Breastfeeding rates in the U.S. are low and one possible reason may be the high prevalence of overweight/obesity among women of childbearing age. This analysis examined the association between pregravid body mass index (BMI) and breastfeeding duration and explored whether depressive symptoms, perceived stress and anxiety during pregnancy mediated this relationship. Participants (n = 550) in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study were recruited through prenatal clinics prior to 20 weeks gestation and followed to 12 months postpartum. Duration of any breastfeeding was categorized as: none, less than 4 months, 4 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and more than 12 months (referent). Exclusive breastfeeding was categorized as less than 1 month, 1 to less than 4 months, and 4 months or more (referent). Being overweight/obese before pregnancy (35.7% of 550) was inversely associated with the durations of any and exclusive breastfeeding. Women who entered pregnancy overweight or obese were more likely to not initiate breastfeeding [RRR =5.39 (95% CI: 2.41, 12.04)] and to breastfeed less than four months [RRR = 2.38 (1.33, 4.27)] compared to women of normal weight status. Among women who initiated breastfeeding, being overweight or obese versus normal weight was related to exclusively breastfeeding less than 1 month [RRR = 2.09 (1.24, 3.51)]. We did not find evidence to support mediation by depressive symptoms, perceived stress or anxiety during pregnancy. Future research needs to explore the reasons behind the association between overweight/obesity and breastfeeding duration.
Overweight; obesity; pregravid BMI; pregnancy; breastfeeding duration; depressive symptoms; stress; anxiety
This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breast-feeding and later introduction of solid feeding was associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breast-feeding (6 categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (4 categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant feeding practices, socioeconomic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis which accounted for potential confounders, demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breast-feeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breast-feeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) (adjusted β= −0.12 SD 95% CI: −0.19 to −0.05 per category change in breast-feeding duration, p=0.001) and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95 % CI: 2.53 to 5.56, p<0.001). In our sample, findings suggest that longer breast-feeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population-level.
Breast-feeding duration; Complementary feeds; Childhood body mass index; Adiposity; Infant weight gain; India
Chronic malnutrition in children remains highly prevalent in Laos, particularly among ethnic minority groups. There is limited knowledge of specific nutrition practices among these groups. We explored nutritional status, cultural beliefs and practices of Laos’ Khmu ethnic group to inform interventions for undernutrition as part of a Primary Health Care (PHC) project. Mixed methods were used. For background, we disaggregated anthropometric and behavioural indicators from Laos’ Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. We then conducted eight focus group discussions and 33 semi-structured interviews with Khmu villagers and health care workers, exploring beliefs and practices related to nutrition.The setting was two rural districts in Luang Prabang province, in one of which the PHC project had been established for 3 years. There was a higher prevalence of stunting in the Khmu than in other groups. Disaggregation showed nutrition behaviours were associated with ethnicity, including exclusive breastfeeding. Villagers described strong adherence to post-partum food restrictions for women, while little change was described in intake during pregnancy. Most children were breastfed, although early introduction of pre-lacteal foods was noted in the non-PHC district. There was widespread variation in introduction and diversity of complementary foods. Guidance came predominantly from the community, with some input from health care workers. Interventions to address undernutrition in Khmu communities should deliver clear, consistent messages on optimum nutrition behaviours. Emphasis should be placed on dietary diversity for pregnant and post-partum mothers, encouraging exclusive breastfeeding and timely, appropriate complementary feeding. The impact of wider governmental policies on food security needs to be further assessed.
beliefs; child feeding; community based; education; Laos; Khmu; maternal nutrition
A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between maternal height and infant length-for-age and to evaluate how this association is modified by either maternal or infant nutritional status. We hypothesized that maternal excess caloric intake (measured as BMI) would increase the association while infant nutrition (measured in main meals consumed in addition to breast feeding) will diminish the effect.
Mother and infant pairs in Chimaltenango, Guatemala were measured for anthropometric values and nutritional status, and mothers were interviewed to elicit nutritional and socio-economic information. Infant length was converted into z-scores based on the World Health Organization's (WHO) standards. Odds ratios (OR), associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) were calculated. Cases were infants below 2 z-scores of the WHO's length-for-age while controls were infants within the -2 to 2 z-score range.
Cases (n=84) had an increased odds (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.57-5.74) of being born to a stunted mother (below 145 cm) when compared to controls (n=85). When adjusted for potential confounders, the OR decreased to 2.55 (95% CI 1.30-5.02) . Negative RERI values were produced for the joint exposure of maternal BMI ≥25 and maternal stuntedness (RERI -0.96) as well as for the joint exposure of maternal stuntedness and infant nutrition (RERI -2.27).
Our results confirm that maternal stuntedness is a significant contributor to infant stuntedness; however, this association is modified negligibly by maternal nutritional status and significantly by infant nutritional status, each in a protective manner.
stunting; complementary feeding; infant growth; breast-feeding and maternal nutritional status; chronic malnutrition; Guatemala; Mayan populations
Several recent studies have supported relations between infant behavior (alertness and responsiveness) and nutrition (e.g. Dempsey 2008, Wachs et al 2005) in addition to investigating infant behavior within the context of changes in iron status over time (e.g. Black et al. 2004, Murray-Kolb & Beard 2009). Existing research is typically limited to investigation of the effects of a single vitamin or mineral and no studies have been found that examined the influence that early alertness and responsiveness have on growth in early infancy, despite the fact that relations between behavior and nutritional status may be bidirectional (Hulthén 2003). The current study used a sample of Ethiopian infants and investigated anthropometrics, hemoglobin, the frequency of alertness, and the frequency of responsiveness at 6 and 9 months of age. Six-month weight-for-age predicted 9-month frequency of alertness, while 6-month hemoglobin predicted 9-month frequency of responsiveness. Compared to responsive infants, non-responsive infants at 6 months remained more non-responsive at 9 months, though weight-for-age for both groups converged at 9 months. Results support relations between nutrition and behavior (alertness and responsiveness) and provide evidence of a potentially useful tool (the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery [Lab-TAB]) that was adapted to evaluate these relations in Ethiopia.
development; infant growth; hemoglobin; alertness; responsiveness; international nutrition
Prenatal iron supplementation may improve pregnancy outcomes and decrease the risk of child mortality. However, little is known about the importance of postnatal maternal iron status for child health and survival, particularly in the context of HIV infection. We examined the association of maternal anemia and hypochromic microcytosis, an erythrocyte morphology consistent with iron deficiency, with child health and survival in the first two to five years of life. Repeated measures of maternal anemia and hypochromic microcytosis from 840 HIV-positive women enrolled in a clinical trial of vitamin supplementation were prospectively related to child mortality, HIV infection, and CD4 T-cell count. Median duration of follow-up for the endpoints of child mortality, HIV infection and CD4 cell count was 58, 17 and 23 months, respectively. Maternal anemia and hypochromic microcytosis were associated with greater risk of child mortality (HR for severe anemia=2.58, 95% CI: 1.66-4.01, P trend<0.0001; HR for severe hypochromic microcytosis=2.36, 95% CI: 1.27-4.38, P trend=0.001). Maternal anemia was not significantly associated with greater risk of child HIV infection (HR for severe anemia=1.46, 95% CI: 0.91, 2.33, P trend=0.08) but predicted lower CD4 T-cell counts among HIV-uninfected children (difference in CD4 T-cell count/μL for severe anemia:-93, 95% CI: -204-17, P trend=0.02). The potential child health risks associated with maternal anemia and iron deficiency may not be limited to the prenatal period. Efforts to reduce maternal anemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy may need to be expanded to include the postpartum period.
anemia; iron deficiency; postnatal; HIV; child
The aim of this study was to examine infant feeding and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) concentration of breast milk and formulas in relation to infant development. The prospective Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study (n = 358) collected data on breastfeeding, breast milk samples and the formulas fed through 4 months post-partum. At 12 months of age, infants’ development was assessed (Mullen Scales of Early Learning). Linear regression was used to examine development in relation to breastfeeding, breast milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) concentration, and DHA and AA concentration from the combination of breast milk and formula. The median breast milk DHA concentration was 0.20% of total fatty acids [interquartile range (IQR) = 0.14, 0.34]; median AA concentration was 0.52% (IQR = 0.44, 0.63). Upon adjustment for preterm birth, sex, smoking, race and ethnicity and education, breastfeeding exclusivity was unrelated to development. Among infants exclusively breastfed, breast milk LCPUFA concentration was not associated with development (Mullen composite, DHA: adjusted β = −1.3, 95% confidence interval: −10.3, 7.7). Variables combining DHA and AA concentrations from breast milk and formula, weighted by their contribution to diet, were unassociated with development. We found no evidence of enhanced infant development related to the LCPUFA content of breast milk or formula consumed during the first four post-natal months.
arachidonic acid; breast milk; docosahexaenoic acid; infant feeding; polyunsaturated fatty acids; breastfeeding
We sought to assess the relationship between acculturative type and breastfeeding outcomes among low-income Latinas, utilizing a multidimensional assessment of acculturation.
We analyzed data derived from a breastfeeding peer counseling randomized trial. Acculturation was assessed during pregnancy using a modified ASRMA-II scale. Analyses were restricted to Latinas who completed the acculturation scale and had postpartum breastfeeding data (N=114). Cox survival analyses were conducted to evaluate differences in breastfeeding continuation and exclusivity by acculturative type.
Participants were classified as integrated-high (23.7%, n=27), traditional Hispanic (36.8%, n=42), integrated-low (12.3%, n=14) and assimilated (27.2%, n=31). The integrated-low group was significantly more likely to continue breastfeeding than the Traditional Hispanic, Assimilated, and Integrated-high groups (p<0.05, p<0.05, and p<0.01, respectively). The Traditional Hispanic group was marginally more likely to continue breastfeeding than the integrated-high group (p=0.06).
Breastfeeding continuation rates vary significantly between acculturative types in this multinational, low-income Latina sample. Multidimensional assessments of acculturation may prove useful in better tailoring future breastfeeding promotion interventions.
Latinas experience high rates of poverty, household food insecurity, and prenatal depression. To date, only one U.S. study has examined the relationship between household food insecurity and prenatal depression, yet it focused primarily on non-Latina white and non-Latina Black populations. Therefore, this study examined the independent association of household food insecurity with depressive symptoms among low-income pregnant Latinas. This cross-sectional study included 135 low income pregnant Latinas living in Hartford, Connecticut. Women were assessed at enrollment for household food security during pregnancy using an adapted and validated version of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Prenatal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A cutoff of ≥ 21 was used to indicate elevated levels of prenatal depressive symptoms (EPDS). Multivariate backwards stepwise logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for EPDS. Almost one third of participants had EPDS. Women who were food insecure were more likely to experience EPDS compared to food secure women (OR=2.59; 95% CI=1.03–6.52). Being primiparous, experiencing heartburn and reporting poor/fair health during pregnancy, as well as having a history of depression were also independent risk factors for experiencing EPDS. Findings from this study suggest the importance of assessing household food insecurity when evaluating depression risk among pregnant Latinas.
This paper examines predictors of breastfeeding cessation among a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. This was a prospective follow-up study of HIV-infected women who participated in a randomized micronutrient supplementation trial conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 795 HIV-infected Tanzanian women with singleton newborns were utilized from the cohort for this analysis. The proportion of women breastfeeding declined from 95% at 12 months to 11% at 24 months. The multivariate analysis showed breastfeeding cessation was significantly associated with increasing calendar year of delivery from 1995 to 1997 [risk ratio (RR), 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–1.63], having a new pregnancy (RR 1.33; 95% CI 1.10–1.61), overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg m−2; RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.07–1.75], underweight (BMI <18.5 kg m−2; RR 1.29; 95% CI 1.00–1.65), introduction of cow’s milk at infant’s age of 4 months (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.04–1.63). Material and social support was associated with decreased likelihood of cessation (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.68–1.02). Demographic, health and nutritional factors among women and infants are associated with decisions by HIV-infected women to cease breastfeeding. The impact of breastfeeding counselling programs for HIV-infected African women should consider individual maternal, social and health contexts.
cessation; breastfeeding; HIV; pregnancy; social support
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal nutrition knowledge and maternal socio-demographics including participation in the Special Supplemental Women, Infants and Children’s (WIC) Program. A cross-sectional study of new mothers at two San Francisco hospitals was conducted using some of the American Academy of Pediatrics’ guidelines in a structured questionnaire to assess maternal nutritional knowledge. Maternal nutritional attitudes towards product nutrient labels were also assessed in a questionnaire format. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the odds of having high maternal nutrition knowledge and of infrequently reading nutrition labels. In multivariate logistic regression models, higher maternal nutrition knowledge (defined as answering all four nutrition questions correctly) was associated with higher income levels defined as ≥$25 000/year, odds ratio (OR) 10.03 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.51–66.74), and in linear models, higher nutritional knowledge was associated with having more children (P < 0.01), a higher income (P = 0.01) and not being a WIC participant (P < 0.01). Mothers with higher incomes were also more likely to read product nutritional labels OR 4.24, 95% CI (1.24–14.51), compared with mothers with lower incomes as were mothers with higher education levels OR 3.32, 95% CI (1.28–8.63). In San Francisco, lower income mothers are at greatest risk for low maternal nutrition knowledge and not reading product nutritional labels. Higher household income was independently associated with increased maternal nutrition knowledge and likelihood of reading nutritional labels. More comprehensive interventions need to target low-income mothers including current WIC participants to help close the nutritional advantages gap conferred by income and education.
maternal nutrition knowledge; nutrient labels; WIC Program
HIV seropositive women living in low-income communities may have difficulty meeting the increased energy requirements that are associated with both lactation and HIV infection. Data on household food security and maternal socio-demographic characteristics, perceived stress, anthropometry, reported illness, dietary intakes and preferences, and exposure to nutrition education were collected from 70 lactating women (16 seropositive (HP), 27 seronegative (HN), and 27 who refused to be tested and had unknown HIV status (HU)). Diet was assessed with three 24-hr recalls (one market day, one weekend day, and one non-market weekday). Data were collected at 8.4 (SD=4.7) months postpartum. Most women (74.3%) reported being in good health at the time of study. Three-day mean energy intakes did not differ by HIV status (HP: 12000 kJ (SD=3600), HN: 12600 kJ (SD=5100), and HU: 12300 kJ (SD= 4800); p=0.94). Protein, fat, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and zinc intakes also did not differ by group (p>0.10). There was a higher proportion of women with high stress levels in food insecure households compared to food secure households (55.6% vs. 26.5%; p=0.01). Energy intake was independently negatively associated with food insecurity (high: 11300 kJ (SD=3500) vs. low: 13400 kJ (SD=5400), respectively; p=0.050) and stress (high: 10800 kJ (SD=2800) vs. low: 13400 kJ (SD=5300), p=0.021). These results suggest the need to integrate multi-dimensional interventions that address economic and mental health constraints which may limit some women’s ability to meet their dietary needs.
HIV; human lactation; diet; food security; maternal mental health; low income countries
To assess the feasibility of conducting empirically supported family based pediatric obesity group treatment via telemedicine.
Seventeen families were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (physician visit, TeleMedicine). Measures included feasibility, satisfaction, and intervention outcome measures such as BMI percentile, and nutrition and activity behaviors. Measures were completed at baseline, post-treatment, and at one-year follow-up.
Analyses indicate that both feasibility and satisfaction data regarding the TeleMedicine intervention were positive. Intervention outcome indicates no change in BMI percentile or nutrition and activity behaviors for either treatment group.
A behavioral family-based weight loss intervention delivered via TeleMedicine was well received by both parents and providers. Due to the small sample size, null findings regarding intervention outcome should be interpreted with caution. Future research should focus on methods to increase the impact of this intervention on key outcome variables.
TeleMedicine; pediatric obesity; intervention; feasibility
In this observational study, we compared erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in infants consuming formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) with those consuming other types of milks. In 110 infants who were participants in a cohort study of otherwise healthy children at risk for developing type 1 diabetes, erythrocytes were collected at approximately 9 months of age, and fatty acid content was measured as a percent of total lipids. Parents reported the type of milk the infants consumed in the month of and prior to erythrocyte collection – infant formula supplemented with ARA and DHA (supplemented formula), formula with no ARA and DHA supplements (non-supplemented formula), breast-milk, or non-supplemented formula plus breast-milk. Membrane DHA (4.42 versus 1.79, p < 0.001) and omega-3 fatty acid (5.81 versus 3.43, p < 0.001) levels were higher in infants consuming supplemented versus non-supplemented formula. Omega-6 fatty acids were lower in infants consuming supplemented versus non-supplemented formula (26.32 versus 29.68, p = 0.023); ARA did not differ between groups. Infants given supplemented formula had higher DHA (4.42 versus 2.81, p < 0.001) and omega-3 fatty acids (5.81 versus 4.45, p = 0.008) than infants drinking breast-milk. In infants whose mothers did not receive any dietary advice, use of supplemented formula is associated with higher omega-3 and lower omega-6 fatty acid status.
Arachidonic Acid; Docosahexaenoic Acid; Breastfeeding; Infant Feeding; Infant Formula; Infant Feeding Behavior
To examine whether changes in mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) in pregnancy and early postpartum varied by maternal age.
The MUAC of 3359 nulliparous pregnant women ≤ 25 years of age in rural Nepal, was measured in early pregnancy and 3 months post delivery of a live born infant. Regression was used to model the change in MUAC and prevalence of MUAC < 20 cm by maternal age, adjusted for confounders.
5.2% of pregnant women were under 16 years of age. The prevalence of MUAC < 20 cm was 11.3% in early pregnancy and did not differ by maternal age. The prevalence of low MUAC was 17.7% postpartum, but those < 16 years of age had a significantly higher prevalence of low postpartum MUAC (Odds Ratio: 2.47, 95% confidence interval 1.49, 4.10) compared with women 20-25 years of age, adjusted for maternal literacy, caste, meat consumption in early pregnancy, and timing of measurements. All women lost MUAC from early pregnancy through postpartum. The adjusted loss of MUAC among those under 16 years of age was 0.97 cm (95% CI: -1.33, -0.60), compared with 0.40 cm (95% CI: -0.70, -0.10) among women 20-25 years of age.
In an energy restricted environment, girls under 16 years contributed to a half centimeter more loss of MUAC than older women of the same parity. Such a loss of fat, muscle or both, may put younger women and their breastfed offspring at greater risk of other adverse health and nutritional outcomes.
The objective of this study was to explore Somali mothers’ beliefs and practices around infant feeding and education, towards developing a culturally informed infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. Four focus groups were conducted to explore: (1) beliefs about infant feeding, hunger and ideal weight; (2) feeding practices; (3) nutrition education approaches; and (4) provider/mother interactions. Thirty-seven Somali mother participants identified the following themes within these topics: (1) strategies for assessing hunger, satiety and when to feed; shared beliefs that plump babies are healthy, leading to worry about infant weight; (2) context of breast milk adequacy, difficulties breastfeeding and environmental and cultural barriers to breastfeeding, leading to nearly universal early supplementation with formula; (3) preferred education approaches include provider visits with interpreters, Somali language educational materials and advice from older, experienced family members; and (4) desired health provider skills include: listening, explaining, empathy, addressing specific concerns, repeating important information, offering preventive advice and sufficient visit time. This study presents knowledge about Somali beliefs and practices that can directly guide discussions with these families. Given that these infants appear on a trajectory towards obesity, influencing infant feeding practices in the Somali community is a good upstream approach to preventing obesity. These findings will underpin a new infant nutrition curriculum for health providers.
infant nutrition; breastfeeding; infant formula; health promotion; health knowledge; attitudes; practice; physician-patient relations; cultural competency; focus groups; Somali
Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings.
We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%).
The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually <1 month, and for 385/567, the difference was ≤0.5 months. Predictors of poorer recall were having ≥4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49).
In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breast-feeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall.
breastfeeding; exclusive breastfeeding; intraclass correlation coefficient; lactation; recall; reliability
The present study assesses socio-demographic and health service determinants of termination of breastfeeding within the first 2 years of life in India by analysing data from the nationally representative National Family Health Survey-2 using Cox regression modelling techniques. While the likelihood of stopping breastfeeding increased with increasing household wealth status, it declined with increasing maternal age at childbirth. The likelihood of stopping breastfeeding was significantly higher among female children compared with male children, and the gender differential was attenuated by increasing maternal educational status. Overall, findings of the present study suggest that breastfeeding promotion programmes in India should focus on certain high-risk mother–child pairs such as female infants, first-born babies, babies born in the private sector and in urban areas, as well as mothers who are literate, have a higher wealth status, are aged less than 20 years and belong to Sikh or Christian communities. Qualitative studies to understand cultural factors or norms and causal pathways responsible for the association of identified factors and early termination of breastfeeding, especially household wealth status and maternal education, are also called for.
breastfeeding; socio-economic status; Cox regression; maternal education; religion; gender bias; India
Pregnancy during adolescence is associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and low birthweight. The nutrient availability to the fetus may be limited if the mother is still growing. This research aims to study the effects of pregnancy during adolescence in a nutritionally poor environment in rural Nepal. This study utilized data from a randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in south-eastern Nepal. Women of parity 0 or 1 and of age ≤ 25 years who gave birth to a singleton liveborn infant who was measured within 72 h of delivery were included (n = 1393). There was no difference in the risk of low birthweight (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.90−1.02) or small for gestational age (OR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.94−1.08) per year of increasing maternal age among primiparae. Young maternal age did not affect the anthropometry or gestational age of the offspring of parity 1 women. Each year of increasing maternal age among primiparae was associated with increases in birth length (0.07 cm; 95% CI = −0.01 to 0.16), head (0.05 cm; 95% CI = 0.01−0.09) and chest circumference (0.07 cm; 95% CI = 0.01−0.12), but not weight (9.0 g; 95% CI = −2.1 to 21.8) of their offspring. Young maternal age was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery among primiparae (OR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.26−3.38) that occurred at an age cut-off of ≤18 years relative to those 19−25 years. Thus, we conclude that young maternal age (≤18 years) increased the risk of preterm delivery, but not intrauterine growth retardation, for the first but not second liveborn infant.
adolescent pregnancy; parity; preterm delivery; low birthweight; intrauterine growth retardation; Nepal