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2.  Quality of Root Canals Performed by the Inaugural Class of Dental Students at Libyan International Medical University 
Objective. The purpose of this study was to radiographically evaluate technical quality of root canal fillings performed by dental undergraduates at Libyan International Medical University in Libya. Methods. Root canal cases were treated at university dental clinic from the fall of 2012 to the fall of 2013 by the fourth and fifth year dental students. Students used step-back preparation and cold lateral compaction in the treatment. Radiographs were reviewed over a two-year period from initial procedure to final restoration. Radiographs were evaluated for adequacy or inadequacy by length, density, and taper. Length inadequacy was classified as short or overextended. Overall quality was considered “adequate” based on all three variables. Chi-square tested differences between teeth groupings and adequacy classification. Significant p value results were adjusted by Bonferroni correction. Results. Adequate length of root canal fillings were observed in roughly half of all samples (48.6%). Density was adequate in 75.8% of the samples. Taper was observed as adequate in 68.8%. Higher quality was evident in anterior teeth (plus premolars) versus molars (65.6% versus 43.3%, resp.; p < 0.04). Conclusion. Overall quality of endodontic treatment performed by undergraduate dental students was adequate in 53.9% of the cases. Significant opportunity exists to improve the quality of root canals provided by dental students.
doi:10.1155/2015/135120
PMCID: PMC4466382  PMID: 26124834
3.  Interdental Papilla Length and the Perception of Aesthetics in Asymmetric Situations 
The purpose of the study was to determine if there was a difference in the perception of aesthetics, by dental specialty, using computer assisted asymmetric alteration of the papilla length in the aesthetic zone with an apical alteration of the contact point of the clinical crowns. Standardized photographs were presented to sixty-five randomly selected dentists from New York University College of Dentistry on a computer screen for evaluation. Then, the dental professionals were asked to rate the smile in each picture. Control and experiment photographs were used. Data was analyzed using the statistical package SPSS version 21 and one-way ANOVA. The perception of esthetics depends on the dental professional specialty; results provide evidence that asymmetric deficiency in papilla length of 2 mm or more is perceived as “unattractive” by the dental specialists.
doi:10.1155/2015/125146
PMCID: PMC4469761  PMID: 26146500
4.  Dental Implant Supported Restorations Improve Quality of Life in Osteoporotic Women 
Introduction. The aim of this study is to compare the quality of life (QoL) in partially edentulous osteoporotic women who have missing teeth restored with dental implant retained restorations with those who do not and, secondarily, to report the rate of osteonecrosis in this sample. Methods. 237 participants completed the Utian QoL survey, a 23-question document measuring across psychosocial domains of well-being including occupational, health, emotional, and sexual domains which together contribute to an overall score. The subset of participants having dental implant supported prosthesis (64) was compared to the subset having nonimplant supported fixed restorations (47), the subset having nonimplant supported removable restorations (60), and the subset having no restoration of missing teeth (66). Results. ANOVA showed significant difference in all QoL domains between the four subsets (p < 0.05). Although 134 reported oral bisphosphonate and 51 reported IV bisphosphonate use, no signs of ONJ were identified in any participants. Conclusion. These findings show implant retained oral rehabilitation has a statistically significant impact over nonimplant and traditional fixed restorations, removable restorations, and no restoration of missing teeth in far reaching areas including occupational, health, emotional, sexual, and overall QoL. These findings also support future examination of psychosocial outcomes associated with oral rehabilitation and the incorporation of oral health into women's health promotion.
doi:10.1155/2015/451923
PMCID: PMC4469828  PMID: 26146501
5.  In Vitro Ability of a Novel Nanohydroxyapatite Oral Rinse to Occlude Dentine Tubules 
Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a novel nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) desensitizing oral rinse to occlude dentine tubules compared to selected commercially available desensitizing oral rinses. Methods. 25 caries-free extracted molars were sectioned into 1 mm thick dentine discs. The dentine discs (n = 25) were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed with distilled water, prior to a 30-second application of test and control oral rinses. Evaluation was by (1) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the dentine surface and (2) fluid flow measurements through a dentine disc. Results. Most of the oral rinses failed to adequately cover the dentine surface apart from the nHa oral rinse. However the hydroxyapatite, 1.4% potassium oxalate, and arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinses, appeared to be relatively more effective than the nHA test and negative control rinses (potassium nitrate) in relation to a reduction in fluid flow measurements. Conclusions. Although the novel nHA oral rinse demonstrated the ability to occlude the dentine tubules and reduce the fluid flow measurements, some of the other oral rinses appeared to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in fluid flow through the dentine disc, in particular the arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinse.
doi:10.1155/2015/153284
PMCID: PMC4469758  PMID: 26161093
6.  Soft Tissue Surgical Procedures for Optimizing Anterior Implant Esthetics 
Implant dentistry has been established as a predictable treatment with excellent clinical success to replace missing or nonrestorable teeth. A successful esthetic implant reconstruction is predicated on two fundamental components: the reproduction of the natural tooth characteristics on the implant crown and the establishment of soft tissue housing that will simulate a healthy periodontium. In order for an implant to optimally rehabilitate esthetics, the peri-implant soft tissues must be preserved and/or augmented by means of periodontal surgical procedures. Clinicians who practice implant dentistry should strive to achieve an esthetically successful outcome beyond just osseointegration. Knowledge of a variety of available techniques and proper treatment planning enables the clinician to meet the ever-increasing esthetic demands as requested by patients. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the implant surgeon's rationale and techniques beyond that of simply placing a functional restoration in an edentulous site to a level whereby an implant-supported restoration is placed in reconstructed soft tissue, so the site is indiscernible from a natural tooth.
doi:10.1155/2015/740764
PMCID: PMC4466380  PMID: 26124837
7.  Various Techniques to Increase Keratinized Tissue for Implant Supported Overdentures: Retrospective Case Series 
Purpose. The purpose of this retrospective case series is to describe and compare different surgical techniques that can be utilized to augment the keratinized soft tissue around implant-supported overdentures. Materials and Methods. The data set was extracted as deidentified information from the routine treatment of patients at the Ashman Department of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry at New York University College of Dentistry. Eight edentulous patients were selected to be included in this study. Patients were treated for lack of keratinized tissue prior to implant placement, during the second stage surgery, and after delivery of the final prosthesis. Results. All 8 patients in this study were wearing a complete maxillary and/or mandibular denture for at least a year before the time of the surgery. One of the following surgical techniques was utilized to increase the amount of keratinized tissue: apically positioned flap (APF), pedicle graft (PG), connective tissue graft (CTG), or free gingival graft (FGG). Conclusions. The amount of keratinized tissue should be taken into consideration when planning for implant-supported overdentures. The apical repositioning flap is an effective approach to increase the width of keratinized tissue prior to the implant placement.
doi:10.1155/2015/104903
PMCID: PMC4466381  PMID: 26124833
8.  Zirconia Implants in Esthetic Areas: 4-Year Follow-Up Evaluation Study 
Objectives. The aim is to evaluate the survival and success rates, as well as the marginal bone loss (MBL) and periodontal indexes of zirconia implants positioned in the esthetic jaw areas. Materials and Method. 13 patients were selected and 20 one-piece zirconia implants were used for the rehabilitation of single tooth or partially edentulous ridge in the esthetic jaw areas. Six months after surgery and then once a year, a clinical-radiographic evaluation was performed in order to estimate peri-implant tissue health and marginal bone loss. Results. The survival and success rates were 100%. The average marginal bone loss from baseline to 48 months after surgery was +2.1 mm. Four years after surgery, the median and the mode for visible Plaque Index and Bleeding On Probing resulted 1 whereas Probing Pocket Depth amounted to 3 mm (SD = ±0.49 mm). Conclusion. One-piece zirconia dental implants are characterized by high biocompatibility, low plaque adhesion, and absence of microgap that can be related to the clinical success of these implants even in the esthetic areas.
doi:10.1155/2015/415029
PMCID: PMC4466383  PMID: 26124836
9.  Clinical Advantages and Limitations of Monolithic Zirconia Restorations Full Arch Implant Supported Reconstruction: Case Series 
Purpose. The purpose of this retrospective case series is to evaluate the clinical advantages and limitations of monolithic zirconia restorations for full arch implant supported restorations and report the rate of complications up to 2 years after insertion. Materials and Methods. Fourteen patients received implant placement for monolithic zirconia full arch reconstructions. Four implants were placed in seven arches, eleven arches received six implants, two arches received seven implants, two arches received eight implants, and one arch received nine implants. Results. No implant failures or complications were reported for an implant survival rate of 100% with follow-up ranging from 3 to 24 months. Conclusions. Monolithic zirconia CAD-/CAM-milled framework restorations are a treatment option for full arch restorations over implants, showing a 96% success rate in the present study. Some of the benefits are accuracy, reduced veneering porcelain, and minimal occlusal adjustments. The outcome of the present study showed high success in function, aesthetics, phonetics, and high patient satisfaction.
doi:10.1155/2015/392496
PMCID: PMC4466384  PMID: 26124835
10.  Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia 
Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men.
doi:10.1155/2015/938213
PMCID: PMC4461765  PMID: 26106416
11.  Challenges Faced in Engaging American Indian Mothers in an Early Childhood Caries Preventive Trial 
Objective. This study explores the challenges faced by the research implementation team in engaging new mothers in a community oral health prevention intervention in an American Indian (AI) reservation community. Methods. Qualitative methods in the form of in-depth interviews were used in the study. Qualitative data were collected from research staff workers at a field site, who were involved in the implementation of a culturally tailored, randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention utilizing Motivational Interviewing (MI). Results. Several challenges were described by the field staff in engaging new mothers, including low priority placed on oral health, lack of knowledge, and distractions that reduced their ability to engage in learning about oral health of their child. Other difficulties faced in engaging the mothers and the AI community at large were distrust related to racial differences and physical and environmental barriers including poor road conditions, lack of transportation and communication, and remoteness of data collection sites. The field staff developed and applied many strategies, including conducting home visits, applying new communication strategies, and interacting with the community at various venues. Conclusion. Prevention interventions for ECC need to target AI mothers. Strategies developed by the field staff were successful for engaging mothers in the study.
doi:10.1155/2015/179189
PMCID: PMC4452323  PMID: 26089905
12.  Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015) 
Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies.
doi:10.1155/2015/469376
PMCID: PMC4451284  PMID: 26089906
13.  Computer-Guided Implant Surgery in Fresh Extraction Sockets and Immediate Loading of a Full Arch Restoration: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study of 14 Consecutively Treated Patients 
Statement of Problem. Low scientific evidence is identified in the literature for combining implant placement in fresh extraction sockets with immediate function. Moreover, the few studies available on immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting immediate full-arch rehabilitation clearly lack comprehensive protocols. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to report outcomes of a comprehensive protocol using CAD-CAM technology for surgical planning and fabrication of a surgical template and to demonstrate that immediate function can be easily performed with immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting full-arch rehabilitation. Material and Methods. 14 subjects were consecutively rehabilitated (13 maxillae and 1 mandible) with 99 implants supporting full-arch fixed prostheses followed between 6 and 24 months (mean of 16 months). Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant success, biologic and prosthetic complications, pain, oedema evaluation, and radiographic marginal bone levels at surgery and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. The overall cumulative implant survival rate at mean follow-up time of 16 months was 97.97%. The average marginal bone loss was 0,9 mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the results validate this treatment modality for full-arch rehabilitations with predictable outcomes and high survival rate after 2 years.
doi:10.1155/2015/824127
PMCID: PMC4443938  PMID: 26064119
14.  Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need in Obese Adolescents 
Aim. This case-control retrospective study is aimed at assessing if obese adolescents need more orthodontic treatment in comparison with normal-weight patients of the same age. Methods. The test group included 100 obese subjects (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.09 ± 1.19 years old) and the control group included 100 normal-weight patients matched for age and sex (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.07 ± 1.26 years old). Clinical examinations were conducted on dental casts to assess the need of orthodontic treatment, by using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) (DHC, dental health component; AC, aesthetic components). Results. No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between the two groups with regard to AC. Obese females showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of DHC 3 (32%) in comparison to the normal-weight girls (22%); for the other grades of DHC and for the single kind of malocclusion, no significant difference was found. Conclusions. Obese adolescents showed a similar need for orthodontic treatment compared to normal-weight patients of the same age. However, in obese females, a slightly greater need for orthodontic treatment was observed, compared to normal-weight patients.
doi:10.1155/2015/876931
PMCID: PMC4402187  PMID: 25945093
15.  A Comparative Evaluation of Static Frictional Resistance Using Various Methods of Ligation at Different Time Intervals: An In Vitro Study 
Aim. To compare and evaluate the static frictional resistance offered by the four different types of ligation methods in both dry and wet conditions and at different durations when immersed in artificial saliva. Material and Methods. Alastik Easy to Tie modules, Super Slick Mini Stix elastomeric modules, Power “O” modules, and 0.009″ Stainless Steel ligatures were used to compare the static friction using maxillary canine and premolar Preadjusted Edgewise brackets with 0.022″ × 0.028″ slot and 0.019″ × 0.025″ stainless steel wires. Results. The mean frictional resistance for Alastik modules was the lowest and that of Stainless Steel ligatures was found to be highest among the four groups compared and the difference among the four groups was statistically significant (P < 0.005). The mean static frictional resistance in all groups under dry conditions was lower than that under wet conditions. No statistical significant differences were found when the groups were compared at different time periods of immersion in artificial saliva. Conclusion. This study concludes that the Alastik modules showed the lowest mean static frictional forces compared to any other ligation method, though no significant difference was found for different time periods of immersion in the artificial saliva.
doi:10.1155/2015/407361
PMCID: PMC4396548  PMID: 25918530
16.  Spectrogram Analysis of Complete Dentures with Different Thickness and Palatal Rugae Materials on Speech Production 
Objective. To investigate the influence of reproduction of different thickness and palatal rugae materials on complete dentures speech using Computerized Speech Lab (CSL) (spectrogram). Materials and Methods. Three completely edentulous male patients (aged 50–60 years) were selected for reading a paragraph. Twelve upper dentures were constructed, four for each patient. The patients' speech groups were divided into five groups, Group I: patients without dentures; Group II: patients rehabilitated with conventional acrylic dentures; Group III: patients with conventional acrylic dentures with rugae reproduction; Group IV: patients with dentures with metallic framework of minimal thickness and direct ragged metallic palatal surface at rugae area; Group V: patients with dentures with palatal rugae constructed from resilient acrylic resin material with thickness less than conventional denture. Speech samples were recorded after insertion of each denture for groups using Computerized Speech Lab (CSL) (spectrogram). The sounds selected were lingopalatal /s/z/sh/t/d/ and /l/. Results. Group III produced high mean significant difference with /sh/t/ sound. For Group IV, the difference was noticed with /s/z/sh/t/ and /d/ sounds, while for Group V the difference was shown with /z/l/ sound (P < 0.05). Conclusion. It is recommended to reproduce the rugae area in complete denture because the phonetic quality of complete denture with rugae is superior to the conventional denture.
doi:10.1155/2015/606834
PMCID: PMC4391151  PMID: 25883655
17.  Quantitative Analysis of Salivary TNF-α in Oral Lichen Planus Patients 
Objective. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level in oral lichen planus patients and to compare the levels of TNF-α between saliva and serum of OLP and controls. Methods. Serum and whole saliva from 30 patients with active lesions of oral lichen planus (OLP) and 30 healthy persons were investigated for the presence of TNF-α by enzyme immunoassay. Student's independent t-test and two-sample binomial proportion test were used to calculate significance of the mean values of TNF-alpha in serum and saliva and to determine the proportions of the detected and nondetected samples in both groups. Results. Proportion of detection and the mean of detectability between saliva and serum of Group B show an almost equal value, which suggests that saliva can be a good alternate to serum to analyze TNF-α in oral lichen planus patients.
doi:10.1155/2015/283465
PMCID: PMC4377476  PMID: 25861271
18.  A Study of Success Rate of Miniscrew Implants as Temporary Anchorage Devices in Singapore 
Objective. To find out the success rate of miniscrew implants in the National Dental Centre of Singapore (NDCS) and the impact of patient-related, location-related, and miniscrew implant-related factors. Materials and Methods. Two hundred and eighty-five orthodontic miniscrew implants were examined from NDCS patient records. Eleven variables were analysed to see if there is any association with success. Outcome was measured twice, immediately after surgery prior to orthodontic loading (T1) and 12 months after surgery (T2). The outcome at T2 was assessed 12 months after the miniscrew's insertion date or after its use as a temporary anchorage device has ceased. Results. Overall success rate was 94.7% at T1 and 83.3% at T2. Multivariate analysis revealed only the length of miniscrew implant to be significantly associated with success at both T1 (P = 0.002) and T2 (P = 0.030). Miniscrew implants with lengths of 10–12 mm had the highest success rate (98.0%) compared to other lengths, and this is statistically significant (P = 0.035). At T2, lengths of 10–12 mm had significantly (P = 0.013) higher success rates (93.5%) compared to 6-7 mm (76.7%) and 8 mm (82.1%) miniscrew implants. Conclusion. Multivariate statistical analyses of 11 variables demonstrate that length of miniscrew implant is significant in determining success.
doi:10.1155/2015/294670
PMCID: PMC4377511  PMID: 25861272
19.  One-Year Clinical Evaluation of the Bonding Effectiveness of a One-Step, Self-Etch Adhesive in Noncarious Cervical Lesion Therapy 
This study evaluated the one-year clinical performance of a one-step, self-etch adhesive (Optibond All-in-One, Kerr, CA, USA) combined with a composite (Herculite XRV Ultra, Kerr Hawe, CA, USA) to restore NCCLs with or without prior acid etching. Restorations performed by the same practitioner were evaluated at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months using modified USPHS criteria. At 6 months, the recall rate was 100%. The retention rate was 84.2% for restorations with prior acid etching, but statistically significant differences were observed between baseline and 6 months. Without acid etching, the retention rate was 77%, and no statistically significant difference was noted between 3 and 6 months. Marginal integrity (93.7% with and 87.7% without acid etching) and discoloration (95.3% with and 92.9% without acid etching) were scored as Alpha or Bravo, with better results after acid etching. After one year, the recall rate was 58.06%. Loss of pulp vitality, postoperative sensitivity, or secondary caries were not observed. After one year retention rate was of 90.6% and 76.9% with and without acid conditioning. Optibond All-in-One performs at a satisfactory clinical performance level for restoration of NCCLs after 12 months especially after acid etching.
doi:10.1155/2015/984065
PMCID: PMC4355817  PMID: 25810720
20.  Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3–6-Year-Old Children in Iran 
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3–6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight.
doi:10.1155/2015/126530
PMCID: PMC4348617  PMID: 25788943
21.  Morphological Study of Palatal Rugae in a Sudanese Population 
Palatal rugae patterns have unique characteristics and have been proposed as an alternative method to establish identity when other means, such as fingerprints and dental records, are not attainable. This study was conducted to determine the morphological characteristics of palatine rugae and to assess the existence of side asymmetry in them in Sudanese Arabs. It also assesses the possibility of determining sex using logistic regression. One hundred dental casts for 50 males and 50 females aged between 18 and 23 were studied for palatal rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, as well as sexual dimorphism and side symmetry. The most predominant rugae were primary, and the most prevalent shapes in both sexes were wavy, curved, and straight forms. The predominant orientation was forward. Side asymmetry existed more in the orientations than in the shapes, but no side asymmetry was recorded in the dimensions. There was no significant sexual dimorphism in the rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, except for forward-directed rugae (P < 0.037). A predictive value of 60% was obtained in assigning sex using dimensions and orientations and of 58% using shapes alone. Therefore, the palatal rugae are not recommended for assigning sex effectively among Sudanese Arabs unless it is the only means available.
doi:10.1155/2015/650648
PMCID: PMC4337109  PMID: 25737723
22.  Malocclusion in Elementary School Children in Beirut: Severity and Related Social/Behavioral Factors 
Aim. To assess severity of malocclusion in Lebanese elementary school children and the relationship between components of malocclusion and sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods. Dental screening was performed on 655 school children aged 6–11 from 2 public (PB) and 5 private (PV) schools in Beirut. A calibrated examiner recorded occlusion, overjet, overbite, posterior crossbite, midline diastema, and crowding. Another examiner determined the DMFT (Decayed/Missing/Filled Teeth) score. A questionnaire filled by the parents provided data on sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Multinomial, binomial, and multiple linear regressions tested the association of these factors with occlusal indices. Results. Malocclusion was more severe in PB students. Age and sucking habit were associated with various components of malocclusion. Crowding was more prevalent among males and significantly associated with the DMFT score. Income and educational level were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in PV pupils and deleterious habits were more frequent in PB children. Conclusions. Children of lower socioeconomic background had more severe malocclusions and poorer general dental health. Compared to Western and WHO norms, the findings prompt health policy suggestions to improve dental care of particularly public school children through regular screenings in schools, prevention methods when applicable, and cost effective practices through public and private enabling agencies.
doi:10.1155/2015/351231
PMCID: PMC4321854  PMID: 25691902
23.  Improving Clinical Practice: What Dentists Need to Know about the Association between Dental Fear and a History of Sexual Violence Victimisation 
Anecdotal evidence suggests lack of dentist knowledge and uncertainty about how clinical practice can be improved when dealing with victims of sexual violence. This systematic review presents a synthesis of the available literature, which examined the association between dental fear and a history of sexual violence victimisation. All studies indicated, to various degrees, that dental fear is associated with a history of sexual violence victimisation. The analysis identified several common themes including a perception of lack of control, avoidance behaviours, experiences of flashbacks, feelings of embarrassment, difficulties with the physical proximity to the dentist, the sex of the dentist reminding patients of the perpetrator, being placed into a horizontal body position, the specific impact of fellatio, the smell of latex, experienced lack of knowledge of dental professionals leading to insensitive treatment as well as revictimisation experiences, and the occurrence of disproportionate dental problems among patients who had experienced event(s) of sexual violence. All these themes are discussed in detail. Specific strategies are offered to assist dental practitioners in providing sensitive treatment for patients with a history of sexual violence. Additionally, several suggestions are made that may assist both researchers and dental practitioners alike.
doi:10.1155/2015/452814
PMCID: PMC4309219  PMID: 25663839

Results 1-25 (449)