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1.  Submucosal Injection Solution for Endoscopic Resection in Gastrointestinal Tract: A Traditional and Network Meta-Analysis 
Objective. To explore and define the current optimal submucosal injection solution used in ESD and EMR for gastrointestinal tract neoplasms in terms of clinical outcomes and other aspects. Methods. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and clinical trials register center were searched with terms of “endoscopic resection” and “submucosal injection solution” to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Both direct comparison using traditional meta-analysis method and indirect comparison using network meta-analysis method were performed. Results. A total of 11 RCTs with 1152 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with normal saline, other submucosal injection solutions induced a significant increase in terms of en bloc resection rate (I2 = 0%, OR = 2.11, 95% CI (1.36, 3.26), and P = 0.008) and complete resection rate (I2 = 0%, OR = 2.14, 95% CI (1.41, 3.24), and P = 0.0003); and there was no significant difference in the incidence of total complications (I2 = 0%, OR = 0.87, 95% CI (0.59, 1.29), and P = 0.49). Conclusions. Other newly developed submucosal injection solutions significantly increased en bloc resection rate and complete resection rate and decreased bleeding rate and finical cost of endoscopic resection in gastrointestinal tract, while current evidence did not find the difference between them, which need to be explored by further studies.
PMCID: PMC4326037
2.  Clinical Relationship between Steatocholecystitis and Gallbladder Contractility Measured by Cholescintigraphy 
Objective. Contractility of gallbladder is known to be decreased in fatty gallbladder diseases. However, clinical estimation data about this relationship is still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between steatocholecystitis and contractility of gallbladder. Methods. Patients with cholecystitis (steatocholecystitis versus nonsteatocholecystitis) who underwent cholescintigraphy before cholecystectomy were retrospectively evaluated in a single teaching hospital of Korea. The association of steatocholecystitis with contractility of gallbladder, measured by preoperative cholescintigraphy, was assessed by univariable and multivariable analysis. Results. A total of 432 patients were finally enrolled (steatocholecystitis versus nonsteatocholecystitis; 75 versus 357, calculous versus acalculous cholecystitis; 316 versus 116). In the multivariable analysis, age (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90–0.99, P = 0.01) and total serum cholesterol (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.04, P = 0.04) were related to steatocholecystitis in patients with acalculous cholecystitis. Only age (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94–0.99, P = 0.004) was significantly related to steatocholecystitis in patients with calculous cholecystitis. However, ejection fraction of gallbladder reflecting contractility measured by cholescintigraphy was not related to steatocholecystitis irrespective of presence of gallbladder stone in patients with cholecystitis. Conclusion. Ejection fraction of gallbladder measured by cholescintigraphy cannot be used for the detection or confirmation of steatocholecystitis.
PMCID: PMC4326214
3.  Duodenal Aspirates for Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth: Yield, PPIs, and Outcomes after Treatment at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center 
Duodenal aspirates are not commonly collected, but they can be easily used in detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use has been proposed to contribute to the development of SIBO. We aimed to determine the yield of SIBO-positive cultures detected in duodenal aspirates, the relationship between SIBO and PPI use, and the clinical outcomes of patients identified by this method. In a retrospective study, we analyzed electronic medical records from 1263 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy at a tertiary medical center. Aspirates were collected thought out the third and fourth portions of the duodenum, and cultures were considered to be positive for SIBO if they produced more than 100,000 cfu/mL. Culture analysis of duodenal aspirates identified SIBO in one-third of patients. A significantly higher percentage of patients with SIBO use PPIs than patients without SIBO, indicating a possible association. Similar proportions of patients with SIBO improved whether or not they received antibiotic treatment, calling into question the use of this expensive therapy for this disorder.
PMCID: PMC4324922
4.  The Increased Expression of CCL20 and CCR6 in Rectal Mucosa Correlated to Severe Inflammation in Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis 
Background/Aims. The aim of this study is to clarify the differences of CCL20 and CCR6 expression, chemokine correlated to intestinal homeostasis, between pediatric and adult ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Methods. Onehundred forty-one patients who underwent proctocolectomy were divided to two groups including childhood-onset UC (CUC, <16 years old, n = 24) and adult-onset UC (AUC, ≧16 years old, n = 117). A total of 141 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of rectum were obtained from these patients. Histological inflammation of rectum in resected specimen was evaluated by using Geboes histological assessment. In immunohistochemistry study, the CCL20 expression was evaluated by intensity and the stained area, and the CCR6 expression was evaluated by lymphocytes infiltration pattern. Results. CCL20 score and CCR6 positive lymphocytes infiltration pattern were statistically significantly correlated with histological inflammation severity of UC in all patients (P < 0.05). CCL20 and CCR6 expression in CUC were statistically significantly higher than that in AUC in all or pathologically severe cases (P < 0.05). Conclusions. CCL20 and CCR6 may play a significant role in local damage and pathological changes in UC especially pediatric patients. In the future, our understanding of the differences in CCL-CCR6 interaction between adults and children may lead to the pathogenesis of IBD.
PMCID: PMC4322653
5.  The Effect of Intravenous Iron Treatment on Quality of Life in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients with Nonanemic Iron Deficiency 
Background. Iron deficiency is the prevalent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Herein, we investigated the effect of intravenous iron treatment on quality of life (QoL) in nonanemic and iron deficient IBD patients. Methods. Eighty-five IBD patients were recruited for this study. The patients were intravenously administered 500 mg iron sucrose in the first week of the study. Hematologic parameters and QoL were evaluated before to iron treatment and during the 12th week of treatment. The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey were used to assess QoL. Results. Prior to intravenous iron administration, the IBDQ, SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were 152.3 ± 30.6, 46.7 ± 7.3, and 45.7 ± 9.8, respectively. In the 12th week of iron administration, those scores were 162.3 ± 25.5 (P < 0.001), 49.3 ± 6.4 (P < 0.001), and 47.6 ± 8.9 (P = 0.024), respectively, which were all significantly different from the scores prior to iron administration. The mean changes in the IBDQ scores for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease were 8.7% and 3.0% (P = 0.029), were 6.4% and 4.7% (P = 0.562) for the SF-36 PCS, and were 4.6% and 3.2% (P = 0.482) for the SF-36 MCS, respectively. Conclusion. Intravenous iron treatment may improve QoL in nonanemic, but iron deficient, IBD patients.
PMCID: PMC4321675
6.  Upper Gastrointestinal Mucosal Injury and Symptoms in Elderly Low-Dose Aspirin Users 
Background. We investigated the prevalence, symptoms, and QOL impact of esophageal (EI), gastric (GI), and duodenal mucosal injury (DI) individually between low-dose aspirin (LDA) users and nonusers to reveal the clinical features of LDA-related mucosal injury. Methods. Data were extracted from the records of subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at our department between April 2008 and December 2013. Responses from 3162 elderly patients on Frequency Scale for Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) and SF-8 QOL questionnaires (SF-8) were analyzed. FSSG items were classified into total score (TS), reflux score (RS), and dyspepsia score (DS). The SF-8 questionnaire consisted of the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS). Results. Prevalence among LDA users and nonusers, respectively, was 9.6% and 10.0% (P = 0.83) for EI, 35.9% and 27.5% (P = 0.0027) for GI, 3.3% and 3.4% (P = 0.84) for DI, and 8.2% and 5.2% (P = 0.036) for mucosal injury in 2 or more organs. LDA users diagnosed with EI had significantly lower PCS, LDA users diagnosed with GI had significantly lower DS, and LDA users diagnosed with DI had significantly lower RS and significantly lower MCS. Conclusion. These results provide important clinical information indicating that symptom-based management is not appropriate in LDA users regarding upper gastrointestinal mucosal injury.
PMCID: PMC4321845
7.  Impact of Clinical Experience and Diagnostic Performance in Patients with Acute Abdominal Pain 
Background. The aims were to evaluate the importance of the formal competence of the emergency department physician, the patient's time of arrival at the emergency department, and the use of a structured schedule for investigation of patients with acute abdominal pain. Methods. Patients attending the Mora Hospital with acute abdominal pain from 1997 to 2000 were registered prospectively according to a structured schedule. Registration included history, symptoms, signs, preliminary diagnosis, surgery and final diagnosis after at least one year.  Results. 3073 acute abdominal pain patients were included. The preliminary diagnosis, as compared with the final diagnosis, was correct in 54% (n = 1659). Previously, during 1996, a base-line registration of 790 patients had a 58% correct diagnoses  (n = 458). A majority of the patients (n = 2699; 88%) were managed by nonspecialists. The proportion of correct diagnoses was 54% (n = 759) for pre-registrar house officers and 55% (n = 443) for senior house officers. Diagnostic performance at the emergency department was independent of patient's time of arrival. Conclusions. A structured schedule for investigation did not improve the diagnostic precision at the emergency department in patients with acute abdominal pain. The diagnostic performance was independent of the formal competence of the physician and the patient's time of arrival.
PMCID: PMC4320905
8.  Awareness and Uptake of Family Screening in Patients Diagnosed with Colorectal Cancer at a Young Age 
Background. One-fifth of people who develop colorectal cancer (CRC) have a first-degree relative (FDR) also affected. There is a large disparity in guidelines for screening of relatives of patients with CRC. Herein we address awareness and uptake of family screening amongst patients diagnosed with CRC under age 60 and compare guidelines for screening. Study Design. Patients under age 60 who received surgical management for CRC between June 2009 and May 2012 were identified using pathology records and theatre logbooks. A telephone questionnaire was carried out to investigate family history and screening uptake among FDRs. Results. Of 317 patients surgically managed for CRC over the study period, 65 were under age 60 at diagnosis (8 deceased). The mean age was 51 (30–59). 66% had node positive disease. 25% had a family history of colorectal cancer in a FDR. While American and Canadian guidelines identified 100% of these patients as requiring screening, British guidelines advocated screening for only 40%. Of 324 FDRs, only 40.9% had been screened as a result of patient's diagnosis. Conclusions. Uptake of screening in FDRs of young patients with CRC is low. Increased education and uniformity of guidelines may improve screening uptake in this high-risk population.
PMCID: PMC4320884
9.  Vascular Endothelial Injury and Apoptosis in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis 
We explored mechanisms of vascular endothelial injury that lead to systemic multiple organ failure by detecting the soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR), von Willebrand factor (vWF), serum nitric oxide (NO), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Bcl-2 mRNA and Bax mRNA expression in a severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rat model. Compared to controls, the levels of TNF-α, vWF, and sEPCR were significantly increased in the experimental group at 12 hours and 24 hours and the NO level was significantly decreased. After 12 hours, the aortic endothelial apoptosis index and Bax mRNA expression in aortic endothelial cells had increased in the experimental group, but Bcl-2 mRNA levels had decreased. All these changes appeared at both 12 h and 24 hours. The results indicated that vascular endothelial injury and apoptosis markers were elevated in SAP. Endothelial injury and increased apoptosis in the experimental group were related to the increased expression of TNF-α.
PMCID: PMC4320903
10.  Five-Aminosalicylic Acid: An Update for the Reappraisal of an Old Drug 
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises several conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal apparatus, of which ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the commonest forms. This disease has a significant prevalence and it is of an unknown aethiology. Five-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and its derivatives are among the oldest drugs approved for the treatment of the IBD. In this review we reapprise aspects of 5-ASA mechanism of action, safety, and efficacy that in our opinion make it a valuable drug that can be fruitfully tailored in personalised treatments as a therapeutic option alongside other immune-modifying agents.
PMCID: PMC4320793
11.  Immunohistochemical Expression of Dual-Specificity Protein Phosphatase 4 in Patients with Colorectal Adenocarcinoma 
The role of dual-specificity protein phosphatase 4 (DUSP4) appears to vary with the type of malignant tumors and is still controversial. The purpose of our study was to clarify the exact role of DUSP4 expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma. We constructed tissue microarrays and investigated DUSP4 expression by immunohistochemistry. DUSP4 was more frequently expressed in adenocarcinomas and lymph node/distant metastases compared to that in normal colorectal tissues and tubular adenomas (P < 0.001). Mean DUSP4 expression score was significantly higher in malignant tumors than in benign lesions (P < 0.001). DUSP4 expression was significantly correlated with older age (P = 0.017), male gender (P = 0.036), larger tumor size (P = 0.014), nonmucinous tumor type (P = 0.023), and higher T stage (P = 0.040). Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed a significant effect of DUSP4 expression on both overall survival and disease-free survival in AJCC stage I (P = 0.008 and P = 0.003, resp., log-rank test) and male gender (P = 0.017 and P = 0.049, resp., log-rank test). DUSP4 protein is frequently upregulated in colorectal adenocarcinoma and may play an important role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression and may be a marker of adverse prognosis.
PMCID: PMC4320794
12.  Hepatorenal Syndrome: Aetiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment 
Acute renal impairment is common in patients with chronic liver disease, occurring in approximately 19% of hospitalised patients with cirrhosis. A variety of types of renal impairment are recognised. The most important of these is the hepatorenal syndrome, a functional renal impairment due to circulatory and neurohormonal abnormalities that underpin cirrhosis. It is one of the most severe complications of cirrhosis with survival often measured in weeks to months. A variety of treatment options exist with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment providing the best hope for cure. This paper provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of hepatorenal syndrome and lays out the topic according to the following sections: pathophysiology, historical developments, diagnostic criteria and limitations, epidemiology, precipitating factors, predictors, clinical and laboratory findings, prognosis, treatment options, prophylaxis, and conclusion.
PMCID: PMC4306364  PMID: 25649410
13.  Hepatic Hemangioma in Celiac Patients: Data from a Large Consecutive Series 
Background and Aims. Hepatic hemangioma (HH) has a widely ranging prevalence. The etiology is unclear; however, associations with autoimmune disorders have been described. We aimed at evaluating the prevalence of HH in celiac disease. Methods. Ninety-seven consecutive patients with celiac disease (18 M, 79 F, median age 41, and range 17–84 years) underwent liver ultrasound between January 2011 and 2012. The findings were compared with those of 1352 nonceliac patients (581 M, 771 F, median age 50, and range 16–94 years), without liver disease or previously detected HH, who underwent US in the same period. Results. Ultrasonographic findings consistent with HH were observed in 14 celiac patients (14.4%), a prevalence significantly higher than in controls (69 cases, 5.1%) (P = 0.0006). Subgroup analysis showed that, among women, the prevalence of HH was 16.4% in the celiac disease group (13/79) compared with 5.9% in controls (46/771) (P = 0.002). In celiac setting, HH had a median diameter of 1.3 cm and presented as a single lesion in 12 cases (86%). Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with a significantly higher prevalence of HH in celiac patients. Although mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear, autoimmune and metabolic processes, as well as alterations of gut-liver axis equilibrium, could play a role.
PMCID: PMC4306374  PMID: 25649925
14.  Temporary Fecal Diversion in the Management of Colorectal and Perianal Crohn's Disease 
Aim. To evaluate the results of temporary fecal diversion in colorectal and perianal Crohn's disease. Method. We retrospectively identified 29 consecutive patients (14 females, 15 males; median age: 30.0 years, range: 18–76) undergoing temporary fecal diversion for colorectal (n = 14), ileal (n = 4), and/or perianal Crohn's disease (n = 22). Follow-up was in median 33.0 (3–103) months. Response to fecal diversion, rate of stoma reversal, and relapse rate after stoma reversal were recorded. Results. The response to temporary fecal diversion was complete remission in 4/29 (13.8%), partial remission in 12/29 (41.4%), no change in 7/29 (24.1%), and progress in 6/29 (20.7%). Stoma reversal was performed in 19 out of 25 patients (76%) available for follow-up. Of these, the majority (15/19, 78.9%) needed further surgical therapies for a relapse of the same pathology previously leading to temporary fecal diversion, including colorectal resections (10/19, 52.6%) and creation of a definitive stoma (7/19, 36.8%). At the end of follow-up, only 4/25 patients (16%) had a stable course without the need for further definitive surgery. Conclusion. Temporary fecal diversion can induce remission in otherwise refractory colorectal or perianal Crohn's disease, but the chance of enduring remission after stoma reversal is low.
PMCID: PMC4305613  PMID: 25649893
15.  Risk Factors and Prognostic Significance of Retropancreatic Lymph Nodes in Gastric Adenocarcinoma 
Background. The studies on risk factors and metastatic rate of retropancreatic (number 13) lymph nodes in gastric adenocarcinoma were few and the results were still controversial. The aim of this study was to elucidate risk factors and prognostic significance of number 13 lymph nodes in gastric adenocarcinoma. Method. From January 2000 to December 2011, 114 patients who underwent gastrectomy with number 13 lymph nodes dissection were enrolled and followed up to January 2014. Patients were grouped according to whether number 13 lymph nodes were positive or negative. Results. The metastatic rate of number 13 lymph nodes was 22.8%. In multivariate analysis, pT stage (P = 0.027), pN stage (P = 0.005), and number 11p (P = 0.015) lymph nodes were independent risk factors of positive number 13 lymph nodes. In all patients (P < 0.001) and subpopulation with TNM III stage (P = 0.007), positive number 13 lymph nodes had significantly worse prognosis than those of patients with negative number 13 LNs in Kaplan-Meier analysis. Conclusion. Number 13 lymph nodes had relatively high metastatic rate and led to poor prognosis. pT stage, pN stage, and number 11p lymph nodes were independent risk factors of positive number 13 lymph nodes.
PMCID: PMC4302373  PMID: 25642243
16.  Optimized Sedation Improves Colonoscopy Quality Long-Term 
Background. Quality monitoring and improvement is prerequisite for efficient colonoscopy. Aim. To assess the effects of increased sedation administration on colonoscopy performance. Materials and Methods. During Era 1 we prospectively measured four colonoscopy quality indicators: sedation administration, colonoscopy completion rate, adenoma detection rate, and early complications rate in three cohorts: cohort A: intention for total colonoscopy cases; cohort B: cohort A excluding bowel obstruction cases; cohort C: CRC screening-surveillance cases within cohort B. We identified deficiencies and implemented our plan to optimize sedation. We prospectively evaluated its effects in both short- (Era 2) and long-term period (Era 3). Results. We identified that sedation administration and colonoscopy completion rates were below recommended standards. After sedation optimization its use rate increased significantly (38.1% to 55.8% to 69.5%) and colonoscopy completion rate increased from 88.3% to 90.6% to 96.4% in cohort B and from 93.2% to 95.3% to 98.3% in cohort C, in Eras 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Adenoma detection rate increased in cohort C (25.9% to 30.6% to 35%) and early complications rate decreased from 3.4% to 1.9% to 0.3%. Most endoscopists increased significantly their completion rate and this was preserved long-term. Conclusion. Increased sedation administration results in long-lasting improvement of colonoscopy quality indicators.
PMCID: PMC4306400  PMID: 25648556
17.  Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Liver Cirrhosis: Surgical Resection versus Transarterial Chemoembolization—A Meta-Analysis 
We compare the value of TACE to liver resection for patients with BCLC stage A and B HCC. For patients with HCC in cirrhosis LT is the treatment of choice. TACE represents the current standard for unresectable BCLC stage B patients not eligible for LT. Recently liver resection for HCC and significant cirrhosis has become increasingly popular. A systematic search of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to identify studies, reporting short- and long-term results of hepatic resection versus TACE for HCC treatment. The data were analyzed regarding the odds for 30-day mortality and hazard ratio for overall-survival. 12 studies comparing short- and long-term outcome of HR versus TACE for HCC were identified. Peri-interventional mortality and overall survival were investigated. Peri-interventional mortality was higher for surgical resection (n.s.), and overall-survival was significantly better for surgically treated patients at one year (P = 0.002) and 3 years (P ≤ 0.00001). The hazard ratio of overall-survival for all twelve studies was 0.70 (P = 0.0001) and significantly in favor of surgical treatment. Although large RCTs are missing and the available data are limited and not homogeneous a reappraisal of the current treatment guidelines should be considered based on the superior long-term outcome for surgically treated patients.
PMCID: PMC4302354  PMID: 25642245
18.  Prevalence of Precancerous Conditions and Gastric Cancer Based upon the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea for 7 Years, Single Center Experience 
Aims. Gastric cancer is the second most prevalent cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Korea. The National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) has implemented esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) biennially for all Koreans starting in their 40s. This study was conducted to estimate the clinical relevance of NCSP through identifying the prevalence of gastric disease, including cancer. Materials and Methods. Data from 40,821 subjects who received the screening EGD in the single center for 7 years were retrospectively investigated. Results. The overall prevalence of nonatrophic/atrophic/metaplastic gastritis, peptic ulcer, adenoma, early gastric cancer (EGC), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) was 44.28%, 27.97%, 14.95%, 0.59%, 0.43%, 0.21%, and 0.09%, respectively. The prevalence of metaplastic gastritis, peptic ulcer, adenoma, EGC, and AGC was significantly higher in men than in women. The prevalence of preneoplastic/neoplastic disease significantly increased with age. Judged from the ratio of EGC to AGC, the proportion of EGC made up to 70% of all cancers. Conclusions. Screening endoscopy starting for people in their 40s should be strongly recommended for the elderly. Through the NCSP, the early detection of gastric cancer might contribute to the decreased mortality rate due to gastric cancer in Korea.
PMCID: PMC4302356  PMID: 25642244
19.  Helicobacter pylori Infection in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Asian Countries 
Helicobacter pylori infection, a common infection in many countries, is related to the clinical course of upper gastrointestinal diseases. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common esophageal disease in Western countries and its prevalence is increasing in Asian countries. The pathophysiology of GERD is multifactorial. Although no single factor has been isolated as the cause of GERD, a negative association between the prevalence of H. pylori and the severity of GERD, including Barrett's esophagus, has been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection affects the incidence of GERD in Asian countries. In the subjects with East Asian CagA-positive strains, acid injury may be minimized by hypochlorhydria from pangastritis and gastric atrophy. Additionally, host genetic factors may affect the development of GERD. The interactions between genetic factors and the virulence of H. pylori infection may be the reason for the low prevalence of GERD in Asian countries. H. pylori eradication is not considered pivotal in GERD exacerbation based on evidence from Western studies. A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that eradication therapy of H. pylori was related to a higher risk of developing de novo GERD in Asian studies. H. pylori infection remains an inconclusive and important issue in GERD in Asian countries.
PMCID: PMC4302361  PMID: 25642246
20.  Herbal Substance, Acteoside, Alleviates Intestinal Mucositis in Mice 
This study investigated the role of acteoside in the amelioration of mucositis. C57BL/6 mice were gavaged daily with acteoside 600 μg for 5 d prior to induction of mucositis and throughout the experimental period. Mucositis was induced by methotrexate (MTX; 12.5 mg/kg; s.c.). Mice were culled on d 5 and d 11 after MTX. The duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, metallothionein (MT) levels, and histology. Acteoside reduced histological severity scores by 75, 78, and 88% in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared to MTX-controls on d 5. Acteoside reduced crypt depth by 49, 51, and 33% and increased villus height by 19, 38, and 10% in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared to MTX-controls on d 5. Acteoside decreased MT by 50% compared to MTX-control mice on d 5. Acteoside decreased MPO by 60% and 30% in the duodenum and jejunum, respectively, compared to MTX-controls on d 5. Acteoside alleviated MTX-induced small intestinal mucositis possibly by preventing inflammation.
PMCID: PMC4300033  PMID: 25628651
21.  An Evaluation of the Correlation between Hepcidin Serum Levels and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease 
Aim. While there are many well-defined serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there is limited evidence that they positively affect clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between hepcidin serum levels and disease activity in IBD. Materials and Methods. Eighty-five consecutive IBD patients were enrolled in the study. Hepcidin serum levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and were compared with disease activity as well as the interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results. The mean hepcidin serum levels in Crohn's disease (CD) patients in remission and in the active phase were 3837 ± 1436 and 3752 ± 1274 pg/mL, respectively (P = 0.613). The mean hepcidin serum levels in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients in remission and in the active phase were 4285 ± 8623 and 3727 ± 1176 pg/mL, respectively (P = 0.241). Correlation analysis between inflammatory markers and hepcidin serum levels indicated that there was no correlation between hepcidin levels and IL-6 (P = 0.582) or CRP (P = 0.783). Conclusion. As an acute-phase protein, hepcidin seems to have a lower efficacy than other parameters in the detection of activation in IBD.
PMCID: PMC4299302  PMID: 25628652
22.  Prognostic Value of AIMS65 Score in Cirrhotic Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding 
Introduction. Unlike Rockall scoring system, AIMS65 is based only on clinical and laboratory features. In this study we investigated the correlation between the AIMS65 score and Endoscopic Rockall score, in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients. Methods. This is a retrospective study of patients admitted with overt UGIB and undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). AIMS65 and Rockall scores were calculated at the time of admission. We investigated the correlation between both scores along with stigmata of bleed seen on endoscopy. Results. A total of 1255 patients were studied. 152 patients were cirrhotic while 1103 patients were noncirrhotic. There was significant correlation between AIMS65 and Total Rockall scores in patients of both groups. There was significant correlation between AIMS65 score and Endoscopic Rockall score in noncirrhotics but not cirrhotics. AIMS65 scores in both cirrhotic and noncirrhotic groups were significantly higher in patients who died from UGIB than in patients who did not. Conclusion. We observed statistically significant correlation between AIMS65 score and length of hospitalization and mortality in noncirrhotic patients. We found that AIMS65 score paralleled the endoscopic grading of lesion causing UGIB in noncirrhotics. AIMS65 score correlated only with mortality but not the length of hospitalization or endoscopic stigmata of bleed in cirrhotics.
PMCID: PMC4283417  PMID: 25587269
23.  Hemorrhagic Complications of Paracentesis: A Systematic Review of the Literature 
Introduction. Large volume paracentesis is considered a safe procedure carrying minimal risk of complications and rarely causing morbidity or mortality. The most common complications of the procedure are ascitic fluid leakage, hemorrhage, infection, and perforation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate all hemorrhagic complications and their outcomes and to identify any common variables. Methods. A literature search for all reported hemorrhagic complications following paracentesis was conducted. A total of 61 patients were identified. Data of interest were extracted and analyzed. The primary outcome of the study was 30-day mortality, with secondary endpoints being achievement of hemostasis after intervention and mortality based on type of intervention. Results. 90% of the patients undergoing paracentesis had underlying cirrhosis. Three types of hemorrhagic complications were identified: abdominal wall hematomas (52%), hemoperitoneum (41%), and pseudoaneurysm (7%). Forty percent of the patients underwent either a surgical (35%) or an IR guided intervention (65%). Patients undergoing a surgical intervention had a significantly higher rate of mortality at day 30 compared to those undergoing IR intervention. Conclusion. Abdominal wall hematomas and hemoperitoneum are the most common hemorrhagic complications of paracentesis. Transcatheter coiling and embolization appear to be superior to both open and laparoscopic surgery in treatment of these complications.
PMCID: PMC4280650  PMID: 25580114
24.  Accumulation of Bile in the Gallbladder: Evaluation by means of Serial Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography with Gadolinium Ethoxybenzyl Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of biliary excretion of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) into the biliary tract and to assess the accumulation patterns in the gallbladder using MR cholangiography obtained with Gd-EOB-DTPA which is a liver-specific hepatobiliary contrast agent. Seventy-five patients underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR imaging. Serial multiphasic hepatobiliary phase imaging was qualitatively reviewed to evaluate the process of the biliary excretion of contrast agent into the bile duct and the gallbladder. The accumulation pattern of contrast agent into gallbladder was classified into two groups (group 1 = orthodromic type and group 2 = delayed type). Furthermore, the results in differences of the presence of T1 hyperintense bile or sludge of gallbladder, gall stones, wall thickening of gallbladder, chronic liver disease, and liver cirrhosis between two groups were compared. Forty-eight of 75 patients (64%) were included in group 1, and remaining 27 (36%) were in group 2. The frequency of the presence of T1 hyperintense bile or sludge of gallbladder was significantly higher in patients with group 2 than that in patients with group 1 (P = 0.041). MR cholangiography obtained with Gd-EOB-DTPA showed that there may be an association between the biliary accumulation pattern in the gallbladder and the pathological condition.
PMCID: PMC4280652  PMID: 25580112
25.  The Effectiveness of Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Insertion in Treating Right-Sided Colonic Obstruction: A Comparison between SEMS and Decompression Tube Placement and an Investigation of the Safety and Difficulties of SEMS Insertion in Right Colons 
Objectives. Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) is widely used to treat malignant colonic obstruction. However, most reports about SEMS insertion have concentrated on the left colon. This study aimed to (1) investigate the effectiveness of SEMS insertion compared with conventional decompression tube for right-sided colonic obstruction and (2) compare the safety and technical success of SEMS insertion between left- and right-sided colonic obstructions. Methods. The data from thirty-seven patients who underwent SEMS or conventional decompression tube placement for malignant colonic obstruction in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Technical and clinical success, complications, and technical difficulties were analyzed. We compared the results between SEMS insertion and decompression tube placement in right colons and the outcomes of SEMS insertion between right- and left-sided colonic obstructions. Results. For right colons, the clinical success rate of SEMS insertion (100%) was significantly higher than that of decompression tube placement (55.9%). Concerning SEMS insertion, the technical difficulty and safety of SEMS insertion were similar between right- and left-sided colonic obstructions. Conclusion. SEMS insertion for right-sided colon is significantly more effective than conventional decompression tube placement, and this procedure was safer and less technically challenging than expected. SEMS insertion should be considered for treating right-sided malignant colonic obstruction.
PMCID: PMC4279257  PMID: 25580111

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