Serotonin receptor 1A gene (HTR1A) knockout mice show pronounced defensive behaviour and increased fear conditioning to ambiguous conditioned stimuli. Such behaviour is a hallmark of pathological human anxiety, as observed in panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG). Thus, variations in HTR1A might contribute to neurophysiological differences within subgroups of PD/AG patients. Here, we tested this hypothesis by combining genetic with behavioural techniques and neuroimaging. In a clinical multicentre trial, patients with PD/AG received 12 sessions of manualized cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and were genotyped for HTR1A rs6295. In four subsamples of this multicentre trial, exposure behaviour (n=185), defensive reactivity measured using a behavioural avoidance test (BAT; before CBT: n=245; after CBT: n=171) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during fear conditioning were acquired before and after CBT (n=39). HTR1A risk genotype (GG) carriers more often escaped during the BAT before treatment. Exploratory fMRI results suggest increased activation of the amygdala in response to threat as well as safety cues before and after treatment in GG carriers. Furthermore, GG carriers demonstrated reduced effects of CBT on differential conditioning in regions including the bilateral insulae and the anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, risk genotype carriers demonstrated reduced self-initiated exposure behaviour to aversive situations. This study demonstrates the effect of HTR1A variation on defensive behaviour, amygdala activity, CBT-induced neural plasticity and normalization of defence behaviour in PD/AG. Our results, therefore, translate evidence from animal studies to humans and suggest a central role for HTR1A in differentiating subgroups of patients with anxiety disorders.
Our practice has long been concerned with the effects of display quality, including color accuracy and matching among paired color displays. Three years of data have been collected on the historical behavior of color stability on our clinical displays. This has permitted an analysis of the color-aging behavior of those displays over that time. The results of that analysis show that all displays tend to yellow over time, but that they do so together. That is, neither the intra- nor inter-display color variances observed at initial deployment diverge over time as measured by a mean radial distance metric in color space (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage L’, u’, v’ 1976). The consequence of this result is that color displays that are matched at deployment tend to remain matched over their lifetime even as they collectively yellow.
Digital display; Diagnostic image quality; Diagnostic display; Monitors
ALCAM (activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule, synonym CD166) is a cell adhesion molecule, which belongs to the Ig superfamily. Disruption of the ALCAM-mediated adhesiveness by proteolytic sheddases such as ADAM17 has been suggested to have a relevant impact on tumour invasion. Although the expression of ALCAM is a valuable prognostic and predictive marker in several types of epithelial tumours, its role as a prognostic marker in pancreatic cancer has not yet been reported.
In this study, paraffin-embedded samples of 97 patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing potentially curative resection were immunostained against ALCAM, ADAM17 and CK19. Expression of ALCAM and ADAM17 was semiquantitatively evaluated and correlated to clinical and histopathological parameters.
We could show that in normal pancreatic tissue, ALCAM is predominantly expressed at the cellular membrane, whereas in pancreatic tumour cells, it is mainly localised in the cytoplasm. In addition, univariate and multivariate analyses show that increased expression of ALCAM is an adverse prognostic factor for recurrence-free and overall survival. Overexpression of ADAM17 in pancreatic cancer, however, failed to be a significant prognostic marker and was not coexpressed with ALCAM.
Our findings support the hypothesis that the disruption of ALCAM-mediated adhesiveness is a relevant step in pancreatic cancer progression. Moreover, ALCAM overexpression is a relevant independent prognostic marker for poor survival and early tumour relapse in pancreatic cancer.
ALCAM; CD166; ADAM17/TACE; pancreatic cancer; prognostic marker
To evaluate the growth of the pulmonary arteries after a Fontan procedure.
Two paediatric cardiology tertiary care centres.
61 children who underwent a modified Fontan operation and had angiography suitable for assessment of pulmonary artery size before the Fontan procedure and during long term follow up. An atriopulmonary connection (APC) was present in 23 patients (37.7%) and a total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) was present in 38 (62.3%). Postoperative angiograms were performed 0.5–121 months (median 19 months) after the Fontan operation.
Main outcome measure
Growth of each pulmonary artery measured just before the first branching point. The diameter was expressed as a z score with established nomograms used to standardise for body surface area.
The mean change in the preoperative to postoperative z scores of the right pulmonary artery was −1.06 (p = 0.004). The mean change in the preoperative to postoperative z scores of the left pulmonary artery was −0.88 (p = 0.003). Changes in the preoperative to postoperative z scores were more pronounced in the patients undergoing APC than TCPC, especially for the right pulmonary artery.
After the Fontan operation, growth of the pulmonary arteries often fails to match the increase in body surface area.
congenital heart disease; Fontan operation; pulmonary arteries
In many cases marine organisms and especially their diverse developmental stages are difficult to identify by morphological characters. DNA-based identification methods offer an analytically powerful addition or even an alternative. In this study, a DNA microarray has been developed to be able to investigate its potential as a tool for the identification of fish species from European seas based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Eleven commercially important fish species were selected for a first prototype. Oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rDNA sequences obtained from 230 individuals of 27 fish species. In addition, more than 1200 sequences of 380 species served as sequence background against which the specificity of the probes was tested in silico. Single target hybridisations with Cy5-labelled, PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments from each of the 11 species on microarrays containing the complete set of probes confirmed their suitability. True-positive, fluorescence signals obtained were at least one order of magnitude stronger than false-positive cross-hybridisations. Single nontarget hybridisations resulted in cross-hybridisation signals at approximately 27% of the cases tested, but all of them were at least one order of magnitude lower than true-positive signals. This study demonstrates that the 16S rDNA gene is suitable for designing oligonucleotide probes, which can be used to differentiate 11 fish species. These data are a solid basis for the second step to create a “Fish Chip” for approximately 50 fish species relevant in marine environmental and fisheries research, as well as control of fisheries products.
DNA chips; Species identification; Capture oligonucleotide; Pisces
The tissue-specific transcription factor HNF1alpha is expressed in kidney, liver, intestine and stomach of Xenopus. We show that the HNF1alpha gene is transcriptionally activated at the onset of zygotic gene transcription and that this transcription is maintained throughout development. Ectodermal explants of blastulae (animal caps) express HNF1alpha mRNA upon stimulation with the mesoderm inducers activin A and BMP4 as well as on overexpression of Smad2 and Smad1, the corresponding members of the intracellular TGF-beta signal transducers, respectively. Beside these factors that mediate their response through serine/threonine kinase receptors, bFGF, which acts via tyrosine kinase receptors, leads to HNF1alpha expression, too. These embryonic inducers result in a delayed appearance of HNF1alpha mRNA, excluding a direct activation of HNF1alpha. In contrast, the maternally expressed nuclear receptors HNF4alpha and HNF4beta activate the initial HNF1alpha transcription, since overexpression of HNF4 leads to a rapid expression of HNF1alpha mRNA in animal caps. Similarly, in entire neurulae HNF4 overexpression results in increased HNF1alpha transcription. Therefore, we assume that the initial activation is dependent on maternal HNF4alpha and HNF4beta transcription factors whereas HNF1alpha induction by growth factors reflects the property of these factors to induce the differentiation of mesodermal and entodermal cell types expressing HNF1alpha.
Cunninghamella blakesleeana DSM 1906 was found to be an efficient biocatalyst for the biotransformation of cycloalkylcarboxylic acids into hydroxy and oxo derivatives. When cultivated in submerged culture, the fungus grew in pellets. In comparison with malt extract-glucose-peptone-yeast extract medium (medium E), Czapek-Dox medium was found to reduce pellet size. Cycloalkylcarboxylic acids were protected against microbial degradation by chemical transformation into 2-cycloalkyl-1,3-benzoxazoles. The transformations of protected cyclopentyl-, cyclohexyl-, cycloheptyl-, and cyclooctylcarboxylic acids by C. blakesleeana were investigated. The biotransformations were performed in medium E by using an aerated, stirred-tank bioreactor. The transformation of 2-cyclopentyl-1,3-benzoxazole yielded (1S,3S)-3-(benz-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)cyclopentan-1-ol as the main product. The main by-product was (1R)-3-(benz-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)cyclopentan-1-one, and 2-(benz-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)cyclopentan-1-ol was also obtained in small amounts. During the experiment, the enantiomeric excess of the main product increased up to 64%. 2-Cyclohexyl-1,3-benzoxazole was hydroxylated to 4-(benz-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)cyclohexan-1-ol. 2-Cycloheptyl-1,3-benzoxazole and 2-cyclooctyl-1,3-benzoxazole were transformed into several alcohols and ketones, all in low yields (2 to 19%).
Treatment of quiescent rat aortic smooth muscle cells with either alpha-thrombin or a thrombin receptor-derived agonist peptide (SFLLRNP) resulted in pronounced increases in [3H]thymidine incorporation that were concentration dependent and reached a maximum of approximately 15-fold above serum-starved controls. However, in contrast to FBS, PDGF-BB, or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), that initiated DNA synthesis promptly after 16-19 h, thymidine incorporation in response to thrombin was delayed by an additional 3-6 h. Delayed mitogenesis correlated with the appearance of a potent mitogenic activity in conditioned media samples obtained from thrombin-stimulated rat aortic smooth muscle cells, as assayed using Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. This activity was not inhibited by neutralizing antibodies directed against PDGF or bFGF. Furthermore, in the Swiss 3T3 cells, simple addition of either alpha-thrombin or SFLLRNP failed to elicit a significant mitogenic response. In signal transduction studies, both thrombin and SFLLRNP treatment led to rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins with apparent molecular masses of 42, 44, 75, 120, and 190 kD, respectively, as assessed by antiphosphotyrosine immunoblotting. The overall pattern of protein tyrosine phosphorylation was distinct from that observed after PDGF-BB addition. Activation of Raf-1 and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p44mapk and p42mapk was also observed. However, the time course and duration of Raf-1/MAP kinase activation after thrombin stimulation were similar to those elicited by PDGF-BB. Taken together, our results indicate that thrombin-stimulated vascular smooth muscle proliferation is delayed and requires the de novo expression of one or more autocrine mitogens. In addition, the rapid induction of discrete intracellular signaling mechanisms by thrombin, including the Raf-1/MAP kinase pathway, appears to be insufficient alone to promote vascular smooth muscle cell mitogenesis.
By means of a rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cell culture model, the effects of angiotensin II (AII) on early proto-oncogene gene expression, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation were measured and compared to known mitogens. In 24-h [3H]-thymidine incorporation assays, AII was found to be a weak mitogen when compared to potent mitogens such as fetal bovine serum and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). In contrast, when assays were carried out for 48 h, AII induced a significant dose-dependent stimulation of DNA synthesis, which more than doubled at 3 nM AII, and was maximal (five- to eightfold above control) at 100 nM AII. Treatment of cells with the AII type 1 receptor antagonist losartan inhibited the mitogenic effects of AII. AII also stimulated smooth muscle cell proliferation, as indicated by an absolute increase in cell number after AII stimulation of RASM cells for 5 d. AII stimulation of RASM cell growth correlated with the increased expression of specific endogenous growth factors, including transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and PDGF A-chain. However, addition of either PDGF- or TGF-beta 1-neutralizing antibodies failed to significantly reduce the delayed mitogenic effects induced by AII. In contrast, we found that AII-stimulated mitogenesis could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the growth factor inhibitor drug suramin. Taken together, our results indicate that enhanced endogenous growth factor expression may represent the direct mechanism by which AII promotes smooth muscle cell growth in some vascular hyperproliferative diseases.
The Tm-2(2) resistance gene is used in most commercial tomato cultivars for protection against infection with tobacco mosaic virus and its close relative tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). To study the mechanism of this resistance gene, cDNA clones encompassing the complete genome of a ToMV strain (ToMV-2(2)) that was able to break the Tm-2(2) resistance were generated. Chimeric full-length viral cDNA clones were constructed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter, combining parts of the wild-type virus and ToMV-2(2). Using these clones in cDNA infection experiments, we showed that the 30-kDa movement protein of ToMV-2(2) is responsible for overcoming the Tm-2(2) resistance gene in the tomato. DNA sequence analysis revealed four amino acid exchanges between the 30-kDa proteins from wild-type ToMV and ToMV-2(2), Lys-130 to Glu, Gly-184 to Glu, Ser-238 to Arg, and Lys-244 to Glu. To clarify the involvement of the altered amino acid residues in the resistance-breaking properties of the ToMV-2(2) movement protein, different combinations of these amino acid exchanges were introduced in the genome of wild-type ToMV. Only one mutant strain which contained two amino acid substitutions, Arg-238 and Glu-244, was able to multiply in Tm-2(2) tomato plants. Both amino acid exchanges are found within the carboxy-terminal region of the movement protein, which displays a high variability among different tobamoviruses and has been shown to be dispensable for virus transport in tobacco plants. These observations suggest that the resistance conferred by the Tm-2(2) gene against ToMV depends on specific recognition events in this host-pathogen interaction rather than interfering with fundamental functions of the 30-kDa protein.
The synthesis of ribosomes is an essential cellular process which requires the transcription of the rRNA genes by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). The regulation of rRNA synthesis is known to be coupled to growth regulation. In nongrowing, slowly growing, and rapidly growing Drosophila cells, exposure to the tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) increases the synthesis of precursor and mature rRNAs. Using nuclear run-on assays, we show that TPA enhances transcription of the rRNA genes. These results suggest that TPA regulates expression of RNA genes transcribed by Pol I, irrespective of the growth state of the cells. In slowly dividing Drosophila cells, increasing the serum concentration rapidly alters the accumulation of rRNA by enhancing rDNA transcription within 1 h. Thus, TPA and serum are each able to rapidly regulate rRNA gene expression in Drosophila cells. These results indicate that the RNA Pol I transcription system can be regulated by agents which have previously been shown to effect specific genes transcribed by the RNA Pol II system.
The transcription factor LFB1 (HNF1) was initially identified as a regulator of liver-specific gene expression in mammals. It interacts with the promoter element HP1, which is functionally conserved between mammals and amphibians, suggesting that a homologous factor, XLFB1, also exists in Xenopus laevis. To study the role of LFB1 in early development, we isolated two groups of cDNAs coding for this factor from a Xenopus liver cDNA library by using a rat LFB1 cDNA probe. A comparison of the primary structures of the Xenopus and mammalian proteins shows that the myosin-like dimerization helix, the POU-A-related domain, the homeo-domain-related region, and the serine/threonine-rich activation domain are conserved between X. laevis and mammals, suggesting that all these features typical for LFB1 are essential for function. Using monoclonal antibodies, we demonstrate that XLFB1 is present not only in the liver but also in the stomach, intestine, colon, and kidney. In an analysis of the expression of XLFB1 in the developing Xenopus embryo, XLFB1 transcripts appear at the gastrula stage. The XLFB1 protein can be identified in regions of the embryo in which the liver diverticulum, stomach, gut, and pronephros are localized. The early appearance of XLFB1 expression during embryogenesis suggests that the tissue-specific transcription factor XLFB1 is involved in the determination and/or differentiation of specific cell types during organogenesis.
A cDNA clone of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) genomic RNA was fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter and the nopaline synthase gene polyadenylation signal. The transcriptional initiation site of the 35S RNA promoter was altered by in vitro mutagenesis so that the resulting transcripts start at the first nucleotide of the ToMV sequence. In addition, 12 nucleotides were inserted in the 5' untranslated region of the ToMV genome. This plasmid, pSLN, was used to inoculate several host plants of ToMV. Among five plant species tested, only Chenopodium quinoa accumulated large amounts of viral particles. The infectivities and systemic movements of the resulting viruses were the same as those of virus preparations obtained from a ToMV infection of C. quinoa. Primer extension analyses revealed that the 5' end of the viral genomic RNA was identical to those of RNAs isolated from virus progeny of an infection with T7 transcripts analogous to pSLN. Moreover, the insertion in the 5' untranslated region of the viral genome was stably maintained through several systemic passages of the virus. Thus, inoculation of plants with a plasmid containing a cDNA clone of an RNA virus under the control of a eukaryotic promoter seems to be a convenient alternative to the generation of in vitro transcripts and should facilitate the analysis of viral mutants generated at the DNA level.
BCNU (carmustine), VM26 (teniposide) and ARA-A5'P (vidarabin-monophosphate) were compared in their activity against 30 cell lines of primary (N = 21) and metastatic (N = 9) human brain tumours, which were characterized in tissue culture by cytochemical, immunological and cytogenetic criteria. In vivo achievable concentration-time products c X t were correlated with in vitro pharmacokinetic data in order to evaluate in vitro drug sensitivity at relevant exposure doses. A microcytotoxicity assay was employed to screen for drug toxicity in individual tumour cell lines. Following drug exposure and 5 to 8 population doubling times of untreated controls, RNA-synthesis - as a parameter of cell metabolism and proliferation - was determined by incorporation of [5,6-3H]-uridine into cellular RNA (liquid scintillation counting protocol). The cytotoxic effect of each drug on individual cell lines was expressed in terms of a sensitivity index (SI); by these means effects of different drugs on individual tumour cell lines could be compared. Mean sensitivity indices of ARA-A5'P, BCNU and VM26 for primary brain tumour cell lines were 0.59, 0.82 and 0.54. ARA-A5'P and VM26 had almost similar activities against brain tumour cell lines, whereas BCNU was significantly (P less than 0.001) less active. High grade gliomas were less sensitive to all three agents than low grade and infratentorial gliomas. ARA-A5'P was also able to effectively reduce colony formation in brain tumour cell lines. A cross-resistance of ARA-A5'P to either BCNU or VM26 could not be observed. Clearly, ARA-A5'P is an effective drug in treatment of brain tumour cells in vitro.
Serum concentrations of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) were studied in pneumonias caused by different pathogens and in cases in which the aetiology could not be defined. In all aetiological groups, except in viral pneumonia, there was a significant increase in ACE during recovery (p less than 0.001). In several patients the lowest values during the acute phase of disease and the highest values during recovery were outside the reference limits. In cases with known aetiology the highest ACE values and the difference between the lowest and the highest values correlated positively with C-reactive protein concentrations at admission (p less than 0.001). The pathophysiology behind the fluctuations of the ACE concentrations is unknown.
The antibacterial activity of BMY-28142, a new aminothiazole cephalosporin, was measured by standardized broth microdilution and agar dilution methods against 450 gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria isolated from pediatric infections, including acute pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis. BMY-28142 activity was compared with that of aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, and clindamycin. The activity of BMY-28142 in combination with other antimicrobial agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also determined. Furthermore, the effects of inoculum and pH on BMY-28142 activity were evaluated. BMY-21842 was active against most of the gram-positive and gram-negative isolates, with the exception of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas cepacia. The combination of BMY-28142 with tobramycin was often synergistic, and combinations of BMY-28142 with either polymyxin B or imipenem were usually antagonistic. BMY-28142 antibacterial activity could be adversely affected at extremes of medium pH and by high inoculum densities.
We tested CI-919 (AT-2266), a nalidixic acid analog, against 555 gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, using microbroth or agar dilution methods. The activity of CI-919 was compared with those of cephalosporins, tobramycin, ticarcillin, dicloxacillin, rifampin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of CI-919 for 90% of isolates were (in micrograms per milliliter): Pseudomonas spp. (including Pseudomonas aeruginosa), 4.0; Enterobacteriaceae, 0.5; Staphylococcus spp., 2.0; Haemophilus influenzae, 0.12; Campylobacter jejuni, 0.12; and enterococci, 16. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of CI-919 for 90% of 82 tobramycin-resistant, gram-negative strains was 4.0 micrograms/ml. CI-919 was bactericidal for most isolates, showing no cross-resistance with unrelated antimicrobial agents, and was stable for 11 weeks at temperatures ranging from 22 to -70 degrees C. Inoculum size and media pH had little effect on the antibacterial activity of CI-919 for nine strains tested. CI-919 may be useful as an oral antibiotic for the treatment of infections due to diverse bacteria, including P. aeruginosa.
The expression of the gene for variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) 118 in Trypanosoma brucei is activated by transposing a DNA segment containing the gene and 1-2 kb in front of it to an expression site elsewhere in the genome. By S1 nuclease protection and RNA blotting experiments we show here the presence of several minor transcripts in trypanosomes synthesizing VSG 118, one of which covers the entire transposed segment. Comparison of the sequence of the 5' terminal segment of VSG 118 messenger RNA (mRNA), determined by primed reverse transcription, and the corresponding region of the 118 VSG gene, shows that the 5' terminal 34 nucleotides of the mRNA are not encoded in the 118 VSG gene contiguous with the remainder of the mRNA. We conclude that synthesis of a VSG mRNA involves splicing of a much longer primary transcript, which may start outside the transposed segment.
The inhibitory and bactericidal activities of carbenicillin, ticarcillin, moxalactam, cefoperazone, azlocillin, piperacillin, ceftazidime, and three aminoglycosides, alone and in various combinations, were determined against 60 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis. Ceftazidime was the most active beta-lactam, with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations for 90% of isolates of 4 micrograms/ml. Moxalactam was the least active of the new beta-lactams, with activity equivalent to that of carbenicillin; each had a minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of isolates of 64 micrograms/ml and a minimum bactericidal concentration for 90% of isolates of 128 microgram/ml. All combinations of an aminoglycoside plus a beta-lactam showed favorable inhibitory effects. Combinations of beta-lactams showed mostly addition or indifference. Although little antagonism was seen with combinations of beta-lactams or with aminoglycoside-beta-lactam combinations, no consistent advantage of beta-lactam combinations was demonstrated in vitro. These results suggest several single drugs and combinations that merit clinical evaluation in cystic fibrosis patients with Pseudomonas pulmonary infections.
Each of eight new beta-lactam antibiotics was highly active in vitro against Neisseria meningitidis, and activity was not reduced by combining some of these drugs with penicillin, ampicillin, or tobramycin. Antibacterial activity and lack of antagonism between moxalactam and ampicillin was confirmed in a model of lethal meningococcal infection in mice.
Two studies on mortality and morbidity of workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) which have been carried out on behalf of the Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Affairs on Northrhine-Westphalia are reported.
Sequences corresponding to the complete 3'-terminal regions of the messenger RNAs for three different Variant Surface Glycoproteins of Trypanosoma brucei were determined on complementary DNA inserts cloned in recombinant plasmids. The three sequences show 80-130 base pair long segments of strong (70-80%) homology at the 3' ends, whereas ther regions upstream from the last 130-140 base pairs contain no significant homology. The signal AAUAAA, present near the 3' ends of almost all known polyadenylated mRNAs of eukaryotes, does not occur in the 3'-terminal sequences of these three variants.
The concentrating ability of the kidney was studied by clearance and micropuncture techniques and tissue slice analyses in normal rats with two intact kidneys (intact controls), normal rats with a solitary kidney (uninephrectomized controls), and uremic rats with a single pyelonephritic kidney. Urinary osmolality after water deprivation for 24 h and administration of antidiuretic hormone was 2,501+/-217 and 2,874+/-392 mosmol/kg H2O in intact and uninephrectomized control rats, respectively, and 929+/-130 mosmol/kg H2O in pyelonephritic rats (P less than 0.001 compared to each control group). Fractional water reabsorption and concentrating ability were significantly decreased in the pyelonephritic group, and, to achieve an equivalent fractional excretion of urea, a greater fractional excretion of water was required in the pyelonephritic rats than in the control rats. Whole animal glomerular filtration rate was 1.57+/-0.19 ml/min and 1.39+/-0.18 ml/min in intact and in uninephrectomized controls, respectively, and 0.30+/-0.07 ml/min in pyelonephritic rats (P less than 0.001 compared to each control group). Single nephron glomerular filtration rate was 35.6+/-3.8 nl/min in intact control rats and was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in both uninephrectomized (88.0+/-10.8 nl/min) and pyelonephritic rats (71.5+/-14.4 nl/min). In all groups fractional water delivery and fractional sodium delivery were closely comparable at the end of the proximal convoluted tubule and at the beginning of the distal convoluted tubule. In contrast, fractional urea delivery out of the proximal tubule was greater in the intact control group (73+/-8%) than in either the uninephrectomized (52+/-2%) or the pyelonephritic group (53+/-3%) (P less than 0.005). Fractional urea delivery at the early part of the distal tubule increased significantly to 137+/-11% and 93+/-6% of the filtered load in intact control and uninephrectomized control rats, respectively (P less than 0.001 compared to the late proximal values of each group), but failed to increase significantly in pyelonephritic rats (65+/-13%), indicating interruption of the normal recycling of urea in the latter group. Analysis of tissue slices demonstrated a rising corticopapillary gradient for total tissue water solute concentration as well as for tissue water urea concentration in both groups of control rats. In contrast, the pyelonephritic animals exhibited no similar gradients from cortex to papilla. These data indicate that the pyelonephritic kidney fails to recycle urea and accumulate interstitial solute. The latter must inevitably lead to a concentrating defect.
The RUNX1/ETO (RE) fusion protein, which originates from the t(8;21) chromosomal rearrangement, is one of the most frequent translocation products found in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In RE leukemias, activated forms of the c-KIT tyrosine kinase receptor are frequently found, thereby suggesting oncogenic cooperativity between these oncoproteins in the development and maintenance of t(8;21) malignancies. In this report, we show that activated c-KIT cooperates with a C-terminal truncated variant of RE, REtr, to expand human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo. CD34+ cells expressing both oncogenes resemble the AML-M2 myeloblastic cell phenotype, in contrast to REtr-expressing cells which largely undergo granulocytic differentiation. Oncogenic c-KIT amplifies REtr-depended clonogenic growth and protects cells from exhaustion. Activated c-KIT reverts REtr-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. In the presence of activated c-KIT, REtr-downregulated DNA-repair genes are re-expressed leading to an enhancement of DNA-repair efficiency via homologous recombination. Together, our results provide new mechanistic insight into REtr and c-KIT oncogenic cooperativity and suggest that augmented DNA repair accounts for the increased chemoresistance observed in t(8;21)-positive AML patients with activated c-KIT mutations. This cell-protective mechanism might represent a new therapeutic target, as REtr cells with activated c-KIT are highly sensitive to pharmacological inhibitors of DNA repair.