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1.  Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an 85-Year-Old Diabetic Man 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):404-407.
Emphysematous cholecystitis is an uncommon and dangerous complication of acute cholecystitis. Common risk factors for this disease include male gender, old age, presence of diabetes mellitus and cholelithiasis. The disease is best treated with emergent surgery and parenteral antibiotics. We present the case of an 85-year-old nursing home resident who presented to our institution with a 3-day history of gradually worsening abdominal discomfort.
PMCID: PMC4307004
Emphysematous cholecystitis; Abdominal discomfort; Clostridium perfringens
2.  Successful Treatment of Septic Shock due to Spontaneous Esophageal Perforation 96 Hours after Onset by Drainage and Enteral Nutrition 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):387-392.
Spontaneous esophageal perforation is relatively uncommon, but carries a high mortality rate if diagnosis or treatment is delayed. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with spontaneous esophageal perforation who was successfully treated over 96 h after onset by thoracic drainage and jejunostomy for enteral nutrition. He vomited after drinking alcohol, soon followed by epigastralgia. Heart failure was suspected on admission to another hospital. Spontaneous esophageal perforation was diagnosed 48 h after admission. Chest tube drainage was performed, but his general condition deteriorated and he was transferred to our hospital. Emergent surgery was performed and esophageal perforation combined with pyothorax and mediastinitis was identified on the left side of the lower esophagus. The left thoracic cavity was rinsed and thoracic drainage was performed. Feeding jejunostomy was performed for postoperative enteral nutrition. Effective drainage and sufficient nutrition management appear extremely valuable in treating spontaneous esophageal perforation.
PMCID: PMC4280466  PMID: 25565934
Spontaneous esophageal perforation; Drainage; Enteral nutrition; Feeding jejunostomy
3.  Gastrostomy Intraperitoneal Bumper Migration in a Three-Year-Old Child: A Rare Complication following Gastrostomy Tube Replacement 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):381-386.
Feeding gastrostomy is used worldwide for adults and children with feeding impairment to obtain long-term enteral nutrition. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion is considered the gold standard, but after the first months requires gastrostomy tube replacement with a low-profile button. The replacement is known as an easy procedure, but several minor and major complications may occur during and after the manoeuvre. We describe intraperitoneal bumper migration in a 3-year-old boy, a rare complication following gastrostomy tube replacement, and we discuss the recent literature regarding similar cases.
PMCID: PMC4280460  PMID: 25565933
Bumper migration; Gastrostomy; Gastrostomy tube replacement
4.  Eosinophilic Jejunitis Presenting as Intractable Abdominal Pain 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):377-380.
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical manifestations are related to the layer(s) and extent of the bowel involved. In this paper, we present a case of intractable abdominal pain caused by jejunal submucosal eosinophilic infiltration without mucosal involvement, diagnosed by deep endoscopic biopsies. The patient was successfully treated with steroids without need for surgery for diagnosis or therapy.
PMCID: PMC4280467  PMID: 25565932
Eosinophilic jejunitis; Eosinophilic enteritis; Abdominal pain
5.  Gastroduodenal Intussusception, Intermittent Biliary Obstruction and Biochemical Pancreatitis due to a Gastric Hyperplastic Polyp 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):371-376.
We present the case of a 76-year-old man with gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to a gastric hyperplastic polyp. Intussusception in the adult population occurs infrequently. Our patient presented with gastroduodenal intussusception, which is very uncommon and accounts for <10% of all types of intussusception. This case is unique in that partial endoscopic resection of the gastric hyperplastic polyp resolved the patient's gastroduodenal intussusception, biliary obstruction and biochemical pancreatitis without the need for surgical intervention.
PMCID: PMC4322696
Gastroduodenal intussusception; Intussusception; Hyperplastic polyp; Biliary; Pancreatitis
6.  Appendiceal Abscesses Reduced in Size by Drainage of Pus from the Appendiceal Orifice during Colonoscopy: A Report of Three Cases 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):364-370.
Interval appendectomy (IA) for appendiceal abscesses is useful for avoiding extended surgery and preventing postoperative complications. However, IA has problems in that it takes time before an abscess is reduced in size in some cases and in that elective surgery may result in a delay in treatment in patients with a malignant tumor of the appendix. In order to rule out malignancy, we performed colonoscopy on three patients with an appendiceal abscess that did not decrease in size 5 or more days after IA. After malignancy had been ruled out by examination of the area of the appendiceal orifice, the appendiceal orifice was compressed with a colonoscope, and a catheter was inserted through the orifice. Then, drainage of pus was observed from the appendiceal orifice into the cecal lumen. Computed tomography performed 3 days after colonoscopy revealed a marked reduction in abscess size in all patients. No endoscopy-related complication was noted. Colonoscopy in patients with an appendiceal abscess may not only differentiate malignant tumors, but also accelerate reduction in abscess size.
PMCID: PMC4322694
Appendiceal abscess; Appendectomy; Laparoscopic appendectomy; Interval appendectomy; Colonoscopy
7.  Mind the Sump! – Diagnostic Challenge of a Rare Complication of Choledochoduodenostomy 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):358-363.
Sump syndrome is a rare long-term complication of side-to-side choledochoduodenostomy (CDD), a common surgical procedure in patients with biliary tract disease in the era before endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Frequently only pneumobilia, serving as sign for functioning biliary-enteric anastomosis, is reminiscent of the former surgery. We present the case of an 81-year-old patient with sump syndrome who presented with clinical signs of ascending cholangitis, decades after the initial CDD procedure. Finally the detailed medical history that was taken very thoroughly in combination with the presence of pneumobilia led to the suspicion of sump syndrome. Sump syndrome was diagnosed by ERCP, and after endoscopic debris extraction and antibiotic treatment the patient recovered quickly. In the ERCP era little is known about CDD and its long-term complications, especially by young colleagues and trainees. Therefore this report provides an excellent opportunity to refresh the knowledge and raise awareness for this syndrome.
PMCID: PMC4264497  PMID: 25520606
Sump syndrome; Biliary tract disease; Cholangitis; Choledochoduodenostomy; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Complication; Pneumobilia
8.  Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct Diagnosed by Preoperative Biopsy: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):353-357.
A 73-year-old woman was admitted because of obstructive jaundice. Computed tomography revealed a stricture in the lower bile duct with enhanced bile duct wall. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed a tapering stenosis at the lower bile duct. Transpapillary histological biopsy using biopsy forceps through ERCP was performed; the diagnosis of signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the bile duct was established. Regional lymph node enlargement and distant metastases were not detected on diagnostic imaging. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with pylorus preservation was performed. Histological examination of the resected specimen confirmed SRCC of the extrahepatic bile duct coexisting with adenocarcinoma (ADC) of the extrahepatic bile duct with negative resection margins. However, tumor cells directly invaded the pancreatic parenchyma and the muscle layer of the duodenum, prompting us to administer adjuvant chemotherapy to the patient, with no sign of tumor recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Almost all tumors originating from the extrahepatic bile duct are ADC and other histological variants are rare. Of these, SRCC is extremely rare and only four cases have been reported. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report regarding the preoperative diagnosis of SRCC of the bile duct. Current reports indicate that younger age and Asian ethnicity are the clinical features of SRCC of the extrahepatic bile duct. Immunohistochemical staining of CK7, CK20 and MUC2 may be useful for predicting prognosis. Chemotherapy has not resulted in increased survival rates and only surgical resection currently serves as a curative treatment.
PMCID: PMC4264509  PMID: 25520605
Bile duct carcinoma; Signet ring cell carcinoma; Jaundice
9.  Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis and Diffuse Gastrointestinal Involvement 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):329-336.
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly named Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare systemic small- and medium-sized-vessel vasculitis, characterized by the presence of severe asthma as well as blood and tissue eosinophilia. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, like diarrhea and abdominal pain, are common; however, there are few reports of histologic evidence of GI involvement. We report the case of a patient on treatment for EGPA who presented with recurrent small bowel obstruction and choledocholithiasis. Biopsies of the esophagus, small bowel and common bile duct showed diffuse eosinophilia, with clear EGPA in the GI tract. Improved awareness of GI EGPA may allow for timely management of this disorder.
PMCID: PMC4250003  PMID: 25473392
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis; Gastrointestinal tract; Small bowel obstruction; Cholangitis
10.  Arteriovenous Malformation Detected by Small Bowel Endoscopy 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):324-328.
Gastrointestinal bleeding that originates in the small intestine is often difficult to diagnose. When successful diagnosis reveals a lesion that can be localized preoperatively, the laparoscopic approach is an appropriate and beneficial treatment modality for small bowel resection. A 69-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of gastrointestinal bleeding and symptomatic transfusion-dependent anemia. Upper and lower endoscopy were normal. Double-balloon endoscopy established the source of the bleeding as a 0.5-cm polypoid mass appearing as a submucosal tumor with redness and pulsation in the lower ileum, suggesting a vascular lesion. Laparoscopic small bowel resection was successful in removing the mass in the ileum. Histological evaluation of the mass revealed an arteriovenous malformation. Preoperative small bowel endoscopy can be useful for diagnosing the cause and localization of arteriovenous malformation in the small intestine.
PMCID: PMC4241646  PMID: 25473391
Arteriovenous malformation; Small bowel endoscopy
11.  Autoimmune Hepatitis with Multiple Sclerosis and Graves Disease: Coincidence or Association? 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):319-323.
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a generally progressive, chronic hepatitis of unknown cause that occurs in children and adults of all ages. It is associated with a variety of autoimmune conditions like thyroid disorders (Hashimoto and Graves disease), celiac disease and multiple sclerosis (MS). We report the case of a 61-year-old woman with MS (untreated) and a history of Graves disease who presented with fatigue and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. She was admitted to our hospital for evaluation. Clinical and laboratory workup revealed AIH. She was successfully treated with prednisone and azathioprine, with complete clinical and laboratory improvement. However, to our knowledge there have been only a few reports of a possible association between AIH and untreated MS.
PMCID: PMC4241635  PMID: 25473390
Autoimmune hepatitis; Multiple sclerosis; Anti-smooth muscle antibodies; Interferon
12.  Finding of Biliary Fascioliasis by Endoscopic Ultrasonography in a Patient with Eosinophilic Liver Abscess 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):310-318.
Fascioliasis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Iran. It occurs mainly in sheep-rearing areas of temperate climates, but sporadic cases have been reported from many other parts of the world. The usual definitive host is the sheep. Humans are accidental hosts in the life cycle of Fasciola. Typical symptoms may be associated with fascioliasis, but in some cases diagnosis and treatment may be preceded by a long period of abdominal pain and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a case with epigastric and upper quadrant abdominal pain for the last 6 months, with imaging suggesting liver abscess and normal biliary ducts. The patient had no eosinophilia with negative stool examinations, so she was initially treated with antibiotics for liver abscess. Her clinical condition as well as follow-up imagings showed appropriate response after antibiotic therapy. Finally, endoscopic ultrasonography revealed Fasciola hepatica, which was then extracted with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
PMCID: PMC4241640  PMID: 25473389
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography; Endoscopic ultrasonography; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Fasciola hepatica
13.  Severe Refractory Coeliac Disease with Response Only to Parenteral Nutrition 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):297-303.
Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is characterised by recurrent or persistent malabsorptive symptoms and villous atrophy, despite strict adherence to a gluten-free diet for at least 6 months and where other causes of malabsorption including malignancy have been excluded. There is limited evidence and guidance on the effective management of these patients. We describe a case of severe RCD in our hospital, with symptoms controlled effectively only by total parenteral nutrition (TPN). This 68-year-old woman initially presented to the clinic with persistent non-bloody diarrhoea and vomiting. A diagnosis of coeliac disease was confirmed with a positive tissue transglutaminase assay and histology. A strict gluten-free diet was ineffective and she represented 6 months later with 13 kg weight loss (16.7%), ongoing abdominal pain and diarrhoea, with bowels opening 16 times a day. She was oedematous, had an albumin of 12 g/l and required hospital admission. She was treated for pancreatic insufficiency and presumptively for small bowel bacterial overgrowth with no resolution of symptoms. We ruled out infectious causes and investigated for small bowel malignancy; all results were negative. Small bowel enteroscopy showed ulcerative jejunitis. She was given 5 days of TPN, following which her symptoms improved and albumin normalised. This was sustained with symptom resolution and weight gain seen at follow-up. TPN successfully and rapidly induced remission in this case. Thus, a short period of TPN should be considered as a potential component of management in patients with severe RCD.
PMCID: PMC4241638  PMID: 25473387
Refractory; Coeliac disease; Parenteral nutrition
14.  Accessory Pancreatic Duct-Portal Vein Fistula: A Rare Complication of Chronic Pancreatitis during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):291-296.
Pancreatitis, hemorrhage and perforation are the most frequent complications associated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We report a rare case of accessory pancreatic duct-portal vein fistula, which occurred during ERCP in a patient with chronic pancreatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of accessory pancreatic duct-portal vein fistula created during ERCP by the use of a guide wire.
PMCID: PMC4241643  PMID: 25473386
Accessory pancreatic duct-portal vein fistula; Chronic pancreatitis; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
15.  Repeated Negative Biopsies in Isolated High-Grade Cystic Duct Dysplasia with Progression to Adenocarcinoma 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):304-309.
Cystic and bile duct dysplasia is a rare histological finding, especially when found in the absence of an underlying malignancy. We report a patient who presented with jaundice and weight loss. Clinical and cytological evidence suggested a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma and the patient underwent a pancreatico-duodenectomy. Histopathological examination suggested a diagnosis of two foci of biliary dysplasia: cystic duct and lower common bile duct. Fifteen months later, the patient re-presented with signs of obstructive jaundice and biliary sepsis. Although CT scan revealed images highly indicative of metastatic disease, repeated biopsies failed to confirm this. Eventually a liver biopsy did reveal moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, however oncological interventional was no longer appropriate and the patient was managed palliatively. This case report focuses on the current understanding of progression of biliary dysplasia.
PMCID: PMC4241647  PMID: 25473388
Cystic duct dysplasia; Adenocarcinoma; Cholangiocarcinoma
16.  Is It Barrett's Esophagus or Gastric Heterotopia? 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):282-285.
Columnar epithelium in the distal part of the esophagus is generally related to Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant lesion for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Therefore, its diagnosis and surveillance are important. Columnar epithelium in the esophagus other than Barrett's esophagus can be gastric heterotopia, which generally takes place in the upper part of the esophagus and is named inlet patch. The presence of gastric metaplasia in the distal part of the esophagus is rare and can cause misdiagnosis. Therefore, its differentiation from Barrett's esophagus is important. Here we present a case of gastric heterotopia located in the distal part of the esophagus that caused reflux-like symptoms and needed differentiation from Barrett's esophagus.
PMCID: PMC4224247  PMID: 25408631
Barrett's esophagus; Gastric heterotopia; Gastroesophageal reflux disease
17.  Hepatogastric Fistula following Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):286-290.
Hepatogastric fistula (HGF) formation following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) leads to increased morbidity and mortality. A 51-year-old Caucasian male with chronic hepatitis B virus-associated cirrhosis and unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presented to the Interventional Radiology Unit for TACE to achieve tumor necrosis. Following the procedure, the patient was admitted with symptoms of fever, epigastric and right upper quadrant pain secondary to the development of an abscess. The abscess was drained; however, an exceedingly rare HGF resulted that was favored to represent a direct invasion of HCC. HGF, the rare complication following TACE, leads to grave consequences and vigilant monitoring, for the development of this entity is recommended to reduce patient mortality. We present a case and literature review of HGF development following TACE for HCC.
PMCID: PMC4224249  PMID: 25408632
Hepatogastric fistula; Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Endoscopy
18.  A Case of Blind Loop Syndrome Caused by Infection with Giardia duodenalis Diagnosed with Double Balloon Enteroscopy 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):276-281.
A 75-year-old man who had undergone partial gastrectomy was referred to our hospital due to worsening leg edema, loose stools and malnutrition. Double balloon enteroscopy followed by insertion of an indwelling ileus tube was performed to investigate the microbial flora and for washing inside the blind loop. Trophozoites of Giardia were detected in the sampled fluid from the blind loop and DNA analysis disclosed an assemblage of genotype A-II of Giardia duodenalis. Treatment with oral metronidazole was effective. This case emphasizes the importance of a correct diagnosis when treating patients with blind loop syndrome in the digestive tract.
PMCID: PMC4224234  PMID: 25408630
Blind loop syndrome; Double balloon enteroscopy; Giardia duodenalis; Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism
19.  Spinal Cord Ischemia Secondary to Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):264-269.
Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is accepted worldwide as an effective treatment for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Although considered relatively safe, TACE has been associated with several complications. Spinal cord ischemia secondary to TACE is an extremely rare but disastrous complication. We report a very rare case of spinal cord injuries after TACE, together with a literature review. During the procedure, the patient suddenly experienced sensory impairment below the T10 dermatome and bilateral lower extremity motor weakness. She was given high-dose steroids and supportive therapy. The sensory deficits nearly improved completely, but motor strength remained unchanged. Thereafter, a chest computed tomography scan showed tumor metastasis to the lungs. The patient is now receiving sorafenib and follow-up.
PMCID: PMC4209262  PMID: 25408628
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization; Spinal cord ischemia; Paraplegia
20.  A Case of Early Gastric Cancer Arising from Gastritis Cystica Profunda Treated by Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):270-275.
Gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) consists of hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of the gastric glands extending into the submucosa. It occurs in the residual stomach post surgery and in the unoperated stomach. GCP is considered a benign lesion, but there is controversy about its malignant potential. We report a case of early gastric cancer arising from GCP treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in a 55-year-old unoperated man. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 15-mm diameter submucosal tumor (SMT) in the upper corpus of the stomach. The surface had angiotelectasia and slight depression covered with normal mucosa. Neither ulceration nor erosion was seen. Narrow-band imaging endoscopy showed no abnormalities suggesting gastric cancer. Endoscopic ultrasonography visualized the internally low-echoic SMT, harboring tiny cystic lesions, mainly within the second and third layers of the gastric wall. The SMT was removed by ESD to avoid retention and allow for comprehensive diagnosis. It was diagnosed as GCP with partial well-differentiated adenocarcinoma without involvement of the lateral and deep margins, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion and perineural invasion. The gastric epithelium comprised normal mucosa without dysplasia. ESD seems to be useful for the diagnosis of SMT, including GCP harboring gastric cancer, and avoids unnecessary surgical procedures.
PMCID: PMC4209264  PMID: 25408629
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Endoscopic ultrasonography; Gastric cancer; Gastritis cystica profunda; Submucosal tumor
21.  A Case of a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor with Skeinoid Fibers of the Sigmoid Colon 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(3):257-263.
An 80-year-old man was diagnosed with rectal cancer and underwent Hartmann's procedure. Although no tumors were identified during the preoperative examination, gross examination of the resected specimen incidentally revealed a submucosal tumor that was 9 mm in diameter at the oral side and located in the proximal stump of the specimen from the sigmoid colon. We suspected a concurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and performed a histopathological examination. An L-shaped nodular lesion measuring 9 × 6 mm was histologically composed of a patternless proliferation of spindle cells intermingled with eosinophilic globules. Cellular atypia, prominent mitotic figures and necrotic foci were not observed in the nodule. The spindle cells were positive for CD34, CD117 and vimentin, but negative for CD56, smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. MIB-1 positivity was estimated to be as low as approximately 1–2%. Electron microscopy showed a bundle of wool-like fibers with a periodicity of approximately 40 nm. We therefore considered the lesion to be a low-risk GIST with skeinoid fibers in the large intestine. Although numerous previous reports have reported skeinoid fibers in the stomach and small intestines, there have been only 9 cases (including the present case) of skeinoid fibers in the large intestine.
PMCID: PMC4209273  PMID: 25408627
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Sigmoid colon; Skeinoid fiber
22.  Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: Insights for the Stomatologist 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):251-256.
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease characterized by portal inflammation and immune-mediated destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Primary Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of exocrine glands, mainly the lachrymal and salivary glands, in the absence of other definitively diagnosed rheumatologic disease. We report a diagnosed case of primary Sjögren's syndrome associated with PBC. A 59-year-old Caucasian woman went to oral evaluation reporting dry mouth, difficulty in eating associated with burning mouth syndrome, dysgeusia and dysphagia. Intraoral examination revealed extensive cervical caries, gingivitis, gingival retraction, angular cheilitis and atrophic tongue. Hyposalivation was detected by salivary flow and Schirmer's test was positive. Antinuclear and antimitochondrial antibodies were both positive. Anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibodies were negative. A minor salivary gland biopsy of the lower lip was performed. Histopathologic analysis revealed lymphocytic infiltrate with destruction of salivary gland architecture in some areas and replacement of glandular tissues by mononuclear cells. Optimal management of PBC associated with Sjögren's syndrome requires a multidisciplinary approach as the key to optimal patient care. Dental practitioners should be able to recognize the clinical features of this associated condition. Appropriate dental care may prevent tooth decay, periodontal disease and oral infections as well as improve the patient's quality of life.
PMCID: PMC4176406  PMID: 25298762
Liver cirrhosis; Primary biliary cirrhosis; Sjögren's syndrome; Oral health
23.  Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Using the Rendezvous Technique for Choledocholithiasis during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):245-250.
A 50-year-old male was examined at another hospital for fever, general fatigue and slight abdominal pain. He was treated with antibiotics and observed. However, his symptoms did not lessen, and laboratory tests revealed liver dysfunction, jaundice and an increased inflammatory response. He was then admitted to our hospital and underwent an abdominal computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), which revealed common bile duct (CBD) stones. He was diagnosed with mild acute cholangitis. As the same time, he was admitted to our hospital and an emergency endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed. Vater papilla opening in the third portion of the duodenum and presence of a peripapillary duodenal diverticulum made it difficult to perform cannulation of the CBD. In addition, MRCP revealed that the CBD was extremely narrow (diameter 5 mm). We therefore performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy and endoscopic sphincterotomy using the rendezvous technique for choledocholithiasis simultaneously rather than laparoscopic CBD exploration. After the operation, the patient was discharged with no complications. Although the rendezvous technique has not been very commonly used because several experts in the technique and a large operating room are required, this technique is a very attractive and effective approach for treating choledocholithiasis, for which endoscopic treatment is difficult.
PMCID: PMC4176404  PMID: 25298761
Endoscopic sphincterotomy; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Rendezvous technique
24.  Severe Colitis Associated with both Epstein-Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in a Patient with Severe Aplastic Anemia 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):240-244.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are members of the herpesvirus family and common causes of viral infection in humans. CMV infection of the gastrointestinal tract occurs mainly in immunocompromised individuals, on the other hand EBV infection and reactivation involving the gastrointestinal tract is very rare. A 56-year-old man was diagnosed with severe aplastic anemia and treated with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine (CSP). After 2 years of ATG/CSP therapy, he suddenly started passing bloody diarrhea and developed a high fever despite CSP treatment. Endoscopic features included severe edema and multiple superficial ulcers; the patient was initially diagnosed with severe colitis resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, his symptoms did not resolve with steroid treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of samples obtained from a second colonoscopy showed cells positive for CMV, and in situ hybridization revealed EBV-encoded small RNA-1-positive cells. Additionally, the patient's serum was positive for C7-HRP, and both blood and colon tissues were positive for EBV DNA, which was detected using PCR analysis. We finally diagnosed the patient with colitis associated with reactivation of both CMV and EBV. The patient remains diarrhea-free after 1.5 years with scheduled globulin treatment and after cessation of immunosuppressive drug therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an immunodeficient patient with severe hemorrhagic colitis that was associated with reactivation of both EBV and CMV, and whose endoscopic findings mimicked IBD.
PMCID: PMC4127549  PMID: 25120415
Epstein-Barr virus; Cytomegalovirus; Colitis; Aplastic anemia
25.  Esophageal Perforation due to Transesophageal Echocardiogram: New Endoscopic Clip Treatment 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):235-239.
Esophageal perforation due to transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) during cardiac surgery is rare. A 72-year-old female underwent TEE during an operation for aortic valve replacement. Further, the patient presented hematemesis. Gastroscopy revealed an esophageal bleeding ulcer. Endoscopic therapy was successful. Although a CT scan excluded perforation, the patient became febrile, and a second gastroscopy revealed a big perforation at the site of ulcer. The patient's clinical condition required endoscopic intervention with a new OTSC® clip (Ovesco Endoscopy, Tübingen, Germany). The perforation was successfully sealed. The patient remained on intravenous antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and parenteral nutrition for few days, followed by enteral feeding. She was discharged fully recovered 3 months later. We clearly demonstrate an effective, less invasive treatment of an esophageal perforation with a new endoscopic clip.
PMCID: PMC4127540  PMID: 25120414
Transesophageal echocardiogram; Esophageal perforation; Endoscopic treatment; OTSC® clip

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