Environmental stresses are major factors limiting growth and development of crops. Plants respond to the stresses through a wide range of reactions from morphological changes to alterations in the patterns of protein expression. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the stress response is the first step to develop abiotic stress tolerant crops. Proteomics is a powerful tool in evaluating regulated proteins in the cell under stress and it is an efficient technique in studying stress tolerant plants. Because of the nature of abiotic stress, intracellular compartments play a main role in the stress response. Subcellular proteins such as ion and water transporters, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, and the proteins related to signaling and transcriptional regulation are frequently reported as being involved in stress tolerance. Overexpression of stress-responsive protein through generation of transgenic plants is one the main practical approaches in production of tolerant plants. In this article, recent studies on transgenic plants overexpressing subcellular proteins are reviewed and the role of organelles and over-expressed proteins is classified.
subcellular protein; transgenic; overexpression; abiotic stress
Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) is emerging as an important signaling lipid in abiotic stress responses in plants. The effect of cold stress was monitored using 32P-labeled seedlings and leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Low, non-freezing temperatures were found to trigger a very rapid 32P-PtdOH increase, peaking within 2 and 5 min, respectively. In principle, PtdOH can be generated through three different pathways, i.e., (1) via de novo phospholipid biosynthesis (through acylation of lyso-PtdOH), (2) via phospholipase D hydrolysis of structural phospholipids, or (3) via phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG kinase (DGK). Using a differential 32P-labeling protocol and a PLD-transphosphatidylation assay, evidence is provided that the rapid 32P-PtdOH response was primarily generated through DGK. A simultaneous decrease in the levels of 32P-PtdInsP, correlating in time, temperature dependency, and magnitude with the increase in 32P-PtdOH, suggested that a PtdInsP-hydrolyzing PLC generated the DAG in this reaction. Testing T-DNA insertion lines available for the seven DGK genes, revealed no clear changes in 32P-PtdOH responses, suggesting functional redundancy. Similarly, known cold-stress mutants were analyzed to investigate whether the PtdOH response acted downstream of the respective gene products. The hos1, los1, and fry1 mutants were found to exhibit normal PtdOH responses. Slight changes were found for ice1, snow1, and the overexpression line Super-ICE1, however, this was not cold-specific and likely due to pleiotropic effects. A tentative model illustrating direct cold effects on phospholipid metabolism is presented.
abiotic stress; cold stress; diacylglycerol kinase; lipid signaling; phosphatidic acid; phosphoinositide; phospholipase; plant signaling
Mitochondria are important organelles for providing the ATP and carbon skeletons required to sustain cell growth. While these organelles also participate in other key metabolic functions across species, they have a specialized role in plants of optimizing photosynthesis through participating in photorespiration. It is therefore critical to map the protein composition of mitochondria in plants to gain a better understanding of their regulation and define the uniqueness of their metabolic networks. To date, <30% of the predicted number of mitochondrial proteins has been verified experimentally by proteomics and/or GFP localization studies. In this mini-review, we will provide an overview of the advances in mitochondrial proteomics in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana over the past 5 years. The ultimate goal of mapping the mitochondrial proteome in Arabidopsis is to discover novel mitochondrial components that are critical during development in plants as well as genes involved in developmental abnormalities, such as those implicated in mitochondrial-linked cytoplasmic male sterility.
Arabidopsis thaliana; mitochondria; proteomics; heterogeneity; protein complex; post-translational modifications; functional proteomics
The Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock is an interconnected network highly tractable to systems approaches. Most elements in the transcriptional–translational oscillator were identified by genetic means and the expression of clock genes in various mutants led to the founding hypothesis of a positive–negative feedback loop being the core clock. The identification of additional clock genes beyond those defined in the core led to the use of systems approaches to decipher this angiosperm oscillator circuit. Kinetic modeling was first used to explain periodicity effects of various circadian mutants. This conformed in a flexible way to experimental details. Such observations allowed a recursive use of hypothesis generating from modeling, followed by experimental corroboration. More recently, the biochemical finding of new description of a DNA-binding activity for one class of clock components directed improvements in feature generation, one of which revealed that the core of the oscillator is a negative–negative feedback loop. The recursive use of modeling and experimental validation has thus revealed many essential transcriptional components that drive negative arms in the circadian oscillator. What awaits is to more fully describe the positive arms and an understanding of how additional pathways converge on the clock.
Arabidopsis thaliana; circadian clock; mathematical modeling; light signal transduction; temperature acclimation; hormone signal integration; metabolic signal integration; stress signal integration
The plant secretome refers to the set of proteins secreted out of the plant cell into the surrounding extracellular space commonly referred to as the apoplast. Secreted proteins maintain cell structure and acts in signaling and are crucial for stress responses where they can interact with pathogen effectors and control the extracellular environment. Typically, secreted proteins contain an N-terminal signal peptide and are directed through the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pathway. However, in plants many proteins found in the secretome lack such a signature and might follow alternative ways of secretion. This review covers techniques to isolate plant secretomes and how to identify and quantify their constituent proteins. Furthermore, bioinformatical tools to predict secretion signals and define the putative secretome are presented. Findings from proteomic studies and important protein families of plant secretomes, such as proteases and hydrolases, are highlighted.
apoplast; mass spectrometry; plant; proteomics; secretome
In response to insect herbivory, Arabidopsis plants activate the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonate-isoleucine, which binds to a complex consisting of the receptor COI1 and JAZ repressors. Upon proteasome-mediated JAZ degradation, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs) MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 become activated and this results in the expression of defense genes. Although the jasmonate (JA) pathway is known to be essential for the massive transcriptional reprogramming that follows herbivory, there is however little information on other TFs that are required for defense against herbivores and whether they contribute significantly to JA-dependent defense gene expression. By transcriptome profiling, we identified 41 TFs that were induced in response to herbivory by the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Among them, nine genes, including WRKY18, WRKY40, ANAC019, ANAC055, ZAT10, ZAT12, AZF2, ERF13, and RRTF1, were found to play a significant role in resistance to S. littoralis herbivory. Compared to the triple mutant myc234 that is as sensitive as coi1-1 to herbivory, knockout lines of these nine TFs were only partially more sensitive to S. littoralis but, however, some displayed distinct gene expression changes at the whole-genome level. Data thus reveal that MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 are master regulators of Arabidopsis resistance to a generalist herbivore and identify new genes involved in insect defense.
Arabidopsis thaliana; Spodoptera littoralis; transcription factors; defense; MYC2; MYC3; MYC4
Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects.
crops; medicinal plants; proteomics; salt-responsive proteins; secondary metabolites
During infection, many RNA viruses produce characteristic inclusion bodies that contain both viral and host components. These structures were first described over a century ago and originally termed “X-bodies,” as their function was not immediately appreciated. Whilst some inclusion bodies may represent cytopathic by-products of viral protein over-accumulation, X-bodies have emerged as virus “factories,” quasi-organelles that coordinate diverse viral infection processes such as replication, protein expression, evasion of host defenses, virion assembly, and intercellular transport. Accordingly, they are now generally referred to as viral replication complexes (VRCs). We previously used confocal fluorescence microscopy to unravel the complex structure of X-bodies produced by Potato virus X (PVX). Here we used 3D-structured illumination (3D-SIM) super-resolution microscopy to map the PVX X-body at a finer scale. We identify a previously unrecognized membrane structure induced by the PVX “triple gene block” (TGB) proteins, providing new insights into the complex interplay between virus and host within the X-body.
PVX; viral replication complex; 3D-SIM; super-resolution; TGB proteins; endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi
Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) triple gene block 3 (TGB3) protein is involved in viral movement. AltMV TGB3 subcellular localization was previously shown to be distinct from that of Potato virus X (PVX) TGB3, and a chloroplast binding domain identified; veinal necrosis and chloroplast vesiculation were observed in Nicotiana benthamiana when AltMV TGB3 was over-expressed from PVX. Plants with over-expressed TGB3 showed more lethal damage under dark conditions than under light. Yeast-two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) reveal that Arabidopsis thaliana PsbO1 has strong interactions with TGB3; N. benthamiana PsbO (NbPsbO) also showed obvious interaction signals with TGB3 through BiFC. These results demonstrate an important role for TGB3 in virus cell-to-cell movement and virus-host plant interactions. The Photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex protein PsbO interaction with TGB3 is presumed to have a crucial role in symptom development and lethal damage under dark conditions. In order to further examine interactions between AtPsbO1, NbPsbO, and TGB3, and to identify the binding domain(s) in TGB3 protein, BiFC assays were performed between AtPsbO1 or NbPsbO and various mutants of TGB3. Interactions with C-terminally deleted TGB3 were significantly weaker than those with wild-type TGB3, and both N-terminally deleted TGB3 and a TGB3 mutant previously shown to lose chloroplast interactions failed to interact detectably with PsbO in BiFC. To gain additional information about TGB3 interactions in AltMV-susceptible plants, we cloned 12 natural AltMV TGB3 sequence variants into a PVX expression vector to examine differences in symptom development in N. benthamiana. Symptom differences were observed on PVX over-expression, with all AltMV TGB3 variants showing more severe symptoms than the WT PVX control, but without obvious correlation to sequence differences.
AltMV; potexvirus; TGB3; chloroplast; PsbO
High-throughput protein localization studies require multiple strategies. Mass spectrometric analysis of defined cellular fractions is one of the complementary approaches to a diverse array of cell biological methods. In recent years, the protein content of different cellular (sub-)compartments was approached. Despite of all the efforts made, the analysis of membrane fractions remains difficult, in that the dissection of the proteomes of the envelope membranes of chloroplasts or mitochondria is often not reliable because sample purity is not always warranted. Moreover, proteomic studies are often restricted to single (model) species, and therefore limited in respect to differential individual evolution. In this study we analyzed the chloroplast envelope proteomes of different plant species, namely, the individual proteomes of inner and outer envelope (OE) membrane of Pisum sativum and the mixed envelope proteomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago sativa. The analysis of all three species yielded 341 identified proteins in total, 247 of them being unique. 39 proteins were genuine envelope proteins found in at least two species. Based on this and previous envelope studies we defined the core envelope proteome of chloroplasts. Comparing the general overlap of the available six independent studies (including ours) revealed only a number of 27 envelope proteins. Depending on the stringency of applied selection criteria we found 231 envelope proteins, while less stringent criteria increases this number to 649 putative envelope proteins. Based on the latter we provide a map of the outer and inner envelope core proteome, which includes many yet uncharacterized proteins predicted to be involved in transport, signaling, and response. Furthermore, a foundation for the functional characterization of yet unidentified functions of the inner and OE for further analyses is provided.
membrane proteome; plant proteomics; chloroplast membrane proteins; mass spectrometry; envelope membrane proteome approach comparison
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is both a major crop species and the key model grass for molecular and physiological research. Mitochondria are important in rice, as in all crops, as the main source of ATP for cell maintenance and growth. However, the practical significance of understanding the function of mitochondria in rice is increased by the widespread farming practice of using hybrids to boost rice production. This relies on cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines with abortive pollen caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. We provide an overview of what is known about the mitochondrial proteome of rice seedlings. To date, more than 320 proteins have been identified in purified rice mitochondria using mass spectrometry. The insights from this work include a broad understanding of the major subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and TCA cycle enzymes, carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes as well as details of the supporting machinery for biogenesis and the subset of stress-responsive mitochondrial proteins. Many proteins with unknown functions have also been found in rice mitochondria. Proteomic analysis has also revealed the features of rice mitochondrial protein presequences required for mitochondrial targeting, as well as cleavage site features for processing of precursors after import. Changes in the abundance of rice mitochondrial proteins in response to different stresses, especially anoxia and light, are summarized. Future research on quantitative analysis of the rice mitochondrial proteomes at the spatial and developmental level, its response to environmental stresses and recent advances in understanding of the basis of rice CMS systems are highlighted.
rice; mitochondrial proteome; mitochondrial proteins; development; stress response
Cell wall proteins play key roles in cell structure and metabolism, cell enlargement, signal transduction, responses to environmental stress, and many other physiological events. Agricultural crops are often used for investigating stress tolerance because cultivars with differing degrees of tolerance are available. Abiotic and biotic stress factors markedly influence the geographical distribution and yields of many crop species. Crop cell wall proteomics is of particular importance for improving crop productivity, particularly under unfavorable environmental conditions. To better understand the mechanisms underlying stress response in crops, cell wall proteomic analyses are being increasingly utilized. In this review, the methods of purification and purity assays of cell wall protein fractions from crops are described, and the results of protein identification using gel-based and gel-free proteomic techniques are presented. Furthermore, protein composition of the cell walls of rice, wheat, maize, and soybean are compared, and the role of cell wall proteins in crops under flooding and drought stress is discussed. This review will be useful for clarifying the role of the cell wall of crops in response to environmental stresses.
crop; proteomics; cell wall; drought stress; flooding stress
Biofortification (increasing the contents of vitamins and minerals through plant breeding or biotechnology) of food crops with micronutrient elements has the potential to combat widespread micronutrient deficiencies in humans. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) feeds more than half of the world’s population and is used as a staple food in many parts of Asia. As in other plants, micronutrient transport in rice is controlled at several stages, including uptake from soil, transport from root to shoot, careful control of subcellular micronutrient transport, and finally, and most importantly, transport to seeds. To enhance micronutrient accumulation in rice seeds, we need to understand and carefully regulate all of these processes. During the last decade, numerous attempts such as increasing the contents/expression of genes encoding metal chelators (mostly phytosiderophores) and metal transporters; Fe storage protein ferritin and phytase were successfully undertaken to significantly increase the micronutrient content of rice. However, despite the rapid progress in biofortification of rice, the commercialization of biofortified crops has not yet been achieved. Here, we briefly review the progress in biofortification of rice with micronutrient elements (Fe, Zn, and Mn) and discuss future prospects to mitigate widespread micronutrient deficiencies in humans.
biofortification; biosafety; iron; micronutrient transport; Oryza sativa L.; zinc
Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement, and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton, and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.
membrane transport; microfilaments; microtubules; plant virus; vesicle trafficking; tobamovirus
Chloroplast biogenesis involves the co-ordinated expression of the chloroplast and nuclear genomes, requiring information to be sent from the developing chloroplasts to the nucleus. This is achieved through retrograde signaling pathways and can be demonstrated experimentally using the photobleaching herbicide, norflurazon, which in seedlings results in chloroplast damage and the reduced expression of many photosynthesis-related, nuclear genes. Genetic analysis of this pathway points to a major role for tetrapyrrole synthesis in retrograde signaling, as well as a strong interaction with light signaling pathways. Currently, the best model to explain the genetic data is that a specific heme pool generated by flux through ferrochelatase-1 functions as a positive signal to promote the expression of genes required for chloroplast development. We propose that this heme-related signal is the primary positive signal during chloroplast biogenesis, and that treatments and mutations affecting chloroplast transcription, RNA editing, translation, or protein import all impact on the synthesis and/or processing of this signal. A positive signal is consistent with the need to provide information on chloroplast status at all times. We further propose that GUN1 normally serves to restrict the production of the heme signal. In addition to a positive signal re-enforcing chloroplast development under normal conditions, aberrant chloroplast development may produce a negative signal due to accumulation of unbound chlorophyll biosynthesis intermediates, such as Mg-porphyrins. Under these conditions a rapid shut-down of tetrapyrrole synthesis is required. We propose that accumulation of these intermediates results in a rapid light-dependent inhibition of nuclear gene expression that is most likely mediated via singlet oxygen generated by photo-excitation of Mg-porphyrins. Thus, the tetrapyrrole pathway may provide both positive and inhibitory signals to control expression of nuclear genes.
retrograde signaling; photomorphogenesis; heme; protochlorophyllide; chlorophyll; ferrochelatase; gun mutants; singlet oxygen
One major constraint upon the application of molecular crop breeding approaches is the small number of genes linked to agronomically desirable traits through defined biochemical mechanisms. Proteomic investigations of crop plants under abiotic stress treatments have identified many proteins that differ in control versus stress comparisons, however, this broad profiling of cell physiology is poorly suited to ranking the effects and identifying the specific proteins that are causative in agronomically relevant traits. Here we will reason that insights into a protein’s function, its biochemical process and links to stress tolerance are more likely to arise through approaches that evaluate these differential abundances of proteins and include varietal comparisons, precise discrimination of protein isoforms, enrichment of functionally related proteins, and integration of proteomic datasets with physiological measurements of both lab and field-grown plants. We will briefly explain how applying the emerging proteomic technology of multiplexed selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry with its accuracy and throughput can facilitate and enhance these approaches and provide a clear means to rank the growing cohort of stress responsive proteins. We will also highlight the benefit of integrating proteomic analyses with cultivar-specific genetic databases and physiological assessments of cultivar performance in relevant field environments for revealing deeper insights into molecular crop improvement.
abiotic stress; molecular breeding; wheat; barley; rice; selected reaction monitoring; proteomics
Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin and jasmonate signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS, invertases, and trehalose-6-phosphate) might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of “sweet immunity,” modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.
circadian clock; DELLA; flowering time; invertase; PIF; sugar signaling; sweet immunity; T6P
The evolution of the plant immune response has resulted in a highly effective defense system that is able to resist potential attack by microbial pathogens. The primary immune response is referred to as pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered immunity and has evolved to recognize common features of microbial pathogens. In response to the delivery of pathogen effector proteins, plants acquired R proteins to fight against pathogen attack. R-dependent defense response is important in understanding the biochemical and cellular mechanisms and underlying these interactions will enable molecular and transgenic approaches for crops with increased biotic resistance. Proteomic analyses are particularly useful for understanding the mechanisms of host plant against the pathogen attack. Recent advances in the field of proteome analyses have initiated a new research area, i.e., the analysis of more complex microbial communities and their interaction with plant. Such areas hold great potential to elucidate, not only the interactions between bacteria and their host plants, but also of bacteria-bacteria interactions between different bacterial taxa, symbiotic, pathogenic bacteria, and commensal bacteria. During biotic stress, plant hormonal signaling pathways prioritizes defense over other cellular functions. Some plant pathogens take advantage of hormone dependent regulatory system by mimicking hormones that interfere with host immune responses to promote virulence (vir). In this review, it is discussed the cross talk that plays important role in response to pathogens attack with different infection strategies using proteomic approaches.
pathogen associated molecular patter; pattern recognition receptors; effector triggered immunity; virulence; pathogenic bacteria; symbiotic bacteria; proteomics
Several recent publications reported different subcellular localization of the sucrose transporters belonging to the SUT4 subfamily. The physiological function of the SUT4 sucrose transporters requires clarification, because down-regulation of the members of the SUT4 clade had different effects in rice, poplar, and potato. Here, we provide new data for the localization and function of the Solanaceous StSUT4 protein, further elucidating involvement in the onset of flowering, tuberization and in the shade avoidance syndrome of potato plants. Induction of an early flowering and a tuberization in the SUT4-inhibited potato plants correlates with increased sucrose export from leaves and increased sucrose and starch accumulation in terminal sink organs, such as developing tubers. SUT4 affects expression of the enzymes involved in gibberellin and ethylene biosynthesis, as well as the rate of ethylene biosynthesis in potato. In the SUT4-inhibited plants, the ethylene production no longer follows a diurnal rhythm. Thus it was concluded that StSUT4 controls circadian gene expression, potentially by regulating sucrose export from leaves. Furthermore, SUT4 expression affects clock-regulated genes such as StFT, StSOC1, and StCO, which might be also involved in a photoperiod-dependent tuberization. A model is proposed in which StSUT4 controls a phloem-mobile signaling molecule generated in leaves, which together with enhanced sucrose export affects developmental switches in apical meristems. SUT4 seems to link photoreceptor-perceived information about the light quality and day length with phytohormone biosynthesis and the expression of circadian-regulated genes.
flowering; shade avoidance syndrome; sucrose transport; ethylene
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible defense mechanism in plants that confers enhanced resistance against a variety of pathogens. SAR is activated in the uninfected systemic (distal) organs in response to a prior (primary) infection elsewhere in the plant. SAR is associated with the activation of salicylic acid (SA) signaling and the priming of defense responses for robust activation in response to subsequent infections. The activation of SAR requires communication by the primary infected tissues with the distal organs. The vasculature functions as a conduit for the translocation of factors that facilitate long-distance intra-plant communication. In recent years, several metabolites putatively involved in long-distance signaling have been identified. These include the methyl ester of SA (MeSA), the abietane diterpenoid dehydroabietinal (DA), the dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid (AzA), and a glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P)-dependent factor. Long-distance signaling by some of these metabolites also requires the lipid-transfer protein DIR1 (DEFECTIVE IN INDUCED RESISTANCE 1). The relative contribution of these factors in long-distance signaling is likely influenced by environmental conditions, for example light. In the systemic leaves, the AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN1 (ALD1)-dependent production of the lysine catabolite pipecolic acid (Pip), FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1) signaling, as well as SA synthesis and downstream signaling are required for the activation of SAR. This review summarizes the involvement and interaction between long-distance SAR signals and details the recently discovered role of Pip in defense amplification and priming that allows plants to acquire immunity at the systemic level. Recent advances in SA signaling and perception are also highlighted.
azelaic acid; dehydroabietinal; glycerol-3-phosphate; methyl salicylate; pipecolic acid; DIR1