A label-free mass spectrometric strategy was used to examine the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the primary and metastatic colon carcinoma cell lines, SW480 and SW620, with and without treatment. 5-FU is the most common chemotherapeutic treatment for colon cancer. Pooled biological replicates were analyzed by nanoLC-MS/MS and protein quantification was determined via spectral counting. Phenotypic and proteomic changes were evident and often similar in both cell lines. The SW620 cells were more resistant to 5-FU treatment, with an IC50 2.7-fold higher than that for SW480. In addition, both cell lines showed pronounced abundance changes in pathways relating to antioxidative stress response and cell adhesion remodeling due to 5-FU treatment. For example, the detoxification enzyme NQO1 was increasedwith treatment in both cell lines, while disparate members of the peroxiredoxin family, PRDX2 or PRDX5 and PRDX6, were elevated with 5-FU exposure in either SW480 or SW620, respectively. Cell adhesion associated proteins CTNNB1 and RhoA showed decreased expression with 5-FU treatment in both cell lines. The differential quantitative response in the proteomes of these patient-matched cell lines to drug treatment underscores the subtle molecular differences separating primary and metastatic cancer cells.
Bioanalytical methods; Mass spectrometry; Proteomics; Label-free quantification; Colon cancer; 5-Fluorouracil
Protein isoforms/splice variants can play important roles in various biological processes and can potentially be used as biomarkers or therapeutic targets/mediators. Thus, there is a need for efficient and, importantly, accurate methods to distinguish and quantify specific protein isoforms. Since protein isoforms can share a high percentage of amino acid sequence homology and dramatically differ in their cellular concentration, the task for accuracy and efficiency in methodology and instrumentation is challenging. The analysis of intact proteins has been perceived to provide a more accurate and complete result for isoform identification/quantification in comparison to analysis of the corresponding peptides that arise from protein enzymatic digestion. Recently, novel approaches have been explored and developed which can possess the accuracy and reliability important for protein isoform differentiation and isoform-specific peptide targeting. In this review, we discuss the recent development in methodology and instrumentation for enhanced detection of protein isoforms as well as the examples of their biological importance.
protein isoforms/splice variants; accurate and complete identification/quantification; intact protein analysis; novel proteomic approaches
APE1/Ref-1 protects cells from oxidative stress by acting as a central enzyme in base excision repair pathways of DNA lesions and through its independent activity as a redox transcriptional co-activator. Dysregulation of this protein has been associated to cancer development. At present, contrasting data have been published regarding the biological relevance of the two functions as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we combined both mRNA expression profiling and proteomic analysis to determine the molecular changes associated with APE1 loss-of-expression induced by siRNA technology. This approach identified a role of APE1 in cell growth, apoptosis, intracellular redox state, mitochondrial function and cytoskeletal structure. Thus, overall, our data show that APE1 acts as a hub in coordinating different and vital functions in mammalian cells, highlighting the molecular determinants of the multifunctional nature of APE1 protein.
Cell signaling; Difference analysis; Transcription regulation; Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; Microarrays; APE1; Ref-1; proteomics; siRNA; oxidative stress; apoptosis; mitochondria
This review presents the need for replacing gels in 2D separations for proteomics, where speed, high-throughput, and the ability to characterize trace level proteins or small samples are the current desires. The theme of the review is isoelectric focusing, which is a valuable tool because it pre-concentrates proteins in addition to separating with high peak capacity. The review traces the technological progress from gel IEF to cIEF to packed capillaries with immobilized gradients for cIEF. Multiple capillary techniques are progressing toward meeting the current desires, providing extremely high sensitivity with regard to concentration and to small samples, integrated automation, and high peak capacity from multiple dimensions of separation. Capillaries with immobilized pH gradients for cIEF are emerging, which will alleviate interference from ampholytes and improve reproducibility in separation times when this valuable technique can be used as one of the dimensions.
We report the performance of capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with an electrokinetically pumped electrospray interface and an Orbitrap-Velos mass spectrometer for high sensitivity protein analysis. We first investigated the system for quantitation of the tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The system produced outstanding linearity with respect to peak height, number of peptide IDs, and spectral counts across the range of 12 nM to 750 nM (60 amol to 3.5 fmol) of BSA injected. One peptide produced a detection limit of 0.3 nM (1.5 amol) injected. We also analyzed 700 pg of a tryptic digest prepared from a RAW264.7 cell lysate; 10 proteins were identified in triplicate analyses after filtering the data with peptide confidence value as high. This sample size corresponds to the protein content of ~10 eukaryotic cells.
Electrokinetically driven sheath flow interface; CZE-ESI-MS/MS; Protein digests
TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein involved in RNA splicing and a major protein component in ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Under disease conditions TDP-43 redistributes to the cytoplasm where it can be phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and proteolytically cleaved. Enzymes responsible for TDP-43 proteolytic processing in brain remain largely unreported. Using a mass spectrometry approach, we identified two truncated TDP-43 peptides, terminating C-terminal to asparagines 291 (N291) and 306 (N306). The only documented mammalian enzyme capable of cleaving C-terminal to asparagine is asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP). TDP-43-immunoreactive fragments (~35 and 32 kDa) predicted to be generated by AEP cleavage at N291 and N306 were observed by western blot analyses of post-mortem FTLD brain tissue and cultured human cells over-expressing TDP-43. Studies in vitro determined that AEP can directly cleave TDP-43 at seven sites, including N291 and N306. Western blots of brain homogenates isolated from AEP-null mice and wild-type littermate controls revealed that TDP-43 proteolytic fragments were substantially reduced in the absence of AEP in vivo. Taken together, we conclude that TDP-43 is cleaved by AEP in brain. Moreover, these data highlight the utility of combining proteomic strategies in vitro and in vivo to provide insight into TDP-43 biology that will fuel the design of more detailed models of disease pathogenesis.
Asparaginyl endopeptidase; degradomics; frontotemporal dementia; neurodegeneration; TAR DNA-binding protein 43
The current gold standard for diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis is the traditional invasive liver biopsy. It is desirable to assess hepatic fibrosis with noninvasive means. Targeted proteomic techniques allow an unbiased assessment of proteins and might be useful to identify proteins related to hepatic fibrosis. We utilized Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) targeted proteomics combined with an organ-specific blood protein strategy to identify and quantify 38 liver-specific proteins. A combination of protein C and retinol binding protein 4 in serum gave promising preliminary results as candidate biomarkers to distinguish patients at different stages of hepatic fibrosis due to chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Also, alpha-1-B glycoprotein, complement factor H and insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit performed well in distinguishing patients from healthy controls.
hepatitis C; fibrosis; liver-specific blood biomarkers; quantitation; selected reaction monitoring
Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Current biomarkers used in the clinic do not have sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer detection. To discover new and better biomarkers, protein profiling on plasma samples from 25 normal, 15 early-stage and 21 late-stage cancer was performed using an iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS approach. The level of C9 protein was found to be significantly higher in gastric cancer compared with normal subjects. Immunoblotting data revealed a congruent trend with iTRAQ results. The discriminatory power of C9 between normal and cancer states was not due to inter-patient variations and was independent from gastritis and Helicobacter pylori status of the patients. C9 overexpression could also be detected in a panel of gastric cancer cell lines and their conditioned media compared with normal cells, implying that higher C9 levels in plasma of cancer patients could be attributed to the presence of gastric tumor. A subsequent blind test study on a total of 119 plasma samples showed that the sensitivity of C9 could be as high as 90% at a specificity of 74%. Hence, C9 is a potentially useful biomarker for gastric cancer detection.
Biomarker; Biomedicine; C9; Gastric cancer; Plasma
Purified protein derivative (PPD) has served as a safe and effective diagnostic reagent for 60 years and is the only broadly available material to diagnose latent tuberculosis infections. This reagent is also used as a standard control for a number of in vitro immunological assays. Nevertheless, the molecular composition and specific products that contribute to the extraordinary immunological reactivity of PPD are poorly defined. Here, a proteomic approach was applied to elucidate the gene products in the U.S. FDA standard PPD-S2. Many known M. tuberculosis T cell antigens were detected. Of significance, four heat shock proteins (GroES, GroEL2, HspX, and DnaK) dominated the composition of PPD. The chaperone activities and capacity of these proteins to influence immunological responses may explain the exquisite solubility and immunological potency of PPD. Spectral counting analysis of three separate PPD reagents revealed significant quantitative variances. Gross delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in M. tuberculosis infected guinea pigs were comparable among these PPD preparations; however, detailed histopathology of the DTH lesions exposed unique differences, which may be explained by the variability observed in the presence and abundance of early secretory system (esx) proteins. Variability in PPD reagents may explain differences in DTH responses reported among populations.
Local protein synthesis and its activity-dependent modulation via dopamine receptor stimulation play an important role in synaptic plasticity - allowing synapses to respond dynamically to changes in their activity patterns. We describe here the metabolic labeling, enrichment and mass spectrometry-based identification of candidate proteins specifically translated in intact hippocampal neuropil sections upon treatment with the selective D1/D5 receptor agonist SKF81297. Using the non-canonical amino acid azidohomoalanine and click chemistry we identified over 300 newly synthesized proteins specific to dendrites and axons. Candidates specific for the SKF81297-treated samples were predominantly involved in protein synthesis and synapse-specific functions. Furthermore, we demonstrate a dendrite-specific increase in proteins synthesis upon application of SKF81297. This study provides the first snapshot in the dynamics of the dopaminergic hippocampal neuropil proteome.
MUDPIT; click chemistry; metabolic labeling; BONCAT; local protein synthesis; dopaminergic signaling
Analysis of protein interaction networks and protein complexes using affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP/MS) is among most commonly used and successful applications of proteomics technologies. One of the foremost challenges of AP/MS data is a large number of false positive protein interactions present in unfiltered datasets. Here we review computational and informatics strategies for detecting specific protein interaction partners in AP/MS experiments, with a focus on incomplete (as opposite to genome-wide) interactome mapping studies. These strategies range from standard statistical approaches, to empirical scoring schemes optimized for a particular type of data, to advanced computational frameworks. The common denominator among these methods is the use of label-free quantitative information such as spectral counts or integrated peptide intensities that can be extracted from AP/MS data. We also discuss related issues such as combining multiple biological or technical replicates, and dealing with data generated using different tagging strategies. Computational approaches for benchmarking of scoring methods are discussed, and the need for generation of reference AP/MS datasets is highlighted. Finally, we discuss the possibility of more extended modeling of experimental AP/MS data, including integration with external information such as protein interaction predictions based on functional genomics data.
Proteomics; Affinity Purification; Mass Spectrometry; Protein Interactions; Statistical Models; Label-free Quantification; Integrative Analysis
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are characterized by the accumulation of an aggregated isoform of the prion protein (PrP). This pathological isoform, termed PrPSc, appears to be the primary component of the TSE infectious agent or prion. However, it is not clear to what extent other protein co-factors may be involved in TSE pathogenesis or whether there are PrPSc-associated proteins which help to determine TSE strain-specific disease phenotypes. We enriched PrPSc from the brains of mice infected with either 22L or Chandler TSE strains and examined the protein content of these samples using nanospray liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These samples were compared to “mock” PrPSc preparations from uninfected brains. Prion protein was the major component of the infected samples and ferritin was the most abundant impurity. By contrast, mock enrichments contained no detectable prion protein but did contain a significant amount of ferritin. Of the total proteins identified, 32% were found in both mock and infected samples. The similarities between PrPSc samples from 22L and Chandler TSE strains suggest that the non-PrPSc protein components found in standard enrichment protocols are not strain-specific.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies; TSE; Prion protein; prion strains; Chandler; LC-MS; MS; 22L; proteomics
Understanding the functional roles of all the molecules in cells is an ultimate goal of modern biology. An important facet is to understand the functional contributions from intermolecular interactions, both within a class of molecules (e.g. protein–protein) or between classes (e.g. protein-DNA). While the technologies for analyzing protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions are well established, the field of protein–lipid interactions is still relatively nascent. Here, we review the current status of the experimental and computational approaches for detecting and analyzing protein–lipid interactions. Experimental technologies fall into two principal categories, namely solution-based and array-based methods. Computational methods include large–scale data-driven analyses and predictions/dynamic simulations based on prior knowledge of experimentally identified interactions. Advances in the experimental technologies have led to improved computational analyses and vice versa, thereby furthering our understanding of protein–lipid interactions and their importance in biological systems.
Computational; Experimental; Protein–lipid interactions; Technology
N-linked glycoproteins play important roles in biological processes, including cell-to-cell recognition, growth, differentiation, and programmed cell death. Specific N-linked glycoprotein changes are associated with disease progression and identification of these N-linked glycoproteins has potential for use in disease diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of treatments. In this review, we summarize common strategies for N-linked glycoprotein characterization and applications of these strategies to identification of glycoprotein changes associated with disease states. We also review the N-linked glycoproteins altered in diseases such as breast cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Although assays for these glycoproteins have potential clinical utility, research is needed to translate these glycoproteins to clinical biomarkers.
Disease association; Glycoproteomics; N-linked glycoproteins
Chemical cross-linking is an attractive technique for the study of the structure of protein complexes due to its low sample consumption and short analysis time. Furthermore, distance constraints obtained from the identification of cross-linked peptides by mass spectrometry can be used to construct and validate protein models. If a sufficient number of distance constraints are obtained, then determining the secondary structure of a protein can allow inference of the protein’s fold. In this work, we show how the distance constraints obtained from cross-linking experiments can identify secondary structures within the protein sequence. Molecular modeling of alpha helices and beta sheets indicate cross-linking patterns based on the topological distances between reactive residues. DSS cross-linking experiments with model alpha helix containing proteins corroborated the molecular modeling predictions. The patterns established here can be extended to other cross-linkers with known spacing lengths.
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are glial cells of the central nervous system which produce myelin. Cultured OLs provide immense therapeutic opportunities for treating a variety of neurological conditions. One of the most promising sources for such therapies is human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), as well as providing a model to study human oligodendrocyte development. For these purposes, an investigation of proteome level changes is critical for understanding the process of OL differentiation. In this report, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach was used to study multiple steps during oligodendrocyte differentiation including neural precursors (NPCs), glial precursors (GPCs), and oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) compared to undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. Using a 1% false discovery rate cutoff, ~3,145 proteins were quantitated and several demonstrated progressive stage-specific expression. Proteins such as TF, NCAM1, APOE, and WNT5A showed increased expression from the NPC to OPC stage. Several proteins that have demonstrated evidence or been suspected in OL maturation were also found upregulated in OPCs including FABP4, THBS1, BMP1, CRYAB, TF, TNC, COL3A1, TGFBI and EPB41L3. Thus, by providing the first extensive proteomic profiling of human embryonic stem cell differentiation into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, this study provides many novel proteins that are potentially involved in OL development.
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is regulated by isozyme expression, allosteric effectors such as the ATP/ADP ratio, and reversible phosphorylation. Of particular interest is the ‘allosteric ATP-inhibition’, which has been hypothesized to keep the mitochondrial membrane potential at low healthy values (< 140 mV), thus preventing the formation of superoxide radical anions, which have been implicated in multiple degenerative diseases. It has been proposed that the ‘allosteric ATPinhibition’ is switched on by the protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of COX. The goal of this study was to identify the phosphorylation site(s) involved in the ‘allosteric ATPinhibition’ of COX. We report the mass spectrometric identification of four new phosphorylation sites in bovine heart COX. The identified phosphorylation sites include Tyr-218 in subunit II, Ser-1 in subunit Va, Ser-2 in subunit Vb, and Ser-1 in subunit VIIc. With the exeption of for Ser- 2 in subunit Vb, the identified phosphorylation sites were found in enzyme samples with and without ‘allosteric ATP inhibition’, making Ser-2 of subunit Vb a candidate site enabling allosteric regulation. We therefore hypothesize that additional phosphorylation(s) may be required for the ‘allosteric ATP-inhibition’, and that these sites may be easily dephosphorylated or difficult to identify by mass spectrometry.
Cytochrome c oxidase; enzyme kinetics; mass spectrometry; protein phosphorylation; allosteric ATP-inhibition.
Current technologies for measuring protein expression across a tissue section are based on mass spectrometry or in situ detection such as immunohistochemistry. However, due to the inherent molecular complexity of tissue samples and the large dynamic range of protein expression in cells, current approaches are often unable to measure moderate- and low-abundant proteins. In addition, they do not provide information on the physico- chemical properties of the proteins studied. To address these problems, we are developing a new pre-analytic methodology termed Layered Electrophoretic Transfer (LET) that selectively separates and processes proteins from an intact tissue section without compromising important two-dimensional histological information. LET offers two potential advantages over standard techniques: 1) A reduced complexity of the tissue proteome for subsequent analysis; 2) An opportunity to assess the biochemical status of proteins as they exist in situ. As an initial proof-of-concept, we demonstrate here that the protein content from a mixture of molecular weight standards, human tissue lysates, and tissue sections can be successfully transferred and separated using LET, and further demonstrate that the method can be coupled with immunoblotting or mass spectrometry for downstream measurements. LET technology represents a new pre-analytic tool for interrogating the proteome in tissue sections while preserving valuable spatial information.
2D protein separation; layered electrophoretic transfer; tissue protein mapping; proteomics
Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders associated with the accumulation of an abnormal isoform of the mammalian prion protein (PrP). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has previously been used to show that the conformation of aggregated, infectious PrP (PrPSc) varies between prion strains and these unique conformations may determine strain-specific disease phenotypes. However, the relative amounts of α-helix, β-sheet and other secondary structures have not always been consistent between studies suggesting that other proteins might be confounding the analysis of PrPSc secondary structure. We have used FTIR and tandem mass spectrometry to analyze enriched PrPSc from mouse and hamster prion strains both before and after the removal of protein contaminants that commonly co-purify with PrPSc. Our data show that non-PrP proteins do contribute to absorbances that have been associated with α-helical, loop, turn, and β-sheet structures attributed to PrPSc. The major contaminant, the α-helical protein ferritin, absorbs strongly at 1652cm−1 in the FTIR spectrum associated with PrPSc. However, even the removal of greater than 99% of the ferritin from PrPSc did not completely abolish absorbance at 1652cm−1. Our results show that contaminating proteins alter the FTIR spectrum attributed to PrPSc and suggest that the α-helical, loop/turn, and β-sheet secondary structure that remains following their removal are derived from PrPSc itself.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies; TSE; Prion protein; FTIR; infrared spectroscopy; LC-MS/MS; scrapie; proteomics; secondary structure; 79A; 22A; 263K; ferritin; apolipoprotein E
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. Mature miRNAs associate with the RNA interference silencing complex to repress mRNA translation and/or degrade mRNA transcripts. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has enabled identification of several core components of the canonical miRNA processing pathway and their posttranslational modifications which are pivotal in miRNA regulatory mechanisms. The use of quantitative proteomic strategies has also emerged as a key technique for experimental identification of miRNA targets by allowing direct determination of proteins whose levels are altered because of translational suppression. This review focuses on the role of proteomics and labeling strategies to understand miRNA biology.
Cell biology; iTRAQ; miRNA; Multiple reaction monitoring; Noncoding RNA; SILAC
The CA 19-9 antigen is currently the best individual marker for the detection of pancreatic cancer. In order to optimize the CA 19-9 assay and to develop approaches to further improve cancer detection, it is important to understand the specificity differences between CA 19-9 antibodies and the consequential affect on biomarker performance. Antibody arrays enabled multiplexed comparisons between five different CA 19-9 antibodies used in the analysis of plasma samples from pancreatic cancer patients and controls. Major differences were observed between antibodies in their detection of particular patient samples. Glycan array analysis revealed that certain antibodies were highly specific for the canonical CA 19-9 epitope, sialyl-Lewis A, while others bound sialyl-Lewis A in addition to a related structure called sialyl-Lewis C and modification with Nue5Gc. In a much larger patient cohort we confirmed the binding of Sialyl-Lewis C glycan by one of the antibodies and showed that the broader specificity led to the detection of an increased number of cancer patients without increasing detection of pancreatitis patient samples. This work demonstrates that variation between antibody specificity for cancer-associated glycans can have significant implications for biomarker performance and highlights the value of characterizing and detecting the range of glycan structures that are elevated in cancer.
Immuno-precipitation (IP) experiments using MS provide a sensitive and accurate way of characterising protein complexes and their response to regulatory mechanisms. Differences in stoichiometry can be determined as well as the reliable identification of specific binding partners. The quality control of IP and protein interaction studies has its basis in the biology that is being observed. Is that unusual protein identification a genuine novelty, or an experimental irregularity? Antibodies and the solid matrices used in these techniques isolate not only the target protein and its specific interaction partners but also many non-specific ‘contaminants’ requiring a structured analysis strategy. These methodological developments and the speed and accuracy of MS machines, which has been increasing consistently in the last 5 years, have expanded the number of proteins identified and complexity of analysis. The European Science Foundation’s Frontiers in Functional Genomics programme ‘Quality Control in Proteomics’ Workshop provided a forum for disseminating knowledge and experience on this subject. Our aim in this technical brief is to outline clearly, for the scientists wanting to carry out this kind of experiment, and recommend what, in our experience, are the best potential ways to design an IP experiment, to help identify possible pitfalls, discuss important controls and outline how to manage and analyse the large amount of data generated. Detailed experimental methodologies have been referenced but not described in the form of protocols.
Cell biology; Cumulative analysis; Immuno-precipitation; Protein frequency; Quality control; SILAC
Alternative splicing (AS) and processing of pre-messenger RNAs explains the discrepancy between the number of genes and proteome complexity in multicellular eukaryotic organisms. However, relatively few alternative protein isoforms have been experimentally identified, particularly at the protein level. In this study, we assess the ability of proteomics to inform on differently spliced protein isoforms in human and four other model eukaryotes. The number of Ensembl-annotated genes for which proteomic data exists that informs on alternative splicing exceeds 33% of the alternately spliced genes in the human and worm genomes. Examining AS in chicken for the first time, we find proteomic support for over 600 genes. However, although peptide identifications support only a small fraction of alternative protein isoforms that are annotated in Ensembl, many more variants are amenable to proteomic identification. There remains a sizeable gap between these existing identifications (10-51% of AS genes) and those that are theoretically feasible (90-99%). We also compare annotations between Swiss-Prot and Ensembl, recommending use of both to maximise coverage of AS. We propose that targeted proteomic experiments using selected reactions and standards are essential to uncover further alternative isoforms and discuss the issues surrounding these strategies.
alternate splicing; protein isoforms; peptide identifications
Study of stem cells may reveal promising treatment for diseases. The fate and function of transplanted stem cells remain poorly defined. Recent studies demonstrate that reporter genes can monitor real-time survival of transplanted stem cells in living subjects. We examined the effects of a novel and versatile triple fusion (TF) reporter gene construction on embryonic stem (ES) cell function by proteomic analysis. Murine ES cells were stably transduced with a self-inactivating lentiviral vector containing fluorescence (firefly luciferase; Fluc), bioluminescence (monomeric red fluorescence protein; mRFP), and positron emission tomography (herpes simplex virus type 1 truncated thymidine kinase; tTK) reporter genes. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis isolated stably transduced populations. TF reporter gene effects on cellular function were evaluated by quantitative proteomic profiling of control ES cells versus ES cells stably expressing the TF construct (ES-TF). Overall, no significant changes in protein quantity were observed. TF reporter gene expression had no effect on ES cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation capability. Molecular imaging studies tracked ES-TF cell survival and proliferation in living animals. In summary, this is the first proteomic study, demonstrating the unique potential of reporter gene imaging for tracking ES cell transplantation non-invasively, repetitively, and quantitatively.
Embryonic stem cells; Mass spectrometry; Molecular imaging; Protein quantification
High abundance proteins in serum and plasma (e.g., albumin) are routinely removed during proteomic sample processing as they can mask lower abundance proteins and peptides of biological/clinical interest. A common method of albumin depletion is based on immunoaffinity capture, and many immunoaffinity devices are designed for multiple uses. In this case, it is critical that the albumin captured on the affinity matrix is stripped from the column prior to regeneration of the matrix and processing of subsequent samples, to ensure no carryover and that maximal binding sites are available for subsequent samples. The current study examines the ability of a manufacturer’s protocol to remove the proteins and peptides captured by an immunoaffinity spin column. The data presented in the current work illustrate the difficulty in completely removing albumin from the immunoaffinity device, and consequently, may explain the variability and decreased efficiency shown for this device in previous studies. In summary, the current data present important considerations for the implementation of multiple-use immunoaffinity devices for processing subsequent clinical samples in a proteomic workflow.
Albumin; Antihuman serum albumin column; Serum