The crystal structures of engineered C. botulinum neurotoxin–SNARE derivatives have been and exhibit strong stability of the LHn fragment.
Targeted secretion inhibitors (TSIs) are a new class of engineered biopharmaceutical molecules derived from the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). They consist of the metalloprotease light chain (LC) and translocation domain (Hn) of BoNT; they thus lack the native toxicity towards motor neurons but are able to target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins. These functional fragment (LHn) derivatives are expressed as single-chain proteins and require post-translational activation into di-chain molecules for function. A range of BoNT derivatives have been produced to demonstrate the successful use of engineered SNARE substrate peptides at the LC–Hn interface that gives these molecules self-activating capabilities. Alternatively, recognition sites for specific exoproteases can be engineered to allow controlled activation. Here, the crystal structures of three LHn derivatives are reported between 2.7 and 3.0 Å resolution. Two of these molecules are derivatives of serotype A that contain a SNARE peptide. Additionally, a third structure corresponds to LHn serotype B that includes peptide linkers at the exoprotease activation site. In all three cases the added engineered segments could not be modelled owing to disorder. However, these structures highlight the strong interactions holding the LHn fold together despite the inclusion of significant polypeptide sequences at the LC–Hn interface.
BoNT; SNARE; protein engineering
The crystal structure of At2g44920, a pentapeptide repeat protein (PRP) from Arabidopsis thaliana, has been determined at 1.7 Å resolution. The structure represents the first PRP protein whose subcellular localization has been experimentally confirmed to be the thylakoid lumen of a plant species.
At2g44920 belongs to a diverse family (Pfam PF00805) of pentapeptide-repeat proteins (PRPs) that are present in all known organisms except yeast. PRPs contain at least eight tandem-repeating sequences of five amino acids with an approximate consensus sequence (STAV)(D/N)(L/F)(S/T/R)(X). Recent crystal structures show that PRPs adopt a highly regular four-sided right-handed β-helical structure consisting mainly of type II and type IV β-turns, sometimes referred to as a repeated five-residue (or Rfr) fold. Among sequenced genomes, PRP genes are most abundant in cyanobacteria, leading to speculation that PRPs play an important role in the unique lifestyle of photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Despite the recent structural characterization of several cyanobacterial PRPs, most of their functions remain unknown. Plants, whose chloroplasts are of cyanobacterial origin, have only four PRP genes in their genomes. At2g44920 is one of three PRPs located in the thylakoid lumen. Here, the crystal structure of a double methionine mutant of residues 81–224 of At2g44920, the naturally processed fragment of one of its full-length isoforms, is reported at 1.7 Å resolution. The structure of At2g44920 consists of the characteristic Rfr fold with five uninterrupted coils made up of 25 pentapeptide repeats and α-helical elements capping both termini. A disulfide bridge links the two α-helices with a conserved loop between the helical elements at its C-terminus. This structure represents the first structure of a PRP protein whose subcellular location has been experimentally confirmed to be the thylakoid lumen in a plant species.
At2g44920; pentapeptide-repeat proteins; Arabidopsis thaliana
The crystallographic structures of the subunit B mutants F427W and F508W of the Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 of the A1AO ATP synthase reveal that the exact volume of the adenine ribose binding pocket is essential for ATP-/ADP-binding.
A reporter tryptophan residue was individually introduced by site-directed mutagenesis into the adenine-binding pocket of the catalytic subunit A (F427W and F508W mutants) of the motor protein A1AO ATP synthase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3. The crystal structures of the F427W and F508W mutant proteins were determined to 2.5 and 2.6 Å resolution, respectively. The tryptophan substitution caused the fluorescence signal to increase by 28% (F427W) and 33% (F508W), with a shift from 333 nm in the wild-type protein to 339 nm in the mutant proteins. Tryptophan emission spectra showed binding of Mg-ATP to the F427W mutant with a K
d of 8.5 µM. In contrast, no significant binding of nucleotide could be observed for the F508W mutant. A closer inspection of the crystal structure of the F427W mutant showed that the adenine-binding pocket had widened by 0.7 Å (to 8.70 Å) in comparison to the wild-type subunit A (8.07 Å) owing to tryptophan substitution, as a result of which it was able to bind ATP. In contrast, the adenine-binding pocket had narrowed in the F508W mutant. The two mutants presented demonstrate that the exact volume of the adenine ribose binding pocket is essential for nucleotide binding and even minor narrowing makes it unfit for nucleotide binding. In addition, structural and fluorescence data confirmed the viability of the fluorescently active mutant F427W, which had ideal tryptophan spectra for future structure-based time-resolved dynamic measurements of the catalytic subunit A of the ATP-synthesizing enzyme A-ATP synthase.
A1AO ATP synthase; tryptophan; Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3
Structural analysis of the catalytic module of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii family 3 pectate lyase shows that this new structure is very similar to the previously solved structure of a family 3 pectate lyase from Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15.
A 1.5 Å resolution X-ray structure of the catalytic module of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii family 3 pectate lyase is reported (PDB entry 3t9g). The resulting structure was refined to an R factor of 0.143 and an R
free of 0.178. Structural analysis shows that this new structure is very similar to the previously solved structure of a family 3 pectate lyase from Bacillus sp. strain KSM-P15 (PDB entry 1ee6), with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.93 Å and a sequence identity of 53%. This structural similarity is significant considering that C. bescii is a hyperthermophile and Bacillus sp. is a mesophile.
pectate lyases; PL3; Caldicellulosiruptor bescii
The structure of LsrB from Y. pestis complexed with autoinducer-2 (AI-2) has been determined at 1.75 Å resolution. Bound AI-2 adopts the (2R,4S)-2-methyl-2,3,3,4-tetrahydroxytetrahydrofuran conformation, which is the same conformation as is observed in the S. typhimurium and S. meliloti LsrB–AI-2 structures.
The crystal structure of LsrB from Yersinia pestis complexed with autoinducer-2 (AI-2; space group P212121, unit-cell parameters a = 40.61, b = 61.03, c = 125.23 Å) has been solved by molecular replacement using the structure of LsrB from Salmonella typhimurium (PDB entry 1tjy) and refined to R = 0.180 (R
free = 0.213) at 1.75 Å resolution. The electron density for bound AI-2 and the stereochemistry of the AI-2-binding site are consistent with bound AI-2 adopting the (2R,4S)-2-methyl-2,3,3,4-tetrahydroxytetrahydrofuran conformation, just as has been observed in the crystal structures of the Salmonella typhimurium and Sinorhizobium meliloti LsrB–AI-2 complexes.
LsrB; Yersinia pestis; autoinducer-2
The crystal structure of the DNA sequence d(CGGGTACCCG)4 as a four-way Holliday junction and its interaction with a calcium ion are described.
The crystal structure of the decamer sequence d(CGGGTACCCG)4 as a four-way Holliday junction has been determined at 2.35 Å resolution. The sequence was designed in order to understand the principles that govern the relationship between sequence and branching structure. It crystallized as a four-way junction structure with an overall geometry similar to those of previously determined Holliday junction structures.
DNA; four-way junctions; metal–DNA interactions
The structure of NFeoB from S. thermophilus harbouring an N11A mutation has been determined to 1.85 Å resolution.
The uptake of ferrous iron in prokaryotes is mediated by the G-protein-coupled membrane protein FeoB. The protein contains two N-terminal soluble domains that are together called ‘NFeoB’. One of these is a G-protein domain, and GTP hydrolysis by this domain is essential for iron transport. The GTPase activity of NFeoB is accelerated in the presence of potassium ions, which bind at a site adjacent to the nucleotide. One of the ligands at the potassium-binding site is a conserved asparagine residue, which corresponds to Asn11 in Streptococcus thermophilus NFeoB. The structure of an N11A S. thermophilus NFeoB mutant has been determined and refined to a resolution of 1.85 Å; the crystals contained a mixture of mant-GDP-bound and mant-GMP-bound protein. The structure demonstrates how the use of a derivatized nucleotide in cocrystallization experiments can facilitate the growth of diffraction-quality crystals.
FeoB; G-protein domain; Streptococcus thermophilus
The purification, crystallization and X-ray structure analysis of human L30e are presented here.
Many functions have been reported for the eukaryotic ribosomal protein L30e. L30e makes several inter-subunit and intra-subunit interactions with protein or RNA components of the 80S ribosome. Yeast L30e has been shown to bind to its own transcript to autoregulate expression at both the transcriptional and the translational levels. Furthermore, it has been reported that mammalian L30e is a component of the selenocysteine-incorporation machinery by binding to the selenocysteine-insertion sequence on mRNA. As high-resolution crystal structures of mammalian L30e are not available, the purification, crystallization and X-ray structure analysis of human L30e are presented here.
L30e; ribosomal proteins
The crystal structure of the H107R variant of the extracellular domain of mouse NKR-P1A was determined using X-ray diffraction from a merohedrally twinned crystal.
The structure of the H107R variant of the extracellular domain of the mouse natural killer cell receptor NKR-P1A has been determined by X-ray diffraction at 2.3 Å resolution from a merohedrally twinned crystal. Unlike the structure of the wild-type receptor in space group I4122 with a single chain per asymmetric unit, the crystals of the variant belonged to space group I41 with a dimer in the asymmetric unit. Different degrees of merohedral twinning were detected in five data sets collected from different crystals. The mutation does not have a significant impact on the overall structure, but led to the binding of an additional phosphate ion at the interface of the molecules.
NKR-P1A; merohedral twinning; mutation
SpFcsU is a fucose mutarotase from S. pneumoniae that links the harvesting of fucose from glycans by glycoside hydrolases to processing of the fucose monosaccharide by subsequent enzymes in a fucose-utilization pathway. Here, the decameric structure of SpFcsU in complex with fucose is described.
Streptococcus pneumoniae relies on a variety of carbohydrate-utilization pathways for both colonization of its human host and full virulence during the development of invasive disease. One such pathway is the fucose-utilization pathway, a component of which is fucose mutarotase (SpFcsU), an enzyme that performs the interconversion between α-l-fucose and β-l-fucose. This protein was crystallized and its three-dimensional structure was solved in complex with l-fucose. The structure shows a complex decameric quaternary structure with a high overall degree of structural identity to Escherichia coli FcsU (EcFcsU). Furthermore, the active-site architecture of SpFcsU is highly similar to that of EcFcsU. When considered in the context of the fucose-utilization pathway found in S. pneumoniae, SpFcsU appears to link the two halves of the pathway by enhancing the rate of conversion of the product of the final glycoside hydrolysis step, β-fucose, into the substrate for the fucose isomerase, α-fucose.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; mutarotases; fucose metabolism
The crystallization of the OmpA periplasmic domain from A. baumannii is described.
Outer membrane protein A from Acinetobacter baumannii (AbOmpA) is a major outer membrane protein and a key player in the bacterial pathogenesis that induces host cell death. AbOmpA is presumed to consist of an N-terminal β-barrel transmembrane domain and a C-terminal periplasmic OmpA-like domain. In this study, the recombinant C-terminal periplasmic domain of AbOmpA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A native diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å using synchrotron radiation. The space group of the crystal was P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.24, b = 98.59, c = 97.96 Å, β = 105.92°. The native crystal contained seven or eight molecules per asymmetric unit and had a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.93 or 2.56 Å3 Da−1.
OmpA; Acinetobacter baumannii; peptidoglycan
A novel haemagglutinin from Jatropha curcas seeds is purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data collected from the rod-shaped crystals were processed in the orthorhombic space group P212121 and the crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution at 103 K.
The plant Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) is an important source of biofuel from the inedible oil present in its toxic seeds. The toxicity arises from the presence of curcin, a ribosome-inactivating protein showing haemagglutination activity. In this communication, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization are reported of a small protein isolated from J. curcas seeds with a molecular mass of ∼10 kDa that agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and also by the microbatch method in 72-well HLA plates, using PEG 8000 as the precipitant in both conditions. X-ray diffraction data collected from the rod-shaped crystals were processed in the orthorhombic space group P212121. The crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution at 103 K.
Jatropha curcas; haemagglutinins
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the common grapevine V. vinifera has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in the presence of the substrate pyruvate by in-drop hexahistidine-tag cleavage. A diffraction data set has been collected to a resolution of 2.2 Å.
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyses the first committed step of the lysine-biosynthesis pathway in bacteria, plants and some fungi. This study describes the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of DHDPS from the grapevine Vitis vinifera (Vv-DHDPS). Following in-drop cleavage of the hexahistidine tag, cocrystals of Vv-DHDPS with the substrate pyruvate were grown in 0.1 M Bis-Tris propane pH 8.2, 0.2 M sodium bromide, 20%(w/v) PEG 3350. X-ray diffraction data in space group P1 at a resolution of 2.2 Å are presented. Preliminary diffraction data analysis indicated the presence of eight molecules per asymmetric unit (V
M = 2.55 Å3 Da−1, 52% solvent content). The pending crystal structure of Vv-DHDPS will provide insight into the molecular evolution in quaternary structure of DHDPS enzymes.
diaminopimelate; dihydrodipicolinate; grapes; herbicide; lysine; metabolism; quaternary structure; thrombin; wine
S. mutans dextranase was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.6 Å and belonged to space group P21.
Streptococcus mutans dextranase hydrolyzes the internal α-1,6-linkages of dextran and belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 66. An N- and C-terminal deletion mutant of S. mutans dextranase was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.6 Å and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.2, b = 89.7, c = 63.3 Å, β = 102.3°. Assuming that the asymmetric unit of the crystal contained one molecule, the Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 4.07 Å3 Da−1; assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit it was calculated to be 2.03 Å3 Da−1.
dextran; dextranases; glycoside hydrolase family 66; isomaltooligosaccharides; Streptococcus mutans
The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of crinumin, a plant serine protease, is reported.
Crinumin, a novel glycosylated serine protease with chymotrypsin-like catalytic specificity, was purified from the medicinally important plant Crinum asiaticum. Crinumin is a 67.7 kDa protease with an extraordinary stability and activity over a wide range of pH and temperature and is functional in aqueous, organic and chaotropic solutions. The purified protease has thrombolytic and antiplatelet activity. The use of C. asiaticum extracts has also been reported for the treatment of a variety of disorders such as injury, joint inflammation and arthritis. In order to understand its structure–function relationship, the enzyme was purified from the plant latex and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected from a single crystal and processed to 2.8 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 121.61, b = 95.00, c = 72.10 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 114.19°. The Matthews coefficient was 2.81 Å3 Da−1, corresponding to a solvent content of 56%, assuming one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Structure determination of the enzyme is in progress.
crinumin; serine proteases; Crinum asiaticum; glycosylation
β-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I (XoFabB) from X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) plays a crucial role in fatty-acid synthesis and has been considered as a target for the development of antibacterial agents against Xoo. XoFabB was expressed, purified and crystallized to determine its atomic resolution structure.
The proteins in the fatty-acid synthesis pathway in bacteria have significant potential as targets for the development of antibacterial agents. An essential elongation step in fatty-acid synthesis is performed by β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I (FabB). The organism Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes a destructive bacterial blight disease of rice. The XoFabB protein from Xoo was expressed, purified and crystallized for the three-dimensional structure determination that is essential for the development of specific inhibitors of the enzyme. An XoFabB crystal diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution and belonged to the tetragonal space group P41, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 82.2, c = 233.2 Å. Assuming that the crystallographic structure contains four molecules in the asymmetric unit, the corresponding V
M would be 2.18 Å3 Da−1 and the solvent content would be 43.5%. The initial structure was determined by the MOLREP program with an R factor of 44.0% and does contain four monomers in the asymmetric unit.
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae; bacterial blight; XoFabB; β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I
A hyperthermophilic adenylosuccinate synthetase from P. horikoshii OT3, which is 90–120 amino acids shorter than those from the vast majority of organisms, was expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution.
Adenylosuccinate synthetase (AdSS) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in the conversion of inosine monophosphate (IMP) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in the purine-biosynthetic pathway. Although AdSS from the vast majority of organisms is 430–457 amino acids in length, AdSS sequences isolated from thermophilic archaea are 90–120 amino acids shorter. In this study, crystallographic studies of a short AdSS sequence from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PhAdSS) were performed in order to reveal the unusual structure of AdSS from thermophilic archaea. Crystals of PhAdSS were obtained by the microbatch-under-oil method and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.50 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the trigonal space group P3212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.2, c = 107.9 Å. There was one molecule per asymmetric unit, giving a Matthews coefficient of 2.17 Å3 Da−1 and an approximate solvent content of 43%. In contrast, the results of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analytical ultracentrifugation showed that the recombinant PhAdSS formed a dimer in solution.
adenylosuccinate synthetases; purine-biosynthetic pathway; Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3
Shikimate dehydrogenase from A. fulgidus has been overexpressed and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.8 Å resolution.
Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH), which catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of 3-dehydroshikimate to shikimate in the shikimate pathway, is an attractive target for the development of herbicides and antimicrobial agents. Previous structural studies have shown that SDH exists in two conformations, an open and a closed form, and it is believed that the conformational state is crucial to understanding its catalytic mechanism. In order to facilitate further structural comparisons among SDHs, including the conformational state, structural analysis of an SDH from Archaeoglobus fulgidus encoded by the Af2327 gene has been initiated. SeMet-labelled SDH from A. fulgidus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at 296 K using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant in order to use the MAD method for structure determination. Crystals of A. fulgidus SDH grown in the presence of NADP+ diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to the trigonal space group P3221 (or P3221), with unit-cell parameters a = 111.3, b = 111.3, c = 76.2 Å. Three diffraction data sets were collected. The asymmetric unit contains two monomers, with a corresponding V
M of 2.34 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 47% by volume.
Archaeoglobus fulgidus; aroE; shikimate dehydrogenase; shikimate pathway
In this study, a putative glucokinase/hexokinase from T. thermophilus was purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.02 Å resolution.
Glucokinase/hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, which is the first step of glycolysis. The open reading frame TTHA0299 of the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus encodes a putative glucokinase/hexokinase which contains the consensus sequence for proteins from the repressors, open reading frames and sugar kinases family. In this study, the glucokinase/hexokinase from T. thermophilus was purified and crystallized using polyethylene glycol 8000 as a precipitant. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.02 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.93, b = 138.14, c = 75.16 Å, β = 95.41°.
glucokinase/hexokinase; Thermus thermophilus
This article reports the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the vibriobactin synthetase VibE from V. cholerae.
Vibriobactin synthetases (VibABCDEFH) catalyze the biosynthesis of vibriobactin in the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. VibE, a vibriobactin-specific 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-AMP ligase, plays a critical role in the transfer of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate to the aryl carrier protein domain of holo VibB. Here, the cloning, protein expression and purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of VibE from V. cholerae are reported. The VibE crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.471, b = 45.927, c = 77.014 Å, β = 95.895°. There is one protein molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding Matthews coefficient of 1.63 Å3 Da−1 and solvent content of 24.41%.
vibriobactin synthetases; vibriobactin biosynthesis; 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-AMP ligase; VibE; Vibrio cholerae
Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from E. coli has been crystallized in complex with the acceptor-TΨC domain of tRNA. Diffraction data have been collected and processed to 2.4 Å resolution.
Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth) cleaves the ester bond between the peptide and the tRNA of peptidyl-tRNA molecules, which are the product of aborted translation. In the present work, Pth from Escherichia coli was crystallized with the acceptor-TΨC domain of tRNA using 1,4-butanediol as a precipitant. The crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P61, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.1, c = 413.1 Å, and diffracted X-rays beyond 2.4 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit is expected to contain two complexes of Pth and the acceptor-TΨC domain of tRNA (V
M = 2.8 Å3 Da−1), with a solvent content of 60.8%. The structure is being solved by molecular replacement.
peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases; acceptor-TΨC domain
Penicillin G acylase from the Gram-positive bacterium B. megaterium was crystallized and X-ray diffraction from these crystals could be substantially improved by slight dehydration through a long cryo-soak.
Penicillin G acylase from Bacillus megaterium (BmPGA) is currently used in the pharmaceutical industry as an alternative to PGA from Escherichia coli (EcPGA) for the hydrolysis of penicillin G to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), a penam nucleus for semisynthetic penicillins. Despite the significant differences in amino-acid sequence between PGAs from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, a representative PGA structure of Gram-positive origin has never been reported. In this study, crystallization and diffraction studies of BmPGA are described. Poor diffraction patterns with blurred spots at higher resolution were typical for BmPGA crystals cryocooled after a brief immersion in cryoprotectant solution. Overnight soaking in the same cryo-solution substantially improved both the mosaicity and resolution limit through the establishment of a new crystal-packing equilibrium. A crystal of BmPGA diffracted X-rays to 2.20 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P21 with one molecule of BmPGA in the asymmetric unit.
Bacillus megaterium; crystal dehydration; long cryo-soaking; penicillin G acylase
A C2 protein from A. thaliana has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and a native data set has been collected at 2.4 Å resolution.
An uncharacterized protein from Arabidopsis thaliana consisting of a single C2 domain (At3g17980) was cloned into the pETM11 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli, allowing purification to homogeneity in a single chromatographic step. Good-quality diffracting crystals were obtained using vapour-diffusion techniques. The crystals diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.3, b = 88.9, c = 110.6 Å. A promising molecular-replacement solution has been found using the structure of the C2 domain of Munc13-C2b (PDB entry 3kwt) as the search model.
C2 proteins; At3g17980; Arabidopsis thaliana
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAD+-dependent deacetylase HST1156–503 was expressed and crystallized. Crystals grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method diffracted to 2.90 Å resolution.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAD+-dependent deacetylase HST1 belongs to the class III HDAC family; it acts as a transcriptional corepressor for the specific middle sporulation and de novo NAD+-biosynthesis genes and also takes part in the SET3C and SUM1–RFM1–HST1 complexes. Structural information on HST1 and its related complexes would be helpful in order to understand the structural basis of its deacetylation mechanism and the assembly of these complexes. Here, HST1156–503 was expressed and crystallized. Crystals grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method diffracted to 2.90 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 40.2, b = 101.7, c = 43.9 Å, β = 103.9°. Both Matthews coefficient analysis and the self-rotation function suggested the presence of four molecules per asymmetric unit in the crystal, with a solvent content of 49.76% (V
M = 2.45 Å3 Da−1).
HST1; NAD-dependent deacetylases; SIR2
Expression, purification and crystallization of Srr-1-K4BD, a human keratin 4-binding domain of serine-rich repeat protein 1 from S. agalactiae, was carried out. Native crystals of Srr-1-K4BD diffracted to 3.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation.
Serine-rich repeat protein 1 (Srr-1) is a surface protein from Streptococcus agalactiae. A 17 kDa region of this protein has been identified to bind to human keratin 4 (K4) and is termed the Srr-1 K4-binding domain (Srr-1-K4BD). Recombinant Srr-1-K4BD was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Native and selenomethionine-substituted proteins were prepared using Luria–Bertani (LB) and M9 minimal media, respectively. A two-step purification protocol was carried out to obtain a final homogenous sample of Srr-1-K4BD. Crystals of native Srr-1-K4BD were obtained using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. The crystals diffracted to 3.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.56, b = 59.48, c = 94.71 Å, β = 93.95°.
serine-rich repeat protein 1; Streptococcus agalactiae; keratin 4-binding domain