Appendicular mucoceles are rare clinical findings characterized by dilation and distention of the appendicular lumen by the accumulation of mucus. Their discovery is often incidental from abdominal imaging or more commonly as a secondary surgical finding. In this case study we report the first known recorded case of a cadaveric mucocele appendix discovered during routine dissection of the gastrointestinal system. The recorded cause of death for the 86-year-old female patient was congestive heart failure. We compared the gross anatomy and histology of this enormous appendix with another cadaveric appendix. A pathology report identified the appendicular mucocele as a mucinous cystadenoma.
Cadaveric; Histology; Epithelium; Cystadenoma
Gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination may be diagnosed as unresectable. More recently, as a result of progress in chemotherapy, some patients with peritoneal dissemination have exhibited extended survival. We report on our experience with three patients in whom induction chemotherapy allowed for totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy (TLTG). All three patients were diagnosed as having advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination using staging laparoscopy. As induction chemotherapy, S-1 combined with cisplatin was administered to two patients and trastuzumab plus capecitabine combined with cisplatin to one patient. TLTG was performed in all patients and there were no postoperative complications. Adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated within 3 weeks after surgery in all three patients. Laparoscopic gastrectomy undertaken after induction chemotherapy was found to be effective and safe; this treatment has the potential to achieve good treatment outcomes in patients with stage IV gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer; Peritoneal dissemination; Induction chemotherapy; Totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy
We report this case of a 42-year-old woman who presented with a debilitating illness manifested by intractable nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and unchecked weight loss. The patient had multisystem involvement that presented as anemia, abnormal liver function tests and progressively deteriorating renal function necessitating dialysis. She was found to be profoundly hypoalbuminemic secondary to malabsorptive and protein-losing enteropathy in tandem with nephrotic range proteinuria. Intolerance to enteral feeding led the patient to be dependent on parenteral nutrition. Serum immunofixation revealed IgG lambda monoclonal protein. The patient underwent endoscopic evaluation with biopsies taken from the gastrointestinal tract that confirmed the diagnosis of primary systemic light-chain amyloidosis. A subsequent bone marrow biopsy revealed normocellular bone marrow with deposition of amyloid. The patient was not considered for autologous stem cell transplantation as the outcomes in patients with multisystem involvement are often poor, with a high mortality risk. Diffuse primary systemic light-chain amyloidosis involving the gastrointestinal tract is a rare entity and is to be considered among differentials in patients presenting with unexplained malabsorptive symptoms.
Primary amyloidosis; Gastrointestinal amyloidosis; Primary systemic light-chain amyloidosis; Light-chain amyloidosis; Gastrointestinal involvement in primary systemic amyloidosis
We report a rare case of metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to the small bowel that presented as a pedunculated epithelial polyp. A 60-year-old man with liver cirrhosis type B was treated for HCC (stage IVb) at our hospital. He had been admitted for melena and anemia. Capsule endoscopy was performed in this patient with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It showed a polypoid lesion with bleeding in the ileum. Double-balloon endoscopy was performed. The lesion was determined to be a pedunculated polyp in the ileum. Histological examination of biopsy specimens showed tumor cells resembling HCC. We performed endoscopic mucosal resection for the lesion by double-balloon endoscopy to prevent bleeding from the tumor. The patient had no melena or anemia and his condition improved after endoscopic mucosal resection. However, he died of liver failure 2 months later.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Small bowel metastasis; Capsule endoscopy; Double-balloon endoscopy
We herein present a case of hepatic cysts causing obstructive jaundice that was treated with single-incision laparoscopic deroofing. A 72-year-old female patient was referred to hospital due to a large hepatic cyst that compressed the intrahepatic bile ducts. The patient was scheduled to undergo single-incision laparoscopic deroofing. The EZ ACCESSTM oval type (Hakko Co. Ltd.) was placed at the umbilicus using a 25-mm incision with two 5-mm trocars. An additional 12-mm port was placed at the left epigastric region. We unroofed and excised the cyst wall using a vessel sealing system in liver segment 4. After surgery, the patient was found to be asymptomatic. The unroofed cysts were completely diminished. Notably, the remnant liver had fairly regenerated. The estimated regeneration volume of the normal liver was 153 cm3. To prevent surgical complications, clinicians should perform adequate management and use of devices. To prevent postoperative recurrence of cysts, performing complete deroofing is essential. Single-incision laparoscopic deroofing contributes to improving the quality of life of patients and should be considered a standard treatment.
Hepatic cyst; Single-incision laparoscopic surgery; Jaundice
Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma associated with human papillomavirus. We report the case of a 58-year-old female who presented with ongoing symptoms of dysphagia. On previous endoscopies she had been noted to have a large polyp-like mass involving the esophagus, with negative biopsies for malignancy. Repeat endoscopy with concurrent endoscopic ultrasound showed a large semi-pedunculated polyp in the distal esophagus and a hypoechoic, irregular mass involving the gastroesophageal junction with esophageal thickening. Deep layer biopsies showed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia with immunohistochemical staining positive for human papillomavirus. The patient was subsequently treated with chemo-radiation followed by esophagectomy.
Esophagus; Verrucous carcinoma; Human papillomavirus
A 48-year-old man with a history of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm requiring transarterial embolization 3 months earlier presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and fever. Computed tomography showed evidence of embolization coil fragments within the gastrointestinal tract. Upper endoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer with numerous embolization coils extruding into the gastric lumen. The patient underwent partial gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy and resection of the splenic artery pseudoaneurysm. This case illustrates a rare delayed complication of transarterial embolization of a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm.
Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm; Therapeutic embolization, adverse effects; Foreign bodies, diagnosis
Fusobacterium is well characterized as an oropharyngeal pathogen that may induce a septic thrombophlebitis by direct extension of abscess into an adjacent neck vessel (Lemierre's syndrome); its potential for visceral abscess formation, however, remains under-recognized. A 65-year-old man with a recent history of multiple rim-enhancing liver lesions presented to the emergency room with fever and abdominal pain. Based on interval increase in the size of the lesions, abscess was suspected. A liver biopsy was performed, and although no organism could be identified on routine microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain revealed Gram-negative bacilli consistent with an anaerobic Fusobacterium species as the underlying etiology of liver abscess formation. Subsequent anaerobic culture results confirmed the diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of consideration for Fusobacterium infection in the setting of liver abscess if anaerobic organisms have not yet been excluded on initial culture evaluation.
Fusobacterium necrophorum Liver abscess; Warthin-Starry stain; Negative culture
We report this case of secondary amyloidosis associated with Castleman's disease. A 51-year-old man presented with systemic symptoms of generalized weakness, fatigue, unintended weight loss, anorexia and progressively worsening abdominal distension. On examination he was found to have an indurated right-sided submandibular mass and tense ascites. He was found to have multiorgan dysfunction with deranged liver function tests and renal failure. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed evidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Biopsy of the submandibular mass revealed angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia consistent with a diagnosis of Castleman's disease. A subsequent liver biopsy showed extensive deposition of amyloid protein. Bone marrow biopsy also showed the presence of amyloid and increased kappa light chain-restricted plasma cells. The patient was not considered a candidate for chemotherapy or solid organ transplantation in view of active sepsis and poor physical condition. Secondary systemic amyloidosis complicating Castleman's disease is very rare. Untreated secondary systemic amyloidosis often has a rapidly fatal course, such as seen in our patient.
Secondary amyloidosis; Castleman's disease; Systemic reactive amyloidosis; AA amyloidosis; Amyloidosis in Castleman's disease
Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, is widely used in the treatment of neoplasms, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Despite its efficacy, MTX sometimes finds limited application because of its adverse effects, including renal or liver impairment, bone marrow toxicity and gastrointestinal mucosal injury. Intestinal mucositis, bleeding and peptic ulcers are well-known gastrointestinal adverse effects of MTX, although cases of fatal mucosal necrosis induced by MTX are extremely rare. Here, we report the case of an 82-year-old Japanese woman who developed severe gastrointestinal mucosal necrosis after 8 years of treatment with low-dose MTX (8 mg/week). In the drug lymphocyte stimulation test, MTX showed a strong positive reaction, with a stimulation index of 443% against normal controls. Physicians must be aware of potential drug-induced adverse effects in patients with chronic diseases who are on long-term medication.
Methotrexate; Adverse effect; Drug lymphocyte stimulation test; Type IV allergic reactions; Gastrointestinal tract; Mucosal injury; Necrosis; Rheumatoid arthritis
We describe a patient with dysphagia. The results of endoscopy, CT scan and echoendoscopy were normal. High-resolution manometry (HRM) showed esogastric junction dysfunction and hypercontractile peristaltic disorder. These HRM abnormalities completely disappeared after pneumatic esophageal dilatation. We discuss the treatment options and recovery of peristalsis after balloon dilatation.
Dysphagia; Esophageal disorder; Pneumatic dilatation; High-resolution manometry
The incidence of anastomotic recurrence after curative resection of colorectal cancer is relatively low compared to that of other types of recurrence, such as hepatic, lung and local recurrence. However, almost all cases of anastomotic recurrence of colorectal cancer occur within 3 years after surgery. We experienced a rare case of anastomotic recurrence in whom colonoscopy revealed no signs of recurrence 3 years after surgery; however, anastomotic recurrence was detected over 5 years after surgery. A 60-year-old female with a history of surgery for cancer of the cecum in her forties underwent sigmoidectomy and right colectomy with D3 lymph node dissection for both stage IIA sigmoid colon cancer and stage IIA transverse colon cancer. Computed tomography and colonoscopy revealed no signs of recurrence 3 years after surgery; however, 5 years and 4 months after surgery, colonoscopy demonstrated surrounding flaring and swelling in the anastomotic area of the sigmoid colon, and a biopsy revealed an adenocarcinoma. Under the diagnosis of anastomotic recurrence over 5 years after surgery, lower anterior resection was performed. The patient has exhibited no other signs of recurrence in the 2 years since the last operation.
Anastomotic recurrence; Colon cancer; Local recurrence
A 58-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with cauda equina syndrome and sepsis. The symptoms were attributed to a complicated episode of sigmoid diverticulitis. MRI showed that the diverticulitis had caused an intra-abdominal fistula to a presacrally localized abscess expanding into the spinal canal, compressing the cauda equina nerves. Although Hartmann's procedure was performed, the neurological symptoms persisted, causing the patient to remain partially paraplegic. This case report illustrates that cauda equina syndrome is a condition that can also be caused by intra-abdominal pathology such as diverticulitis.
Complicated diverticulitis; Colonic diverticulitis; Sigmoid; Fistula; Cauda equina syndrome
Ameboma is a rare complication of amebic colitis presenting as a mass of granulation tissue with peripheral fibrosis and a core of inflammation related to amebic chronic infection. The initial presentations are usually obstruction and low gastrointestinal bleeding. The most common sites are the ascending colon and the cecum. It may mimic colon carcinoma, Crohn's disease, carcinoma of the colon, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, tuberculosis, fungal infection, AIDS-associated lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma in colonoscopy findings. The therapeutic strategy should be combined with antibiotics for invasive dysentery and eradication of luminal cysts.
Ameboma; Colon carcinoma-like lesion; Colonoscopy
A 50-year-old woman had undergone left nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma 13 years previously. Ten years later, a solitary metastatic tumor had been detected in the pancreatic tail and she had undergone subsequent resection of the pancreatic tail and spleen. Three years after surgery, she was admitted to our hospital for severe anemia resulting from gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 3-cm solid tumor at the oral side of the papilla of Vater. Histology of the bioptic duodenal tissue revealed inflammatory granulation without malignancy. Computed tomography showed a well-contrasted hypervascular tumor in the descending portion of the duodenum. We diagnosed the patient with metachronous duodenal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma and performed a pancreaticoduodenectomy. An ulcerated polypoid mass was detected at the oral side of the papilla of Vater. Histology revealed clear cell carcinoma coated by granulation tissue across the surface of the tumor. Immunohistology demonstrated that the cells were positive for vimentin, CD10 and epithelial membrane antigen and negative for CK7. After a repeated pancreatectomy, the patient had no symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding and maintained good glucose tolerance without insulin therapy because the remnant pancreas functioned well. In conclusion, for the diagnosis of patients who have previously undergone nephrectomy and present with gastrointestinal bleeding, the possibility of metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract, including the duodenum, should be considered. With respect to surgical treatment, the pancreas should be minimally resected to maintain a free surgical margin during the first surgery taking into account further metachronous metastasis to the duodenum and pancreas.
Renal cell carcinoma; Pancreas; Duodenum; Metastasis; Pancreatectomy
Recent improvements in diagnostic modalities are increasing the frequency of detection of small-sized branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs). International consensus guidelines for IPMN recommend surveillance without immediate resection for small-sized (<3 cm) BD-IPMNs without malignant features on imaging. Our patient is the first to have undergone resection of a small-sized BD-IPMN containing invasive cancer, but without malignant features on imaging. We herein report a case involving a 70-year-old man with a small cystic lesion in the pancreas head detected by health screening ultrasonography. Detailed examination revealed that the cystic lesion was a BD-IPMN measuring about 2 cm, with no malignant features. However, cytological examination of the pancreatic juice showed atypical cells with high-grade dysplasia storing intracytoplasmic mucin, indicating malignant BD-IPMN. Pathological examination of the resected specimen showed a BD-IPMN measuring 16 mm with an associated invasive carcinoma that invaded the pancreatic parenchyma over a distance of 11 mm. In this patient, invasive cancer was present within a small BD-IPMN with no high-risk stigmata on imaging. Cytological examination of the pancreatic juice allowed for the detection of pancreatic cancer in such a small-sized IPMN. Although routine endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with cytology is not recommended in all patients with BD-IPMNs, ERCP may contribute to the detection of small pancreatic cancers in select cases. Accumulation of cases of pancreatic cancer within small BD-IPMNs may help establish the indications for ERCP with cytological examination for the purpose of early detection of small pancreatic cancer.
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm; Branch duct; Small-sized; Cytology; International consensus guidelines
We report a rare case of adenocarcinoma of the duodenum arising from Brunner's gland. A 70-year-old man with a history of hypertension was referred to us with the complaint of abdominal discomfort. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an irregular elevated mucosa and a submucosal tumor with delle in the duodenal bulb. Biopsy specimens revealed adenocarcinoma (the former) and hyperplasia (the latter). We could not agree with the patient about performing pancreaticoduodenectomy, so under the diagnosis of primary duodenal carcinoma, we performed resection of the bulbus and the antrum. Pathological examination showed that one of the tumors was consistent with normal Brunner's glands, Brunner's gland hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma arising from Brunner's glands. The patient's postoperative course was good, but 15 months after, he developed lymph node recurrence at the site of the pancreas head. Under the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of duodenal cancer, we performed pancreaticoduodenectomy this time. Pathological examination confirmed our preoperative diagnosis. The patient remained well after the surgery for 2 years.
Duodenal carcinoma; Brunner's gland
Retroperitoneal location of bronchogenic cysts is extremely rare. Most commonly they are encountered in the posterior mediastinum. Bronchogenic cysts arise from developmental aberrations of the tracheobronchial tree in the early embryologic period. We report a 42-year-old female patient with a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in the left adrenal region. She was admitted to our hospital with epigastric pain and subsequently underwent CT of the abdomen. The examination revealed a mass related to the left adrenal gland. Endocrine tests for adrenal hypersecretion were negative. Because of the uncertain entity, laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. Pathological examination revealed a bronchogenic cyst in proximity to an inconspicuous left adrenal gland. Although very rare, bronchogenic cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lesions and surgical resection pursued for symptom resolution and to establish a definitive histology.
Retroperitoneal; Bronchogenic cyst; Embryology; Adrenal mass; Cystic tumor
Adrenal schwannoma is an extremely uncommon cause of incidentaloma. It originates from neural sheath Schwann cells of the adrenal gland. We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 32-year-old woman during examination of bloated feeling and stomach ache. The patient was incidentally found to have a left adrenal mass of 9 cm on abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) were also performed. Metabolic evaluation was unremarkable. Due to the large size of the tumor, left adrenalectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination established the diagnosis of schwannoma. This diagnosis was supported by immunohistochemistry of S-100 and vimentin positivity. In conclusion, adrenal schwannoma is an extremely rare entity and can grow considerably in size. The present case report emphasizes that clinicians should be aware of the possibility of retroperitoneal schwannoma. Total excision of benign schwannoma is associated with a favorable outcome. To our knowledge, there are case reports of schwannoma with CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the literature, although this is the first schwannoma case with PET-CT imaging.
Incidentaloma; Schwannoma; Adrenalectomy; Positron emission tomography-computed tomography
We experienced a case of mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma which could not been diagnosed accurately without pathologic findings. A 78-year-old Japanese woman with no particular symptoms was admitted for changes in liver function tests. Ultrasonography revealed a solid liver tumor. When there are no typical imaging features, no pathognomonic clinical findings and no obvious risk factors for any specific hepatic tumor, it may be difficult to make an accurate diagnosis before surgical resection. The lesion was resected on the basis of a high degree of suspicion for malignancy and submitted for pathologic evaluation. Microscopically, the neoplasm was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with abundant fibrous stroma, consistent with a mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma. This case exemplifies the importance of considering the various tumorous and non-tumorous diseases in the differential diagnosis of a liver mass with atypical features, especially when malignancy cannot be excluded.
Mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma
We present a rare case of toxic megacolon accompanied by necrosis of the colon due to chronic dilation caused by stenosis of the sigmoid colon as a complication of diverticulitis. The patient presented at the emergency department with diffuse abdominal pain, fever (38.8°C) and tachycardia (120 beats/min). Physical examination revealed distension and tenderness on deep palpation on the left lower quadrant without peritoneal signs. Abdominal computed tomography showed located stenosis in the sigmoid colon and marked dilation of the descending (12 cm diameter) and transverse (7.5 cm diameter) colon. A few hours later, the patient developed severe septic shock with electrolyte abnormalities. He had a history of two prior admissions to our hospital due to crises of acute diverticulitis. Based on Jalan's criteria the diagnosis was compatible with toxic megacolon. The patient's condition deteriorated suddenly and an emergency colectomy was performed. The operative findings revealed a necrotic colon. Histology examination confirmed the diagnosis of ischemia of the colon. To our knowledge this is the first published report in the literature which refers to a rare complication of diverticulitis, namely chronic stenosis which complicated to colonic ischemia and toxic megacolon.
Diverticulitis complications; Colonic dilation; Ischemia; Toxic megacolon
Walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) is one of the most life-threatening complications of acute severe pancreatitis. Regarding its high mortality and morbidity without appropriate treatment, the drainage procedure is still the mainstay of the treatment for this condition. There are multiple drainage options for this event. To date, endoscopic drainage alone has not been adequate for this condition, while surgical drainage has been reported to have a high morbidity. Endoscopic drainage with pancreatic necrosectomy is the most effective and safe method, while endoscopic drainage with aggressive lavage is another acceptable treatment option. The procedural details have been described elsewhere in many studies. In this report, we describe an alternative technique of drainage by endoscopy alone, without aggressive lavage procedure, that yielded an acceptable outcome with an easier procedure.
Walled-off pancreatic necrosis; Infection; EUS-guided drainage; Multiple stenting
The preoperative management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) with jaundice focuses on decreasing the total serum bilirubin level (SBL) by performing preoperative biliary drainage (PBD). However, it takes about 6–8 weeks for the SBL to fall at a sufficient extent. The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS®) dialysis (in association with PBD) on SBL decrease. From January 2010 to January 2011, we prospectively selected all jaundiced patients admitted to our university hospital for resectable HC and requiring PBD prior to major hepatectomy. The PBD was followed by 3 sessions of MARS dialysis over a period of 72 h. A total of 10 patients with HC were screened and two of them were included (Bismuth-Corlette stage IIIa, gender ratio 1, median age 68 years). The initial SBL in the two patients was 328 and 242 μmol/l, respectively. After three MARS dialysis sessions, the SBL had fallen by 30 and 52%, respectively. After the end of each session, there was a SBL rebound of about 10 μmol/l. The MARS decreased the serum creatinine level, the platelet count and the prothrombin index, but did not modify the serum albumin level. Pruritus disappeared after one and two sessions, respectively. MARS-related morbidity included hypotension (n = 1), tachycardia (n = 1), thrombocytopenia (n = 2) and anaemia (n = 1). When combined with PBD, MARS dialysis appears to accelerate the decrease in SBL and thus may enable earlier surgery. This hypothesis must be validated in a larger study.
Hilar cholangiocarcinoma; Albumin dialysis; MARS®; Serum bilirubin level
Endoscopic procedures are the gold standard in identifying, monitoring and treating gastrointestinal system lesions. The evaluation of benign, precancerous and malignant characteristics of these lesions requires good endoscopic inspection and precise pathological examination. Pyloric gland adenoma is a rare precancerous lesion defined in recent years and herein is reviewed in the present case along with the literature.
Pyloric glands; Adenoma; Endoscopy
The typical sonographic appearance of liver hemangiomas is a well-demarcated hyperechoic mass with homogeneous echodensity. Focal liver lesions may change their ultrasound characteristics over time. We present a case of dynamic pattern of liver hemangiomas during a state of systemic inflammation.
Liver hemangioma; Systemic inflammation; Changing appearance; Ultrasound