This report describes a case of liver failure secondary to pancreatoduodenectomy and rapid recovery following treatment. A 68-year-old woman with cancer on the ampulla of Vater underwent surgery for pancreatoduodenectomy. The patient developed liver failure 3 months postsurgically. She was hospitalized after presenting with jaundice, hypoalbuminemia and decreased serum zinc. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a reduction in CT attenuation values postoperatively. We suspected fatty liver due to impaired absorption caused by pancreatoduodenectomy. We initiated treatment with branched-chain amino acids and a zinc formulation orally. Trace elements were administered intravenously. Two months after treatment, there was a noticeable improvement in CT findings. The patient's jaundice and hypoalbuminemia prompted a liver biopsy, which led to a diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Pancreatoduodenectomy; Liver failure; Zinc; Fatty liver; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
Two cases of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix successfully treated by laparoscopy are reported. An 81-year-old woman with lower right back pain was diagnosed with mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix or appendiceal carcinoma and underwent elective laparoscopic surgery. The other case involved a 70-year-old man with hematochezia who was diagnosed with mucinous cystadenoma. He also underwent elective laparoscopic surgery. In these two cases, gauze was folded around the tumors rather than grasping them directly. The postoperative courses were uneventful, and these patients had no recurrent disease at 2-year follow-up. In such cases, surgical excision of the tumor without rupture is of paramount importance because rupture of the lesion can cause pseudomyxoma peritonei. Though appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma has been considered a contraindication of laparoscopic resection, it was possible to achieve this by using a laparoscopic procedure with a gauze technique.
Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix; Laparoscopic surgery
A 75-year-old woman with abdominal pain and vomiting was admitted to our hospital. Colonoscopy showed an advanced colon cancer that encompassed the entire circumference of the descending colon's lumen. The patient was diagnosed with occlusive ileus associated with the colon cancer. She had been watched for liver cirrhosis due to the hepatitis C virus and received radiofrequency ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 6 years previously. Although she exhibited a gradual increase in serum levels of α-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II starting 2 years before admission, no tumors were detected in the liver by abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography. On admission, contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed not only the colon cancer but also a tumor adjacent to the cecum. Both tumors were successfully removed by surgery and a pathological analysis revealed that the cecum tumor was poorly-differentiated HCC. The serum levels of α-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II declined markedly after the operation and no masses considered as peritoneal metastasis have been detected to date. This is the first report of the simultaneous resection of disseminated HCC and colon cancer.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Radiofrequency ablation; Peritoneal metastasis; Tumor seeding
High-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN-3) is recognized as a precursor lesion of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). However, histological evidence that PanIN-3 invades beyond the basement membrane of pancreatic ductal epithelium, that is, the moment PanIN-3 becomes IDC, has not been captured yet. This may be because PanINs which are microscopic papillary or flat lesion rarely develop clinical symptoms and are not detectable on imaging examination. On the other hand, most IDCs were found in the advanced stage with massive invasion. In this report, PanIN-3 obstructed several branch pancreatic ducts and subsequently caused pancreatitis which developed clinical symptom and was detectable as a pancreatic mass in imaging studies. A 65-year-old woman was referred to our institution for further examination of her repeated pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a low echoic mass of 13 mm in diameter in the pancreatic body without upstream dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography showed a strictured segment of 2 mm in length in the MPD at the pancreatic body. Cytological examination of pancreatic juice revealed adenocarcinoma and distal pancreatectomy was performed. A resected specimen revealed a whitish mass of 15 mm in diameter in the pancreatic body, which was identified as pancreatitis by histological examination. Papillary growth of PanIN-3 was seen mainly in the branch ducts. Each PanIN-3 was located separately in the branch ducts with normal epithelia in the MPD between them. In three adjacent branch ducts, PanIN-3 was observed to be invading microscopically beyond the basement membrane.
PanIN-3; Microinvasion; Precursor lesion
Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice is a popular herbal dietary supplement globally used for preventive or therapeutic purposes in a variety of ailments, claiming to exhibit hepatoprotective properties as well. Herein we present the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed acute liver injury associated with noni juice consumption on a long-term (9 months) anticonvulsant therapy. Clinical presentation and liver biopsy were consistent with severe, predominantly hepatocellular type of injury. Both agents were stopped and corticosteroids were initiated. Five months later the patient had fully recovered. Although in the literature the hepatotoxicity of noni juice remains speculative, sporadic but emerging cases of noni juice-associated liver injury address the need to clarify and investigate potential harmful effects associated with this supplement.
Drug-induced liver injury; Herb-induced liver injury; Noni juice; Phenobarbital
We report the case of a 52-year-old man with HIV-AIDS, non-complaint with highly active antiretroviral therapy, who presented with long-standing dysphagia. He was treated for three episodes of severe Candida esophagitis with fluconazole and later caspofungin due to poor response. In spite of the prolonged treatment courses the patient did not report an improvement in his symptoms. He was also concomitantly being treated for other opportunistic infections including cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis with i.v. foscarnet for almost 2 months prior to the index presentation. Upper esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple superficial ulcers with stricturing. Bougie dilatation was attempted but failed. The biopsy specimens revealed multiple intracellular inclusion bodies pathognomonic of CMV infection. We aim to highlight the increasing resistance of CMV to conventional first-line antiviral agents such as foscarnet.
Cytomegalovirus esophagitisM; Foscarnet-resistant cytomegalovirus; Cytomegalovirus infection in HIV; Esophagitis in HIV
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is an often progressive, persistent and frequently life-threatening disease, described for the first time as characterized by ulceration of the upper jejunum, hypersecretion of gastric acid and non-beta islet cell tumors of the pancreas; this syndrome is due to the hypersecretion of gastrin. We report a case of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome presenting as severe esophagitis evolving in stenosis, which demonstrates how a delayed diagnosis may induce risk of disease spreading. In this setting new diagnostic approaches, such as somatostatin receptor scanning and positron emission tomography with 68 Ga-labeled octreotide, could be particularly useful, as well as further new therapeutic options, such as molecular targeted treatments and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, though surgery is currently the only form of curative treatment, and the role of the therapeutic options mentioned needs to be clarified by forthcoming studies.
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; Esophageal strictures; Octreoscan; Positron emission tomography
Biliary cystadenomas are rare tumors of the bile ducts most commonly presenting as large right liver lobe lesions. These are usually slow-growing and mostly benign. They commonly present with abdominal pain. On physical exam an abdominal mass can be identified occasionally. Walls of biliary cystadenomas appear thicker than simple cysts, with soft tissue nodules and enhancing septations on CT or MRI. Radiographic images can vary with the amount of protein content in the fluid on CT or MRI. Due to the risk of malignant transformation, complete surgical resection is advised. Hereby, we describe a 37-year-old lady who presented to the outpatient clinic with bloating and abdominal discomfort with intermittent elevated liver enzymes and hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound of the liver and bile ducts followed by CT scan and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography confirmed the presence of biliary cystadenoma of the intra- and extrahepatic ducts. It was seen as a filling defect of the intra- and extrahepatic ducts (common hepatic duct) on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Involvement of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts simultaneously is a rare presentation of this tumor. She later on underwent exploratory laparotomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection, left hepatic lobe resection and reconstruction with hepaticojejunostomy. Pathology confirmed the presence of biliary cystadenoma with ovarian-like stroma. She had recovered uneventfully from the surgery when seen 2 weeks later in the clinic. Biliary cystadenoma is a rare, mostly benign neoplasm of the biliary tract that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the biliary tract.
Biliary tumor; Cyst; Biliary cyst
Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is a common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, the majority of cases of which are clinically silent. Patients with asymptomatic MD can unexpectedly develop acute abdominal pain. Making a diagnosis of MD is often difficult due to the lack of specific symptoms caused by this condition. Diagnostic laparotomy can be useful for making an accurate and prompt diagnosis of complicated MD. We herein describe a pediatric case of torsion of a MD in whom we performed laparoscopic-assisted emergency surgery. The patient was an 11-year-old male who developed sudden severe right lower abdominal pain. Clinical and laboratory findings were suggestive of appendicitis, however computed tomography scans showed a large cystic mass in the pelvis. Exploratory laparoscopy led to a diagnosis of torsion of a MD, and wedge resection of the gangrenous MD was performed through an umbilical port incision. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. We conclude that diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparoscopy-assisted Meckel's diverticulectomy via an umbilical incision is useful in the treatment of acute abdomen caused by MD.
Meckel's diverticulum; Acute abdomen; Bowel obstruction; Emergency surgery
Involvement of the serosa may be the presenting feature in a wide and complex variety of lymphoproliferative diseases, with differing clinical outcomes covering a spectrum of benign and malignant conditions. Effusions involving peritoneal and pericardial cavities are uncommon during the course of hematological malignancies. Obstructive and/or infiltrative tumor mass or vascular leakage due to stimulation by vascular endothelial growth factor contribute to the pathogenesis. In addition to clinical findings, cytomorphology and flow cytometric immunophenotyping of the serosal fluid yield valuable information in the differential diagnosis of lymphocytic infiltrates. Herein, we describe the case of primary mantle cell lymphoma in a 75-year-old man presenting with abdominal fullness and weight loss, suggesting a gastrointestinal pathology.
Cytomorphology; Effusions involving peritoneal and pericardial cavities; Flow cytometric immunophenotyping; Lymphoproliferative diseases; Mantle cell lymphoma
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are diseases that occur primarily in adolescence and early adult life. A second peak of IBD incidence occurs at the age of 50–80 years, while reports of first diagnosis after the age of 80 years are extremely rare. It is difficult to establish the true incidence of IBD in older patients due to problems of case definition, population, and particularly because it may be confused with other clinical conditions. A 91-year-old man was admitted to the Emergency Department with progressively worsening abdominal pain and 2–4 episodes of bloody diarrhea daily for the last month. Similar symptoms were not reported by the patient or his family during the past. Complete blood count and biochemical tests were normal, while stool examination showed erythrocytes and white blood cells. Pelvic CT showed inflammatory changes and loss of homogeneity in the perirectal fat together with considerable bowel wall thickening of both the rectum and sigmoid. Colonoscopy revealed edema, hyperemia and spontaneous friability, as well as microulcerations of the rectosigmoid mucosa. Tissue biopsies revealed histopathological lesions compatible with IBD. Finally the patient was treated with metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and mesalazine, with clear clinical improvement during the 5th day of treatment, and was finally discharged with almost normal stools. In conclusion, we report the case of first diagnosis of IBD in a 91-year-old man. The prevalence of IBD in patients aged >80 years is difficult to determine. Diagnostic tools are the same as for other age groups, but diagnosis may be difficult because there are a number of clinical conditions that may mimic IBD at this age. The treatment options are those used in younger patients, but special precautions should be taken.
Inflammatory bowel disease; Ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease; Bloody diarrhea; Elderly
Hypoglycemia is a rare paraneoplastic manifestation of patients with neoplasms. Hypoglycemia can be induced by several causes, including an aberrant increase of hypoglycemic agents and adrenal insufficiency. Sorafenib is the first agent to demonstrate a survival benefit in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This small molecule inhibits serine/threonine kinase RAF in tumor cells and tyrosine kinases VEGFR/PDGFR in tumor vasculature and decreases tumor growth and angiogenesis. In this paper, we report a case of HCC who was treated with sorafenib and showed severe hypoglycemia. This hypoglycemia might be induced by two causes, both adrenal insufficiency as an adverse effect of sorafenib and activation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signal by excessive secretion of incompletely processed precursors of IGF-II. Although the IGF signal is suggested to be involved in aberrant growth of HCC in some cases, there is no other report showing the influence of sorafenib on HCC with active IGF signal. Unfortunately, the effect of sorafenib was limited in the present case. However, emerging drugs that directly inhibit the IGF signal can be expected to be highly effective in the treatment of HCC with hypoglycemia.
IGF-II; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Sorafenib; Metabolic complications; Molecular targeting therapy; IGF signal; Hypoglycemia
We report the rare case of a 72-year-old man with double cancers (gastric adenocarcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma) with collision between gastric adenocarcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Abdominal computed tomography showed increased wall thickness in the fundus region of the stomach and multiple lymph node swellings in the lesser curvature, periceliac and left cardial regions. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed an ulcer approximately 5 cm in diameter with a malignant appearance in the fundus region of the stomach. On histopathologic examination, two completely different tumors were recognized in the stomach. One tumor was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma characterized by poorly developed tubular structures associated with prominent lymphoid infiltration of the stroma. The other tumor was found to have proliferated in the wall of the stomach, with diffuse granulomatous lesions and bordering the adenocarcinoma. Large atypical lymphoid cells with prominent nucleoli and enlarged mononuclei or multinuclei were seen in the latter tumor. Hodgkin's lymphoma was also found in the swollen lesser curvature lymph nodes. As a result, gastric adenocarcinoma and metastasis of Hodgkin's lymphoma were collided in the stomach. In conclusion, this case might be helpful in exploring the occurrence mechanism of tumor collision between lymphoma and carcinoma.
Synchronous; Gastric adenocarcinoma; Hodgkin's lymphoma; Collision
Intentional ingestion of foreign bodies is common in psychiatric patients and prison inmates. Timing of endoscopy for ingested foreign bodies varies and depends on the type and location of the foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract. We present the case of a 26-year-old man who was brought from a correctional facility after confessing to have swallowed a few shower curtain hooks. Abdominal X-ray done in the emergency room revealed multiple foreign bodies in the stomach. An upper endoscopy was done in the emergency room with the use of an overtube. The first metal piece was caught by a snare and removed with the endoscope. All other foreign bodies which were present on the abdominal X-ray could not be visualized initially as there was retained food in the stomach. After multiple attempts, four other foreign bodies were found and each one was caught by the forceps and then the scope was removed with the forceps holding the foreign body. There was an additional foreign body in the right mainstem bronchus. The patient had coughed up the foreign body and swallowed it into the gastrointestinal tract. A computed tomography scan of chest and abdomen was done for evaluation, which showed the foreign body in the cecum. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient intentionally transferring a foreign body from one organ system to another. Colonoscopy was done and the foreign body was removed rectally with a snare without any complications.
Foreign bodies in the stomach; Bronchus; Colon
Adalimumab (ADA) is applied to induce remission in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) naïve to chimeric anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α), infliximab or patients with loss of response to scheduled maintenance infliximab. Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) depletes elevated/activated myeloid lineage leucocytes as sources of inflammatory cytokines and has been used to treat patients with CD. This study was to investigate the efficacy of intensive GMA in combination with ADA as remission induction therapy in cases of CD refractory to medications including anti-TNF-α therapies. Between December 2010 and February 2012, 5 consecutive cases with refractory CD were treated with intensive GMA (2 sessions per week) plus ADA to induce remission. CD activity index (CDAI), C-reactive protein (CRP), and endoscopic findings based on the simple endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD) at baseline and 10 weeks post 5 ADA injections were applied to determine treatment efficacy outcomes. At week 10 post ADA treatment, clinical remission together with normal CRP levels were achieved in all 5 cases, while SES-CD scores reflected marked improvement in 3 cases and partial improvement in 2 cases who had extensive deep longitudinal CD lesions. The CDAI and CRP values at baseline were 324 ± 118 and 4.9 ± 3.3 mg/dl, respectively. The corresponding values after treatment were 100 ± 28 (p = 0.024) and 0.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (p = 0.038). In these 5 cases with medication-refractory CD, combination therapy with intensive GMA followed by 5 ADA shots appeared to be an effective and safe intervention for inducing clinical remission.
Refractory Crohn's disease; Adalimumab; Intensive adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis; Clinical remission; Simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a commonly used procedure in patients with suspected endocarditis. A rare but dreadful complication of this procedure is perforation of the esophagus. We report the case of an elderly female with multiple comorbidities, who presented with polyarticular septic arthritis. TEE was performed to rule out endocarditis. Though the standard procedure protocol was followed, she developed esophageal perforation. It was managed with esophageal stenting but she developed multiorgan failure and did not survive. This case highlights the potential of severe morbidity and mortality associated with TEE. Appropriate screening must be done and high-risk individuals must be identified before such procedures are attempted.
Esophageal perforation; Transesophageal echocardiography; Esophagitis; Esophageal stenting
We report a rare case of angiosarcoma involving the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, lung and vertebrae, as well as bulky dissemination in the pleuroperitoneal membranes. A 72-year-old man with no history of illness became aware of melena. Laboratory findings revealed anemia, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed multiple reddish nodules in the stomach and duodenum. However, biopsy specimens showed no evidence of histological features. Computed tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed space-occupying lesions in the spleen, liver and vertebrae. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy of the spleen and repeated endoscopic biopsy of the stomach. We performed laparoscopic splenectomy to avoid rupture of the involved spleen. Due to continuous gastrointestinal bleeding, double balloon endoscopy was performed and multiple bleeding lesions were detected throughout the small intestine. Surgical hemostasis was performed by partial enterectomy, but anemia continued to worsen. Therefore, we conducted transcatheter arterial embolization. Despite attempting several modalities and frequent daily blood transfusion, the anemia did not improve, and the patient expired due to hemorrhagic shock. Subsequent autopsy revealed the cause of death as rupture and bleeding due to disseminated involvement of the small intestine.
Angiosarcoma; Hemangiosarcoma; Gastrointestinal tract; Endoscopic biopsy; Capsule endoscopy; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy; Double balloon endoscopy; Laparoscopic surgery
A 56-year-old woman with a history of gynecological surgery for cervical cancer 18 years previously was referred to our hospital for colicky abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Intestinal obstruction was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) which showed dilation of the small intestine and suggested obstruction in the terminal ileum. In addition, CT showed a thick-walled cavitary lesion communicating with the proximal jejunum. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed abnormal uptake at the same location as the cavitary lesion revealed by CT. The patient underwent laparotomy for the ileus and resection of the cavitary lesion. At laparotomy, we found a retained surgical sponge in the ileum 60 cm from the ileocecal valve. The cavitary tumor had two fistulae communicating with the proximal jejunum. The tumor was resected en bloc together with the transverse colon, part of the jejunum and the duodenum. Microscopic examination revealed fibrous encapsulation and foreign body giant cell reaction. Since a retained surgical sponge without radiopaque markers is extremely difficult to diagnose, retained surgical sponge should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intestinal obstruction in patients who have undergone previous abdominal surgery.
Retained surgical sponge; Gossypiboma; Textiloma; Intestinal obstruction; Ileus
Pleomorphic carcinoma is a rare lesion and the literature contains few reports of pleomorphic carcinoma of the gallbladder. The present study reports a rare case of primary pleomorphic carcinoma of the gallbladder for which we were able to perform curative surgery. A 77-year-old woman with dementia developed nausea and anorexia, and computed tomography demonstrated irregular thickening of the gallbladder wall. Drip infusion cholangiography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed no stenosis of the common and intrahepatic bile ducts. We suspected carcinoma of the gallbladder without lymph node metastasis and invasion to the common bile duct. We guessed it to be resectable and performed open laparotomy. At operation, the fundus of the gallbladder was adherent to the transverse colon, but no lymph node and distant metastases were detected. Therefore, we performed curative cholecystectomy with partial colectomy. Histopathology and immunostaining showed coexistence of an adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and sarcomatous tumor of spindle-shaped cell, as well as transition zones between these tumors. We diagnosed stage I pleomorphic carcinoma of the gallbladder. No recurrence has been observed for one and a half years. The biological behavior of pleomorphic carcinoma of the gallbladder remains unknown. It will be necessary to accumulate more case reports of this tumor in order to define diagnostic criteria.
Gallbladder; Pleomorphic carcinoma; Squamous cell carcinoma; Spindle cell; WHO classification
In the acute stage of pancreatitis, sinistral portal hypertension is a rare reason for gastric variceal bleeding. Here we report a 20-year-old female patient with massive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage 7 days after an episode of severe acute pancreatitis. Computed tomography showed gastric varices caused by splenic venous thrombosis. Emergency endoscopic examination was performed, however tissue adhesive utilized to restrain the bleeding was not successful. Although interventional therapy was controversial to treat the gastric variceal hemorrhage resulting from sinistral portal hypertension, the bleeding was successfully treated by embolization of the splenic artery combined with short gastric vein. Two weeks after the interventional the patient was discharged from our hospital without recurrence of bleeding. Embolization of the splenic artery combined with short gastric vein proved to be an effective emergency therapeutic method for gastric variceal bleeding caused by sinistral portal hypertension in the acute stage of pancreatitis.
Severe acute pancreatitis; Gastric varices; Splenic artery embolization
Iliopsoas muscle hematoma in a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis is rarely seen, however it has a high mortality. Thus we should cautiously make a diagnosis and treatment. This is the case of a 60-year-old male. He had a 15-year history of alcoholic liver disease and emphysema. He presented with low back pain after a fall that had happened 2 months before. Due to persistent back pain, he went to see a local physician who, after detailed examination, suspected rupture of bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms and transferred the patient to our hospital. The same presumptive diagnosis was made, and on this basis, an aortic bifemoral Y-graft was implanted. He developed aspiration pneumonia and hepatic and renal dysfunction postoperatively, which led to multiple organ failure and subsequent in-hospital death on postoperative day 62. This was believed to be a case of iliopsoas muscle hematoma developed in a patient with liver cirrhosis, and considering it was a case with poor surgical risk, a conservative treatment option such as transcatheter arterial embolization should also have been considered. Although iliopsoas muscle hematoma with alcoholic liver cirrhosis is rare, an appropriate treatment plan should be determined on a case-by-case basis despite its poor prognosis.
Iliopsoas; Muscle hematoma; Liver cirrhosis
Ectopic pancreatic tissue is an uncommon developmental anomaly. The condition mostly occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and is usually asymptomatic. It rarely causes symptoms of inflammation, bleeding and perforation, and has potential for malignant change. Though it is an uncommon condition, cases of ectopic pancreas have been reported worldwide. Preoperative diagnosis of ectopic pancreas is challenging because of its nonspecific symptoms and signs. Owing to the revolution of minimally invasive surgery, submucosal tumors of the stomach can be resected by laparoscopic techniques. We have earlier reported on a case of ectopic pancreas in the stomach treated by robotics-assisted laparoscopic wedge resection. Herein, we report a case of ectopic pancreas in the prepyloric region of the stomach. A 44-year-old female presented with a two-week history of epigastralgia with radiation to the back. She received endoscopy check-up which disclosed a mass in the stomach. By endoscopic findings, a submucosal lesion in the prepyloric region with umbilical folding on the mucosa was identified. The umbilical folding on the mucosa hint the orifice of the duct of ectopic pancreas into the gastric mucosa suggestive of ectopic pancreas. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography showed a 5 cm cystic mass with heterogeneous content. To sum it up, the patient was diagnosed as ectopic pancreas in the stomach. She underwent laparoscopy-assisted antrectomy with Billroth I anastomosis (excision of the antrum and prepyloric region with reconstruction of gastrointestinal continuity by gastroduodenostomy) and had an uneventful hospitalization course. The histopathology of the resected tumor demonstrated ectopic pancreatic tissue in the gastric wall. To the best of our knowledge, excision of gastric ectopic pancreas using laparoscopy-assisted antrectomy with Billroth I anastomosis has never been reported in the literature.
Laparoscopy-assisted Billroth I gastrectomy; Ectopic pancreas; Prepyloric region
Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver lesion incidentally discovered with increasing frequency because of the proliferation of imaging studies. Radiographic characterization can diagnose this pathologic lesion and nonoperative therapy is the standard of care. However, surgical resection may be required for diagnostic reasons or symptomatic patients. Depending on the anatomic location of the lesion, biopsy and/or resection can be performed laparoscopically. We herein report the case of a 26-year-old Japanese woman with a hepatic tumor who required a medical examination. Her medical history was negative for alcohol abuse, oral contraceptive administration and trauma. Clinical examination showed no significant symptoms. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass located in the left lateral segment of the liver with a diameter of about 40 mm. It was difficult to diagnose the tumor definitively from these imaging studies, so we performed laparoscopic partial hepatectomy with successive firing of endoscopic staplers. The histopathological diagnosis was focal nodular hyperplasia. Surgical procedures and postoperative course were uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5.
Focal nodular hyperplasia; Laparoscopic partial hepatectomy; Benign liver tumor
Ectopic pancreas is frequently found in the gastrointestinal tract. Lesions comprise well-developed and normally organized pancreatic tissue outside the pancreas, without anatomic or vascular connections with the true pancreas. Most patients with ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic or exhibit nonspecific symptoms. A 68-year-old Japanese woman had been experiencing intermittent pain in the right upper abdomen. Suddenly, the abdominal pain changed to intense pain in the right flank of the abdomen 2 days later. On initial medical examination, the abdomen exhibited rebound tenderness and distension. The results of laboratory tests revealed increased inflammatory reaction. Abdominal computed tomography showed free air and ascites on the surface of the liver and elevated levels of adipose tissue around the antrum and pylorus of the stomach. Perforation of the upper gastrointestinal tract was diagnosed and we performed urgent surgery. The site of perforation, whose size was 25 mm, was the lesser curvature of the antrum of the stomach. Since it was not possible to perform omentopexy, we performed extensive gastric resection. The reconstruction was a Billroth II operation. Microscopic analysis revealed pancreatic tissue within the ulceration, showing islets of Langerhans, acini, and ducts; the lesion was diagnosed as type I using Heinrich's criteria. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient was discharged on day 13 and remains clinically healthy. Gastric perforation due to ectopic pancreas has been reported in 2 cases, including our patient, and is extremely rare. Once gastric perforation has been diagnosed, the presence of ectopic pancreas might be considered.
Pancreas; Gastric ulcer; Stomach
In some cases the diagnosis of gastric cancer is difficult and the endoscopic presentation may be misleading. Diffuse type gastric carcinoma with peritoneal metastasis may present primarily with abdominal pain, colonic infiltration and/or diarrhea, thus other differential diagnoses like Crohn's disease (CD) may be considered at first. Therefore intensive diagnostic work-up is important. We report two cases of gastric cancer with ascites due to peritoneal carcinomatosis who were first diagnosed as CD. The patients were hospitalized in different institutions for weight loss, abdominal pain and nausea. The first colonoscopy, upper endoscopy with multiple biopsies and ascites puncture were negative for malignant disease, but macroscopic lesions resembling CD were described. Both patients were released on a prednisolone-based treatment for suspected CD. They presented to our hospital for further evaluation due to persistent symptoms. Neither lower nor upper endoscopy were suggestive of CD and endoscopic ultrasound was suspicious of malignancy in one case. Histology was diagnostic and showed gastric infiltration by a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Diffuse type gastric cancer (gastric linitis plastica) with peritoneal metastasis may mimic certain clinical, endoscopic and CT imaging features of CD. Repeated biopsies and endoscopic investigations are often necessary to confirm a malignant process, especially in case of an inconclusive clinical and endoscopic picture. Endoscopic ultrasound may be useful to evaluate the risk of malignancy in patients with macroscopic suspicion of malignancy and negative biopsies.
Diffuse gastric cancer; Linitis plastica; Peritoneal carcinomatosis; Crohn's disease; Endoscopy; Endoscopic ultrasound