their illness.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010073
PMCID: PMC4150377  PMID: 25191520
Bipolar disorder; quality of life; rehabilitation; sailing; Schizophrenia.
13.  Sailing Can Improve Quality of Life of People with Severe Mental Disorders: Results of a Cross Over Randomized Controlled Trial 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a sailing rehabilitation program on the quality of life (QoL) in a sample of patients with severe mental disorders. The study adopted a randomized, crossover, waiting-list controlled design. The participants enrolled in the study were outpatients diagnosed with severe chronic mental disorders. The participants (N=40) exposed to rehabilitation with sailing took part in a series of supervised cruises near the gulf of Cagliari, South Sardinia, and showed a statistically significant improvement of their quality of life compared to the control group. This improvement was comparable to the improvement in psychopathologic status and social functioning as shown in a previous report of the same research project. The improvement was maintained at follow-up only during the trial and for a few months later: after 12 months, patients returned to their baseline values and their quality of life showed a worsening trend. This is the first study to show that rehabilitation with sailing may improve the quality of life of people with severe chronic mental disorders. In all likelihood, a program grounded on learning how to manage a sailing vessel - during which patients perform cruises that emphasize the exploration of the marine environment by sailing - might be interesting enough and capture the attention of the patients so as to favour greater effectiveness of standard rehabilitation protocols, but this should be specifically tested.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010080
PMCID: PMC4150378  PMID: 25191521
Bipolar disorder; quality of life; rehabilitation; sailing; Schizophrenia.
14.  Validation of the Italian Version of the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN): Some Considerations on its Screening Usefulness 
Introduction:
Abnormalities in biological rhythms (BR) may have a role in the pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorders (BD). The objective of this study is to validate the Italian version of the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN), a useful tool in studying BR, and measure its accuracy in discriminating BD.
Methods:
44 outpatients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of BD and 38 controls balanced for sex and age were consecutively recruited. The discriminant validity of BRIAN for the screening of BD and its test re-test reliability in two evaluations were assessed.
Results:
BD patients scored 22.22±11.19 in BRIAN against 7.13±5.6 of the control group (P<0.0001). BRIAN showed a good accuracy to screen between BD non-BD at cutoff 16, a sensitivity was 68.2 and specificity was 92.5. The test-retest stability measured using Pearson’s coefficient found very high r values for each section and the total score, thus indicating a correlation at the two times of statistical significance in all measures. Cohen’s Kappa varied from 0.47 in the sociality section to 0.80 in the sleep section, with a total K mean of 0.65.
Conclusion:
The results show that the Italian version of BRIAN has good discriminant validity in detecting BD from healthy controls and shows good test-retest reliability. The study suggests the possibility of developing mixed screening tools by introducing items on dysregulation of biological rhythms to the usual measures of mood.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010048
PMCID: PMC4076616  PMID: 24987447
Biological rhythms; bipolar disorders; BRIAN; Italian screening; validation.
15.  Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Among Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Adolescents in Norway 
Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) are known to be subjected to several potentially traumatic life events, risking more mental health problems than other populations of same age. In this study, we aimed to explore the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity at an early stage after arrival to the host country. We performed structured clinical interviews (CIDI) with 160 male UASC from different countries (Afghanistan, Somalia, Iran), after four months in Norway. Most of the participants had experienced life threatening events (82%), physical abuse (78%), or loss of a close relative (78%) in their former life. Altogether 41.9% of the participants fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a current psychiatric disorder. The most prevalent diagnosis was PTSD (30, 6%), followed by MDD (9, 4%), Agoraphobia (4, 4%) and GAD (3, 8%). Implications of this vulnerability call for more mental health resources in the early stages of the asylum process. Increased awareness of psychiatric morbidity in UASC may improve the prognosis, give more appropriate care, and ease the integration process on all levels of society.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010053
PMCID: PMC4085584  PMID: 25006343
Afghan; asylum; mental health; PTSD; refugee children; Somali.
16.  Does Parental Divorce Increase Risk Behaviors among 15/16 and 18/19 year-old Adolescents? A Study from Oslo, Norway 
Background: Several studies have reported an increase in risk behaviors among adolescents after experience of parental divorce. The aim of the study was to investigate whether parental divorce is associated with risk behavior among adolescents independent of mental health problems, first when early divorce was experienced, and second after experience of late parental divorce. Method: One prospective (n=1861) and one cross-sectional study (n=2422) were conducted using data from two Young-HUBRO surveys in Oslo, Norway. All 15/16 year-old 10th grade students who participated in the first survey in the school year 2000/01 were followed-up in 2004 when they were 18/19 year-olds. The follow-up rate was 68%. The prospective study investigated the influence of late parental divorce that occurred between the age of 15/16 and 18/19. In the cross-sectional study we focused on early parental divorce that occurred before the participants were 15/16 year-old. Results:In the prospective study we could not discern a significant association between experiencing late parental divorce and an increase in risk behaviors among 18/19 year-old adolescents. In the cross-sectional study parental divorce was significantly associated with cigarette smoking and using doping agents. Conclusion: Parental divorce that occurs when the children of divorced parents are 15/16 year-old or younger is associated with an increase in cigarette smoking and use of doping agents. However, no evidence of significant association is found between experience of late parental divorce and risk behaviors in late adolescence.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010059
PMCID: PMC4085585  PMID: 25006342
Adolescents; internalized and externalized mental health problems; parental divorce; risk behaviors.
17.  Quality of Life, Cortisol Blood Levels and Exercise in Older Adults: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial 
Introduction: Cortisol plays a central role in the stress response; while high stress can determine physical and psychological impairment, moderate stress, with a mild increase in cortisol level, may have a positive effect on coping and physical performance. This trial attempted to determine whether cortisol levels were associated with Quality of Life (QoL) in a sample of elderly subjects undertaking an exercise program. Methods:42 subjects aged ≥65 years were randomlyassigned in a 1:1 fashion either to a vigorous physical activity (VAG: N=21) or to a postural gimnastic group (PGG: N=21). Differences between the two groups in QoL (on SF-12), and blood cortisol levels were assessed by ANOVA at different times. Results:In both the VAG and PGG, cortisol levels rose at the end of the trial, with statistically significant differences as compared to the baseline. QoL at the end of the trial was higher than in the national normative sample. Cortisol and QoL in both groups decreased slightly 12 weeks after the end of the trial (T2); however, only in the VAG did the difference from the initial level remain statistically significant. At T1 and T2, subjects with higher SF-12 scores were found in subsamples in both groups with cortisol levels moderately increased (between 200 and 300 mg/ml). Conclusion:In a sample of elderly subjects undergoing two different kinds of exercise, a better perception of Quality of Life was associated with a moderate, non-pathological increase in cortisol. The results need to be confirmed by trials on larger samples.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010067
PMCID: PMC4085586  PMID: 25006344
Cortisol; elderly; exercise; quality of life.
18.  The Association Between Different Kinds of Exercise and Quality of Life in the Long Term. Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial on the Elderly 
Introduction:
Quality of Life (QoL) tends to decrease with age. Exercise has been shown to be effective in improving some psychosocial features related to QoL. We carried out a randomized controlled trial to verify the long-term efficacy of an intensive fitness program versus a lighter program on the QoL of an elderly sample, compared to QoL of a large normative sample.
Methods:
Participants aged ≥65 years were randomly assigned in a 1:1 fashion either to a vigorous physical activity program group (VAG) or to a postural gymnastic group (PGG). Depressive symptoms were screened by PHQ-9. QoL assessment was done by SF-12. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to test differences between the two groups over time. Comparison with the normative sample was carried out by means of ANOVA 1-way.
Results:
Both VAG and PGG showed low PHQ9 scores at the beginning and at the end of the trial, indicating the absence of depressive symptoms. At the end of the study, both groups had a higher level of QoL, measured by means of SF-12, than the normative standardized sample. While SF-12 scores for both groups decreased slightly 12 weeks after the end of the trial, only the VAG group maintained significantly-higher scores than those of the normative sample.
Conclusions:
A vigorous physical activity program group might be associated with better maintenance of results over time as compared to a postural gymnastic program. These results require future confirmation by further studies on large samples.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010036
PMCID: PMC3975633  PMID: 24707314
Elderly; exercise; physical activity; quality of life.
19.  Misdiagnosed Hypomanic Symptoms in Patients with Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder in Italy: Results from the Improve Study 
Background:Undiagnosed and therefore inadequately treated hypomanic symptoms may be a leading cause of drug resistance in depression diagnosed as unipolar (major depressive disorder, MDD). The purpose of the IMPROVE study was to identify the rate of misdiagnoses in patients with treatment-resistant MDD by screening for the presence of previous hypomanic episodes, and to study the characteristics of those patients with a positive history of hypomania. Methods:Patients attending 29 psychiatric units throughout Italy with a diagnosis of MDD who were resistant to anti-depressant treatment were included in this multicentre, observational single visit study. The Hypomania Checklist 32 (HCL-32) was administered to detect underlying bipolarity. Results: Among the 466 enrolled patients, 256 (57.40%) were positive at screening for a previous hypomanic episode (HCL-32 ≥12), therefore suggesting a misdiagnosis. These patients scored higher than those with a negative history in both the “active/elated hypomania” (11.27±3.11 vs 3.57±3.05; P<0.0001) and “irritable/risk-taking hypomania” (2.87±2.03 vs 2.06±1.73; P<0.001) HCL-32 sub-scales. Patients with a positive history of hypomania were younger, had a higher number of previous depressive episodes and a higher frequency of comorbid conditions compared to those with a negative history. Conclusions:This study suggests that screening for hypomania in MDD-resistant patients facilitates identification of a notable proportion of undiagnosed cases of bipolar spectrum disorder. Patients with a positive history of hypomania at screening had a demographic/clinical bipolar-like profile that included young age, higher number of previous depressive episodes and higher frequency of comorbid conditions. They also had both higher active and irritable hypomania symptom scores.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010042
PMCID: PMC3996725  PMID: 24761153
Active hypomania; bipolar symptoms; HCL-32; irritable hypomania; resistant MDD; screening.
20.  “Nomophobia”: Impact of Cell Phone Use Interfering with Symptoms and Emotions of Individuals with Panic Disorder Compared with a Control Group  
Panic disorder refers to the frequent and recurring acute attacks of anxiety. Objective: This study describes the routine use of mobiles phones (MPs) and investigates the appearance of possible emotional alterations or symptoms related to their use in patients with panic disorder (PD). Background: We compared patients with PD and agoraphobia being treated at the Panic and Respiration Laboratory of The Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to a control group of healthy volunteers. Methods: An MP-use questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 50 patients and 70 controls. Results: People with PD showed significant increases in anxiety, tachycardia, respiratory alterations, trembling, perspiration, panic, fear and depression related to the lack of an MP compared to the control group. Conclusions: Both groups exhibited dependence on and were comforted by having an MP; however, people with PD and agoraphobia showed significantly more emotional alterations as well as intense physical and psychological symptoms when they were apart from or unable to use an MP compared to healthy volunteers.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010028
PMCID: PMC3962983  PMID: 24669231
Anxiety; dependence; nomophobia; panic.
21.  Mental Disorders and Work Integration: A Retrospective Study in a Northern Italian Town 
Objectives:
The present study was conducted in a vocational integration service of a northern Italian town with two major aims: to assess vocational integration programs undertaken from 1st January 2004 to 1st January 2007; and to identify job tenure-associated predictors.
Methods:
This is a retrospective study; we collected data such as gender, age, duration, type and outcome of the vocational integration program, and number of interventions performed by the vocational integration service. Self-report questionnaires were also used to assess the satisfaction of users, caregivers, practitioners, and of the company contacts involved in the study.
Results:
The service has enrolled 84 users during the observation period. Out of these users, 64.3% of them still had their jobs after three years. Users, caregivers and company contacts expressed high levels of satisfaction for the support received by the vocational integration service. The company expressed less satisfaction for the collaboration received by the Departments of Mental Health (DMHs) that coached the users. The only variable associated to the outcome was the number of interventions that the users received before their placement on the job.
Conclusions:
Despite all the limits of this study, its results show that the chance of taking advantage of a supported job placement service has likely proven itself effective in helping people with mental disorders to obtain and maintain a competitive employment. Our results, however, also point to the necessity of implementing newer strategies meant to develop a greater integration among all services dealing with mentally ill people.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010009
PMCID: PMC3942865  PMID: 24600480
Mental disorders; outpatients; retrospective study; job tenure; satisfaction; vocational integration.
22.  Patients With First-Episode Psychosis are Not a Homogeneous Population: Implications for Treatment 
Objective: This study aimed at defining the characteristics of a population of patients diagnosed with first-episode psychosis (FEP), and accessing for the first time a center for early intervention in psychosis in the health district of Milan and its surroundings. Methods: Patients were included in the study from January 2007 to December 2008; criteria: first contact with any public mental health service of the catchment area for a first episode of schizophrenia or related syndromes according to the ICD-10 criteria. Cluster analysis was used to divide patients into groups based on the main socio-demographic and clinical characteristics at presentation. Results: Overall, 91 FEP patients were enrolled in the study. Two clusters were identified, which differed principally by symptom profile. Patients in cluster 1 (n=36) had severe agitation, and a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse at presentation more often than those in cluster 2 (n=55), who were more likely to suffer at presentation from severe depression or apathy, anxiety, poor self-care, functional or work impairment and severe social withdrawal. After six months of treatment patients improved on almost all symptomatic dimensions on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, with greater improvement in cluster 1 than in cluster 2. Conclusions: The findings of this study need replication in larger samples and on a wider severity scale. Nevertheless, the heterogeneity of patients with FEP might impact on treatment. Policymakers should recognize the importance of the diagnostic and outcome assessment in the treatment of severe mental disorders.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010001
PMCID: PMC3942866  PMID: 24600479
First episode psychosis; schizophrenia; early intervention; duration of untreated psychosis.
23.  The Effects of the Combination of Cognitive Training and Supported Employment on Improving Clinical and Working Outcomes for People with Schizophrenia in Japan  
Background: In Japan, Job assistance for SMI have been not active. Compared with mental retardation, employment rate of SMI was low. The needs of the effective job assistance for SMI are growing. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the combination approach of Cognitive Remediation (CR) and Supported Employment (SE) in clinical outcomes, including cognitive functioning and psychiatric symptoms besides vocational outcomes. Methods: The participants diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assigned to CR+SE group (n=52) and SE group (n=57). CR comprised computer based trainings using COGPACK and group works. SE was individualized vocational support provided by employment specialists. Outcome measures included cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, social functioning, performance of tasks as clinical outcomes, employment rate, duration of employment, and earned wage as vocational outcome. Results: CR+SE group displayed significantly better psychiatric symptoms (F=3.490, p<.10), interpersonal relations (F=11.695, p<.01), and social and cognitive functioning including verbal memory (F=9.439, p<.01), digit sequencing (F=5.544, p<.05), token motor tasks (F=6.685, p<.05), and overall cognitive functioning (F=8.136, p<.01). We did not find any significant difference between two groups in terms of employment rate and earned wage. Discussions: This is the first controlled study to determine the effectiveness of CR on vocational outcomes in Japan. The results showed that CR and SE programs were feasible in Japan and that CR using COGPACK had favorable effects on cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, and social functioning, which is consistent with previous researches.
doi:10.2174/1745017901410010018
PMCID: PMC3942867  PMID: 24600481
Schizophrenia; cognitive remediation; supported employment; cognitive impairment; COGPACK.
24.  In Sickness and in Health: a Literature Review about Function of Social Support within Anxiety and Heart Disease Association 
A narrative review of the major evidence concerning the relationship between anxiety, social support and cardiac disease was conducted. Literature demonstrates that a strict relationship between anxiety, social support and cardiac disease outcomes subsists. However, the function of social support within anxiety and heart disease association remains unclear and needs to further researches to be established. Moreover evidence suggests that it’s the quality of close relationships to play an important role in affecting psychological and physiological health status. The main components that the literature suggests for a better quality of social support and close relationship, and the main assessment measure are presented. Evidence about cardiac rehabilitation programs and the need to assess and intervene on psychological and psychosocial factors is discussed.
doi:10.2174/1745017901309010255
PMCID: PMC3884151  PMID: 24403952
Anxiety; social support; quality of relationship; cardiac disease; psychocardiology
25.  Factors Associated with the Persistence of Bullying Victimization From 10th grade to 13th Grade: A Longitudinal Study 
Background:
Bullying among adolescents represents a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to map the stability of bullying victimization across the transitional phase from lower to upper secondary school, and to describe the sociodemographic, academic and health-related characteristics of those bullied during the transition.
Method:
3674 Norwegian adolescents were followed longitudinally from the age of 15/16 until the age of 18/19, answering questionnaires about health, academic achievements, life events, lifestyle and sociodemography. The 337 participants reporting exposure to bullying victimization at age 15/16 were the target group, as we made comparisons between those reporting victimization only at the age of 15/16 (n=289) with the participants for whom the bullying had continued into later adolescence (n = 48).
Results:
14% of those victimized at age 15/16, reported continuation of bullying victimization into upper secondary school. These adolescents were significantly more likely to report having divorced parents, low parental educational level, poor self-perceived economy, muscle and skeletal pain, symptoms of mental distress, lower school marks in Norwegian and higher body-mass index (BMI) when group differences at age 18/19 were assessed through basic inferential statistical tests. However, the multivariate logistic regression analyses only revealed statistically significantly increased adjusted odds ratios for the variables mental distress and school-marks in Norwegian.
Conclusion:
The persistence of exposure to bullying from 10th grade to 13th grade is associated with mental health complaints and poor school performance. Preventive measures to take care of students being continuously bullied should be in place in secondary schools.
doi:10.2174/1745017901309010243
PMCID: PMC3870461  PMID: 24367391
Adolescence; Bullying; Lifestyle; Longitudinal; Mental Health; Negative Life Events; Victimization.

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