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author:("qatar, ilsan")
1.  Effects of preparation techniques on root canal shaping assessed by micro-computed tomography 
Background
Root canal shaping without any procedural error is of the utmost preference. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use micro-computed tomography to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files.
Material/Methods
Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and were divided into 2 groups of 30. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-CT. Then, 30 teeth were prepared with stainless steel files and the remaining 30 with ProTaper rotary files. Canal transportation and centering ability before and after root canal shaping were assessed using micro-CT. The amount and direction of canal transportation and the centering ratio of each instrument were determined in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. The 2 groups were statistically compared using one-way ANOVA.
Results
ProTaper rotary files gave less transportation (p<0.001) and better centering ability (p<0.00001) compared with stainless steel files.
Conclusions
The manual technique for preparation of root canals with stainless steel files produces more canal transportation, whereas rotary files remain more centered in the canal.
doi:10.12659/MSMBR.889350
PMCID: PMC3692384  PMID: 23760162
stainless steel; ProTaper; micro CT; centering ability; canal transportation
2.  Occlusal Caries Depth Measurements Obtained by Five Different Imaging Modalities 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2010;24(5):804-813.
The study aimed to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of occlusal caries depth measurements obtained from different imaging modalities. The study comprised 21 human mandibular molar teeth with occlusal caries. Teeth were imaged using film, CCD, two different cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) units and a microcomputer tomography (micro-CT). Thereafter, each tooth was serially sectioned, and the section with the deepest carious lesion was scanned using a high-resolution scanner. Each image set was separately viewed by three oral radiologists. Images were viewed randomly, and each set was viewed twice. Lesion depth was measured on film images using a digital caliper, on CCD and CBCT images using built-in measurement tools, on micro-CT images using the Mimics software program, and on histological images using AxioVision Rel. 4.7. Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were assessed according to the Bland/Altman method by calculating Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). Mean/median values obtained with intraoral systems were lower than those obtained with 3-D and histological images for all observers and both readings. Intra-observer ICC values for all observers were highest for histology and micro-CT. In addition, intra-observer ICC values were higher for histology and CBCT than for histology and intra-oral methods. Inter-observer ICC values for first and second readings were high for all observers. No differences in repeatability were found between Accuitomo and Iluma CBCT images or between intra-oral film and CCD images. Micro-CT was found to be the best imaging method for the ex vivo measurement of occlusal caries depth. In addition, both CBCT units performed similarly and better than intra-oral modalities.
doi:10.1007/s10278-010-9355-9
PMCID: PMC3180550  PMID: 21116675
Occlusal caries; Depth measurement; CBCT; Micro-CT; Radiography
4.  Evaluating regional blood spinal cord barrier dysfunction following spinal cord injury using longitudinal dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI 
BMC Medical Imaging  2009;9:10.
Background
In vivo preclinical imaging of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodent models provides clinically relevant information in translational research. This paper uses multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate neurovascular pathology and changes in blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability following SCI in a mouse model of SCI.
Methods
C57BL/6 female mice (n = 5) were subjected to contusive injury at the thoracic T11 level and scanned on post injury days 1 and 3 using anatomical, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The injured cords were evaluated postmortem with histopathological stains specific to neurovascular changes. A computational model was implemented to map local changes in barrier function from the contrast enhancement. The area and volume of spinal cord tissue with dysfunctional barrier were determined using semi-automatic segmentation.
Results
Quantitative maps derived from the acquired DCE-MRI data depicted the degree of BSCB permeability variations in injured spinal cords. At the injury sites, the damaged barriers occupied about 70% of the total cross section and 48% of the total volume on day 1, but the corresponding measurements were reduced to 55% and 25%, respectively on day 3. These changes implied spatio-temporal remodeling of microvasculature and its architecture in injured SC. Diffusion computations included longitudinal and transverse diffusivities and fractional anisotropy index. Comparison of permeability and diffusion measurements indicated regions of injured cords with dysfunctional barriers had structural changes in the form of greater axonal loss and demyelination, as supported by histopathologic assessments.
Conclusion
The results from this study collectively demonstrated the feasibility of quantitatively mapping regional BSCB dysfunction in injured cord in mouse and obtaining complementary information about its structural integrity using in vivo DCE-MRI and DTI protocols. This capability is expected to play an important role in characterizing the neurovascular changes and reorganization following SCI in longitudinal preclinical experiments, but with potential clinical implications.
doi:10.1186/1471-2342-9-10
PMCID: PMC2714086  PMID: 19519898

Results 1-4 (4)