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1.  Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Induced Cell Apoptosis and S Phase Arrest in Bladder Tumor 
Stem Cells International  2015;2015:619290.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the viability and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells. EJ and T24 cells were cocultured with ADSCs or cultured with conditioned medium of ADSCs (ADSC-CM), respectively. The cell counting and colony formation assay showed ADSCs inhibited the proliferation of EJ and T24 cells. Cell viability assessment revealed that the secretions of ADSCs, in the form of conditioned medium, were able to decrease cancer cell viability. Wound-healing assay suggested ADSC-CM suppressed migration of T24 and EJ cells. Moreover, the results of the flow cytometry indicated that ADSC-CM was capable of inducing apoptosis of T24 cells and inducing S phase cell cycle arrest. Western blot revealed ADSC-CM increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, indicating that ADSC-CM induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way. PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins were involved in the mechanism of this reaction. Our study indicated that ADSCs may provide a promising and practicable manner for bladder tumor therapy.
doi:10.1155/2015/619290
PMCID: PMC4322296
2.  Low Oxygen Tension Enhances Osteogenic Potential of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Osteonecrosis-Related Functional Impairment 
Stem Cells International  2015;2015:950312.
Objective. Glucocorticoids can affect the function of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) adversely and merit the requirement for a strategy to correct this anomaly; we assessed the effect of low oxygen (2%) on BMMSCs from rabbits with osteonecrosis. Methods. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells from normal rabbits and rabbits with osteonecrosis were divided into four groups: (1) normal-normoxia group, with normal BMMSCs cultured under 20% oxygen; (2) osteonecrosis-normoxia group, with BMMSCs from rabbits with osteonecrosis cultured under 20% oxygen; (3) osteonecrosis-low oxygen treated group, with BMMSCs from rabbits with osteonecrosis cultured under 2% oxygen; (4) normal-low oxygen treated group, with normal BMMSCs cultured under 2% oxygen. The proliferation, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and expression of stemness genes, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation markers were investigated. Results. Compared with BMMSCs from normal rabbits, those from osteonecrosis rabbits showed significantly reduced proliferation ability, repressed expression of stemness genes, decreased osteoblasts formation, and increased adipocytes formation, indicating an osteonecrosis-related impairment. Low oxygen (2%) treated BMMSCs from osteonecrosis rabbits showed not only increased proliferation and osteogenic potential but also decreased adipogenic potential. Conclusion. Low oxygen (2%) culture represents a novel strategy to augment BMMSC function affected by glucocorticoids and holds significance for future strategies to treat femoral head osteonecrosis.
doi:10.1155/2015/950312
PMCID: PMC4322297
3.  Multiple Myeloma Patients at Various Cytogenetic Risks Benefit Differently from Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation as a Consolidation Therapy 
Stem Cells International  2015;2015:613045.
Aim. To evaluate whether patients with multiple myeloma at various risks can still benefit the same from autologous stem cell transplantation consolidation in the era of novel agents. We retrospectively analyzed 67 consecutive myeloma patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation after bortezomib and/or thalidomide based inductions. Totally 17 high-risk, 24 intermediate-risk, and 26 low-risk patients were enrolled, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and ISS stage. Meanwhile, another 67 risk-, response depth-, and age-matched patients not proceeding to autologous stem cell transplantation were chosen as controls. Our preliminary data indicated that, in the high-risk subgroup, progression-free survival and overall survival were both significantly prolonged after autologous stem cell transplantation (P < 0.001 and P = 0.015) while, in the intermediate-risk subgroup, neither progression-free survival nor overall survival was prolonged significantly after autologous stem cell transplantation (P > 0.05), and in the low-risk subgroup, only progression-free survival was extended significantly (P = 0.012) after autologous stem cell transplantation. Multiple variables analysis further indicated that autologous stem cell transplantation and risk stratification were two independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Our results indicated that myeloma patients at different risks all benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation consolidation even in the era of novel agents.
doi:10.1155/2015/613045
PMCID: PMC4320887
4.  Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells Promote Myocardial Fibrosis and Reverse Remodeling of the Left Ventricle 
Stem Cells International  2015;2015:746873.
Cell therapy is increasingly recognized as a beneficial practice in various cardiac conditions, but its fundamentals remain largely unclear. The fates of transplanted multipotent stromal cells in postinfarction cardiac microenvironments are particularly understudied. To address this issue, labeled multipotent stromal cells were infused into rat myocardium at day 30 after myocardial infarction, against the background of postinfarction cardiosclerosis. Therapeutic effects of the transplantation were assessed by an exercise tolerance test. Histological examination at 14 or 30 days after the transplantation was conducted by means of immunostaining and quantitative image analysis. An improvement in the functional status of the cardiovascular system was observed after both the autologous and the allogeneic transplantations. Location of the label-positive cells within the heart was restricted to the affected part of myocardium. The transplanted cells could give rise to fibroblasts or myofibroblasts but not to cardiac myocytes or blood vessel cells. Both types of transplantation positively influenced scarring processes, and no expansion of fibrosis to border myocardium was observed. Left ventricular wall thickening associated with reduced dilatation index was promoted by transplantation of the autologous cells. According to the results, multipotent stromal cell transplantation prevents adverse remodeling and stimulates left ventricular reverse remodeling.
doi:10.1155/2015/746873
PMCID: PMC4320796
5.  Mesenchymal Stem Cells Pretreated with HGF and FGF4 Can Reduce Liver Fibrosis in Mice 
Stem Cells International  2015;2015:747245.
Stem cells have opened a new avenue to treat liver fibrosis. We investigated in vitro and in vivo the effect of cytokine (HGF and FGF4) pretreated MSCs in reduction of CCl4 liver injury. Mouse MSCs were pretreated with cytokines to improve their ability to reduce CCl4 injury. In vitro we gave CCl4 injury to mouse hepatocytes and cocultured it with untreated and cytokines pretreated MSCs. For in vivo study we labeled MSCs with PKH-26 and transplanted them into CCl4 injured mice by direct injection into liver. In vitro data showed that cytokines pretreated MSCs significantly reduce LDH level and apoptotic markers in CCl4 injured hepatocytes cocultured model. Furthermore the cytokines pretreated MSCs also improved cell viability and enhanced hepatic and antiapoptotic markers in injured hepatocytes cocultured model as compared to untreated MSCs. In vivo data in cytokines pretreated group demonstrated greater homing of MSCs in liver, restored glycogen storage, and significant reduction in collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin levels. TUNEL assay and real time PCR also supported our hypothesis. Therefore, cytokines pretreated MSCs were shown to have a better therapeutic potential on reduction of liver injury. These results demonstrated the potential utility of this novel idea of cytokines pretreated MSCs for the treatment of liver fibrosis.
doi:10.1155/2015/747245
PMCID: PMC4320872
6.  Human Adult Stem Cells Maintain a Constant Phenotype Profile Irrespective of Their Origin, Basal Media, and Long Term Cultures 
Stem Cells International  2015;2015:146051.
The study aims to identify the phenotypic marker expressions of different human adult stem cells derived from, namely, bone marrow, subcutaneous fat, and omentum fat, cultured in different media, namely, DMEM-Low Glucose, Alpha-MEM, DMEM-F12 and DMEM-KO and under long term culture conditions (>P20). We characterized immunophenotype by using various hematopoietic, mesenchymal, endothelial markers, and cell adhesion molecules in the long term cultures (Passages-P1, P3, P5, P9, P12, P15, and P20.) Interestingly, data revealed similar marker expression profiles irrespective of source, basal media, and extensive culturing. This demonstrates that all adult stem cell sources mentioned in this study share similar phenotypic marker and all media seem appropriate for culturing these sources. However, a disparity was observed in the markers such as CD49d, CD54, CD117, CD29, and CD106, thereby warranting further research on these markers. Besides the aforesaid objective, it is understood from the study that immunophenotyping acts as a valuable tool to identify inherent property of each cell, thereby leading to a valuable cell based therapy.
doi:10.1155/2015/146051
PMCID: PMC4320880
7.  Peripheral Blood Derived Mononuclear Cells Enhance the Migration and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells 
Stem Cells International  2015;2015:323454.
A major challenge in cartilage repair is the lack of chondrogenic cells migrating from healthy tissue into damaged areas and strategies to promote this should be developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of peripheral blood derived mononuclear cell (PBMC) stimulation on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from the infrapatellar fat pad of human OA knee. Cell migration was measured using an xCELLigence electronic migration chamber system in combination with scratch assays. Gene expression was quantified with stem cell PCR arrays and validated using quantitative real-time PCR (rtPCR). In both migration assays PBMCs increased MSC migration by comparison to control. In scratch assay the wound closure was 55% higher after 3 hours in the PBMC stimulated test group (P = 0.002), migration rate was 9 times faster (P = 0.008), and total MSC migration was 25 times higher after 24 hours (P = 0.014). Analysis of MSCs by PCR array demonstrated that PBMCs induced the upregulation of genes associated with chondrogenic differentiation over 15-fold. In conclusion, PBMCs increase both MSC migration and differentiation suggesting that they are an ideal candidate for inclusion in regenerative medicine therapies aimed at cartilage repair.
doi:10.1155/2015/323454
PMCID: PMC4309296  PMID: 25663840
8.  Directing Parthenogenetic Stem Cells Differentiate into Adipocytes for Engineering Injectable Adipose Tissue 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:423635.
The selection of appropriate seed cells is crucial for adipose tissue engineering. Here, we reported the stepwise induction of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) to differentiate into adipogenic cells and its application in engineering injectable adipose tissue with Pluronic F-127. pESCs had pluripotent differentiation capacity and could form teratomas that include the three primary germ layers. Cells that migrated from the embryoid bodies (EBs) were selectively separated and expanded to obtain embryonic mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs). The eMSCs exhibited similar cell surface marker expression profiles with bone morrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and had multipotent differentiation capacity. Under the induction of dexamethasone, indomethacin, and insulin, eMSCs could differentiate into adipogenic cells with increased expression of adipose-specific genes and oil droplet depositions within the cytoplasm. To evaluate their suitability as seed cells for adipose tissue engineering, the CM-Dil labelled adipogenic cells derived from eMSCs were seeded into Pluronic F-127 hydrogel and injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Four weeks after injection, glistering and semitransparent constructs formed in the subcutaneous site. Histological observations demonstrated that new adipose tissue was successfully fabricated in the specimen by the labelled cells. The results of the current study indicated that pESCs have great potential in the fabrication of injectable adipose tissue.
doi:10.1155/2014/423635
PMCID: PMC4284990  PMID: 25587287
9.  Reducing TRPC1 Expression through Liposome-Mediated siRNA Delivery Markedly Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in a Murine Model 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:316214.
We tested the hypothesis that Lipofectamine siRNA delivery to deplete transient receptor potential cation channel (TRPC) 1 protein expression can suppress hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were equally divided into group 1 (normal controls), group 2 (hypoxia), and group 3 (hypoxia + siRNA TRPC1). By day 28, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), number of muscularized arteries, right ventricle (RV), and lung weights were increased in group 2 than in group 1 and reduced in group 3 compared with group 2. Pulmonary crowded score showed similar pattern, whereas number of alveolar sacs exhibited an opposite pattern compared to that of RVSP in all groups. Protein expressions of TRPCs, HIF-1α, Ku-70, apoptosis, and fibrosis and pulmonary mRNA expressions of inflammatory markers were similar pattern, whereas protein expressions of antifibrosis and VEGF were opposite to the pattern of RVSP. Cellular markers of pulmonary DNA damage, repair, and smooth muscle proliferation exhibited a pattern similar to that of RVSP. The mRNA expressions of proapoptotic and hypertrophy biomarkers displayed a similar pattern, whereas sarcomere length showed an opposite pattern compared to that of RVSP in all groups. Lipofectamine siRNA delivery effectively reduced TRPC1 expression, thereby attenuating PAH-associated RV and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling.
doi:10.1155/2014/316214
PMCID: PMC4281407  PMID: 25587286
10.  Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Tissue Injury via Secretion of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Stimulated Protein/Gene 6 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:761091.
Numerous reports have described therapeutic benefits in various disease models after administration of the adult stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow or other tissues referred to as mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). They all showed that one of the important effects of MSCs is to act against excessive inflammatory responses and repair the damaged tissues. The therapeutic benefits of MSCs were initially interpreted by their migration, engraftment, and differentiation into target tissues. However, remarkable anatomical structural repairs and functional improvements were increasingly observed with a small number of or even no MSCs in the injured tissues. This suggests that most beneficial effects are largely due to paracrine secretions or cell-to-cell contacts that have multiple effects involving modulation of inflammatory and immune responses. Currently, the therapeutic benefits of MSCs are in part explained by the cells being activated by signals from injured tissues to express an anti-inflammatory protein, tumor-necrosis-factor-α-induced protein 6. This important mechanism of action has attracted increasing attention, and therefore we conducted this review to summarize the latest research.
doi:10.1155/2014/761091
PMCID: PMC4279254  PMID: 25580135
11.  Prognostic Value of Glioma Cancer Stem Cell Isolation in Survival of Primary Glioblastoma Patients 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:838950.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported to be critical in the initiation, maintenance, and progression of cancers. The expression of stem cell markers, such as podoplanin (PDPN), CD133, and nestin, may have been correlated with malignant progression. However, the effects of CSCs and stem cell markers on clinical outcomes in cancer patients remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the prognostic roles of glioma CSCs (gCSCs) isolation and stem cell markers in patients with primary glioblastoma (pGBM). A cohort of 39 patients with pGBM was separated into two groups, those positive or negative for gCSCs, and the correlation between gCSC and patient survival was evaluated. We observed significantly different cumulative survival (P = 0.045) when comparing patients positive for gCSCs patients and negative for gCSC. Among the patients positive for gCSCs, we observed no significant differences in survival between those whose gCSCs were each positive or negative for PDPN, CD133, or nestin. This study strongly supports the prognostic value of gCSCs isolation on the survival of patients with pGBM.
doi:10.1155/2014/838950
PMCID: PMC4279114  PMID: 25580136
12.  Effect of DiD Carbocyanine Dye Labeling on Immunoregulatory Function and Differentiation of Mice Mesenchymal Stem Cells 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:457614.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to treat a variety of degenerative disorders. Labeling of MSCs with an appropriate tracer is vital to demonstrate the in vivo engraftment and differentiation of transplanted MSCs. DiD is a lipophilic fluorescent dye with near infrared emission spectra that makes it suitable for in vivo tracing. Therefore, in the present study the consequences of DiD labeling on induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis as well as inhibition of biological functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated. DiD labeling did not provoke the production of ROS, induction of apoptosis, or inhibition of production of immunosuppressive factors (PGE2 and IL-10) by MSCs. In addition, there were no statistical differences between DiD-labeled and unlabeled MSCs in suppression of proliferation and cytokine production (IFN-γ and IL-17) by in vitro stimulated splenocytes or improvement of clinical score in EAE after in vivo administration. In addition, DiD labeling did not alter the differentiation capacity of MSCs. Taken together, DiD can be considered as a safe dye for in vivo tracking of MSCs.
doi:10.1155/2014/457614
PMCID: PMC4279147  PMID: 25580134
13.  Maintenance and Neuronal Differentiation of Chicken Induced Pluripotent Stem-Like Cells 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:182737.
Pluripotent stem cells have the potential to become any cell in the adult body, including neurons and glia. Avian stem cells could be used to study questions, like vocal learning, that would be difficult to examine with traditional mouse models. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are differentiated cells that have been reprogrammed to a pluripotent stem cell state, usually using inducing genes or other molecules. We recently succeeded in generating avian iPSC-like cells using mammalian genes, overcoming a limitation in the generation and use of iPSCs in nonmammalian species (Rosselló et al., 2013). However, there were no established optimal cell culture conditions for avian iPSCs to establish long-term cell lines and thus to study neuronal differentiation in vitro. Here we present an efficient method of maintaining chicken iPSC-like cells and for differentiating them into action potential generating neurons.
doi:10.1155/2014/182737
PMCID: PMC4276120  PMID: 25610469
14.  Current Perspectives in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapies for Osteoarthritis 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:194318.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease most commonly occurring in the ageing population. It is a slow progressive condition resulting in the destruction of hyaline cartilage followed by pain and reduced activity. Conventional treatments have little effects on the progression of the condition often leaving surgery as the last option. In the last 10 years tissue engineering utilising mesenchymal stem cells has been emerging as an alternative method for treating OA. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells found in various tissues, most commonly bone marrow and adipose tissue. MSCs are capable of differentiating into osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Autologous MSCs can be easily harvested and applied in treatment, but allogenic cells can also be employed. The early uses of MSCs focused on the implantations of cell rich matrixes during open surgeries, resulting in the formation of hyaline-like durable cartilage. More recently, the focus has completely shifted towards direct intra-articular injections where a great number of cells are suspended and injected into affected joints. In this review the history and early uses of MSCs in cartilage regeneration are reviewed and different approaches in current trends are explained and evaluated.
doi:10.1155/2014/194318
PMCID: PMC4274908  PMID: 25548573
15.  Cell Therapy for Chemically Induced Ovarian Failure in Mice 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:720753.
Cell therapy has been linked to an unexplained return of ovarian function and fertility in some cancer survivors. Studies modeling this in mice have shown that cells transplantation generates donor-derived oocytes in chemotherapy-treated recipients. This study was conducted to further clarify the impact of cell transplantation from different sources on female reproductive function after chemotherapy using a preclinical mouse model. Methods. Female mice were administered 7.5 mg/kg cisplatin followed by cell transplantation (one week later) using GFP+ female cell donors. For cell tracking, adipose derived stem cell GFP+ (ADSC), female germline stem cell GFP+/MVH+ (FGSC), or ovary cell suspension GFP+ mice were transplanted into cisplatin-treated wild-type recipients. After 7 or 14 days animals were killed and histological analysis, IHQ for GFP cells, and ELISA for estradiol were performed. Results. Histological examinations showed that ADSC, ovary cell suspension, and FGSC transplant increase the number of follicles with apparent normal structure in the cells recipient group euthanized on day 7. Cell tracking showed GFP+ samples 7 days after transplant. Conclusion. These data suggest that intraovarian injection of ADSCs and FGSC into mice with chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure diminished the damage caused by cisplatin.
doi:10.1155/2014/720753
PMCID: PMC4274854  PMID: 25548574
16.  Fibroblast Growth Factor 18 Increases the Trophic Effects of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Chondrocytes Isolated from Late Stage Osteoarthritic Patients 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:125683.
Coculture of mesenchymal stem cells with chondrocytes increases production of cartilaginous matrix. Chondrocytes isolated from late stage osteoarthritic patients usually lost their phenotype of producing cartilaginous matrix. Fibroblast growth factor 18 is believed to redifferentiate OA chondrocyte into functionally active chondrocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate the supportive effects of MSCs on OA chondrocytes and test if FGF18 could enhance the responsiveness of OA chondrocytes to the support of MSCs in a coculture system. Both pellet and transwell co-cultures were used. GAG quantification, hydroxyproline assay, and qPCR were performed. An ectopic models of cartilage formation was also applied. Our data indicated that, in pellets coculture of MSCs and OA chondrocytes, matrix production was increased in the presence of FGF18, comparing to the monoculture of chondrocytes. Results from transwell coculture study showed that expression of matrix producing genes in OA chondrocytes increased when cocultured with MSCs with FGF18 in culture medium, while hypertrophic genes were not changed by coculture. Finally, coimplantation of MSCs with OA chondrocytes produces more matrix than chondrocytes only. In conclusion, FGF18 can restore the responsiveness of OA chondrocytes to the trophic effects of MSCs. Coimplantation of MSCs and OA chondrocytes treated with FGF18 may be a good alternative cell source for regenerating cartilage tissue that is degraded during OA pathological changes.
doi:10.1155/2014/125683
PMCID: PMC4269084  PMID: 25544847
17.  Transient Downregulation of Nanog and Oct4 Induced by DETA/NO Exposure in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Leads to Mesodermal/Endodermal Lineage Differentiation 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:379678.
The function of pluripotency genes in differentiation is a matter of investigation. We report here that Nanog and Oct4 are reexpressed in two mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) lines following exposure to the differentiating agent DETA/NO. Both cell lines express a battery of both endoderm and mesoderm markers following induction of differentiation with DETA/NO-based protocols. Confocal analysis of cells undergoing directed differentiation shows that the majority of cells expressing Nanog express also endoderm genes such as Gata4 and FoxA2 (75.4% and 96.2%, resp.). Simultaneously, mRNA of mesodermal markers Flk1 and Mef2c are also regulated by the treatment. Acetylated histone H3 occupancy at the promoter of Nanog is involved in the process of reexpression. Furthermore, Nanog binding to the promoter of Brachyury leads to repression of this gene, thus disrupting mesendoderm transition.
doi:10.1155/2014/379678
PMCID: PMC4269087  PMID: 25544848
18.  Whole Genome Expression Profiling and Signal Pathway Screening of MSCs in Ankylosing Spondylitis 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:913050.
The pathogenesis of dysfunctional immunoregulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is thought to be a complex process that involves multiple genetic alterations. In this study, MSCs derived from both healthy donors and AS patients were cultured in normal media or media mimicking an inflammatory environment. Whole genome expression profiling analysis of 33,351 genes was performed and differentially expressed genes related to AS were analyzed by GO term analysis and KEGG pathway analysis. Our results showed that in normal media 676 genes were differentially expressed in AS, 354 upregulated and 322 downregulated, while in an inflammatory environment 1767 genes were differentially expressed in AS, 1230 upregulated and 537 downregulated. GO analysis showed that these genes were mainly related to cellular processes, physiological processes, biological regulation, regulation of biological processes, and binding. In addition, by KEGG pathway analysis, 14 key genes from the MAPK signaling and 8 key genes from the TLR signaling pathway were identified as differentially regulated. The results of qRT-PCR verified the expression variation of the 9 genes mentioned above. Our study found that in an inflammatory environment ankylosing spondylitis pathogenesis may be related to activation of the MAPK and TLR signaling pathways.
doi:10.1155/2014/913050
PMCID: PMC4269092  PMID: 25544849
19.  DNA Methylation Is Involved in the Expression of miR-142-3p in Fibroblasts and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:101349.
MicroRNAs are differentially expressed in cells and regulate multiple biological processes. We have been analyzing comprehensive expression patterns of microRNA in human and mouse embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells. We determined microRNAs specifically expressed in these pluripotent stem cells, and miR-142-3p is one of such microRNAs. miR-142-3p is expressed at higher levels in induced pluripotent stem cells relative to fibroblasts in mice. Level of expression of miR142-3p decreased during embryoid body formation from induced pluripotent stem cells. Loss-of-function analyses of miR-142-3p suggested that miR-142-3p plays roles in the proliferation and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells. CpG motifs were found in the 5′ genomic region of the miR-142-3p; they were highly methylated in fibroblasts, but not in undifferentiated induced pluripotent stem cells. Treating fibroblasts with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased the expression of miR-142-3p significantly and reduced methylation at the CpG sites, suggesting that the expression of miR-142-3p is suppressed by DNA methylation in fibroblasts. Luciferase analysis using various lengths of the 5′ genomic region of miR142-3p indicated that CpGs in the proximal enhancer region may play roles in suppressing the expression of miR-142-3p in fibroblasts.
doi:10.1155/2014/101349
PMCID: PMC4269320  PMID: 25544846
20.  Differentiation of Equine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells into Cells of Neural Lineage: Potential for Clinical Applications 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:891518.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate into extramesodermal lineages, including neurons. Positive outcomes were obtained after transplantation of neurally induced MSCs in laboratory animals after nerve injury, but this is unknown in horses. Our objectives were to test the ability of equine MSCs to differentiate into cells of neural lineage in vitro, to assess differences in morphology and lineage-specific protein expression, and to investigate if horse age and cell passage number affected the ability to achieve differentiation. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were obtained from young and adult horses. Following demonstration of stemness, MSCs were neurally induced and microscopically assessed at different time points. Results showed that commercially available nitrogen-coated tissue culture plates supported proliferation and differentiation. Morphological changes were immediate and all the cells displayed a neural crest-like cell phenotype. Expression of neural progenitor proteins, was assessed via western blot or immunofluorescence. In our study, MSCs generated from young and middle-aged horses did not show differences in their ability to undergo differentiation. The effect of cell passage number, however, is inconsistent and further experiments are needed. Ongoing work is aimed at transdifferentiating these cells into Schwann cells for transplantation into a peripheral nerve injury model in horses.
doi:10.1155/2014/891518
PMCID: PMC4260374  PMID: 25506367
21.  A Comparative View on Human Somatic Cell Sources for iPSC Generation 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:768391.
The breakthrough of reprogramming human somatic cells was achieved in 2006 by the work of Yamanaka and Takahashi. From this point, fibroblasts are the most commonly used primary somatic cell type for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Various characteristics of fibroblasts supported their utilization for the groundbreaking experiments of iPSC generation. One major advantage is the high availability of fibroblasts which can be easily isolated from skin biopsies. Furthermore, their cultivation, propagation, and cryoconservation properties are uncomplicated with respect to nutritional requirements and viability in culture. However, the required skin biopsy remains an invasive approach, representing a major drawback for using fibroblasts as the starting material. More and more studies appeared over the last years, describing the reprogramming of other human somatic cell types. Cells isolated from blood samples or urine, as well as more unexpected cell types, like pancreatic islet beta cells, synovial cells, or mesenchymal stromal cells from wisdom teeth, show promising characteristics for a reprogramming strategy. Here, we want to highlight the advantages of keratinocytes from human plucked hair as a widely usable, noninvasive harvesting method for primary material in comparison with other commonly used cell types.
doi:10.1155/2014/768391
PMCID: PMC4241335  PMID: 25431601
22.  Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Wharton's Jelly of the Umbilical Cord and Conditioned Media on Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Using a Myectomy Model 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:376918.
Skeletal muscle has good regenerative capacity, but the extent of muscle injury and the developed fibrosis might prevent complete regeneration. The in vivo application of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) of the umbilical cord and the conditioned media (CM) where the HMSCs were cultured and expanded, associated with different vehicles to induce muscle regeneration, was evaluated in a rat myectomy model. Two commercially available vehicles and a spherical hydrogel developed by our research group were used. The treated groups obtained interesting results in terms of muscle regeneration, both in the histological and in the functional assessments. A less evident scar tissue, demonstrated by collagen type I quantification, was present in the muscles treated with HMSCs or their CM. In terms of the histological evaluation performed by ISO 10993-6 scoring, it was observed that HMSCs apparently have a long-term negative effect, since the groups treated with CM presented better scores. CM could be considered an alternative to the in vivo transplantation of these cells, as it can benefit from the local tissue response to secreted molecules with similar results in terms of muscular regeneration. Searching for an optimal vehicle might be the key point in the future of skeletal muscle tissue engineering.
doi:10.1155/2014/376918
PMCID: PMC4212633  PMID: 25379040
23.  Phenotypic and Proteomic Characteristics of Human Dental Pulp Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells from a Natal, an Exfoliated Deciduous, and an Impacted Third Molar Tooth 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:457059.
The level of heterogeneity among the isolated stem cells makes them less valuable for clinical use. The purpose of this study was to understand the level of heterogeneity among human dental pulp derived mesenchymal stem cells by using basic cell biology and proteomic approaches. The cells were isolated from a natal (NDPSCs), an exfoliated deciduous (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous (SHED)), and an impacted third molar (DPSCs) tooth of three different donors. All three stem cells displayed similar features related to morphology, proliferation rates, expression of various cell surface markers, and differentiation potentials into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Furthermore, using 2DE approach coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF, we have generated a common 2DE profile for all three stem cells. We found that 62.3 ± 7% of the protein spots were conserved among the three mesenchymal stem cell lines. Sixty-one of these conserved spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Classification of the identified proteins based on biological function revealed that structurally important proteins and proteins that are involved in protein folding machinery are predominantly expressed by all three stem cell lines. Some of these proteins may hold importance in understanding specific properties of human dental pulp derived mesenchymal stem cells.
doi:10.1155/2014/457059
PMCID: PMC4212660  PMID: 25379041
24.  Osteogenic Potential of Mouse Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Sorted for CD90 and CD105 In Vitro 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:576358.
Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, termed ASCs, play an important role in regenerative applications. They resemble mesenchymal stem cells owing to their inexhaustibility, general differentiation potential, and plasticity and display a series of cell-specific and cluster-of-differentiation (CD) marker profiles similar to those of other somatic stem cells. Variations in phenotypes or differentiation are intimately associated with CD markers. The purpose of our study was to exhibit distinct populations of ASCs with differing characteristics for osteogenic differentiation. The primary cell batch of murine-derived ASCs was extracted from subcutaneous adipose tissue and the cells were sorted for the expression of the surface protein molecules CD90 and CD105 using flow cytometry. Each cell population sorted for CD90 and CD105 was analyzed for osteogenic potency after cell culture. The results suggested that ASCs exhibit distinct populations with differing characteristics for osteogenic differentiation: unsorted ASCs stimulated comparable mineralized nodule formation as bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in osteogenic medium and viral transfection for BMP2 accelerated the formation of mineralized nodules in CD90 and/or CD105 positive ASCs with observation of decrease in CD105 expression after 14 days. Future studies assessing different immunophenotypes of ASCs should be undertaken to develop cell-based tissue engineering.
doi:10.1155/2014/576358
PMCID: PMC4181779  PMID: 25302065
25.  Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells Attenuate Inflammation in Obliterative Airway Disease in Mouse Tracheal Allografts 
Stem Cells International  2014;2014:468927.
Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) remains the most significant cause of death in long-term survival of lung transplantation. Using an established murine heterotopic tracheal allograft model, the effects of different routes of administration of bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) on the development of OB were evaluated. Tracheas from BALB/c mice were implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of major histocompatibility complex- (MHC-) disparate C57BL/6 mice. At the time of transplant, bone marrow-derived MSCs were administered either systemically or locally or via a combination of the two routes. The allografts were explanted at various time points after transplantation and were evaluated for epithelial integrity, inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis, and luminal obliteration. We found that the most effective route of bone marrow-derived MSC administration is the combination of systemic and local delivery. Treatment of recipient mice with MSCs suppressed neutrophil, macrophage, and T-cell infiltration and reduced fibrosis. These beneficial effects were observed despite lack of significant MSC epithelial engraftment or new epithelial cell generation. Our study suggests that optimal combination of systemic and local delivery of MSCs may ameliorate the development of obliterative airway disease through modulation of immune response.
doi:10.1155/2014/468927
PMCID: PMC4177227  PMID: 25295064

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