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1.  A Case of Endovascular Treatment for Followed by Side to Side Bypass for Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Involved Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery 
Treatment of complex aneurysms usually entails not only direct clipping but also alternative treatment modality. We recently experienced a case of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm and obtained good treatment outcomes. Our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion with posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to PICA side anastomosis might be a good treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. A 45-year-old woman has a left vertebral dissecting aneurysm with dizziness. Based on the aneurysmal morphology and the involvement of PICA, the patient underwent side to side anastomosis of the PICA. This was followed by the endovascular segmental coil occlusion. The aneurysmal sac was completely obliterated. At a 2-year follow-up, the patient achieved a good patency of both PICA. In conclusion our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion of the parent artery followed by PICA to PICA bypass surgery through a midline suboccipital approach is a reasonable multimodal treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms.
PMCID: PMC3928346  PMID: 24570816
PICA dissecting aneurysm; Segmental occlusion; Multimodal treatment; Complex aneurysm
2.  The Usefulness of the Ivy Sign on Fluid-Attenuated Intensity Recovery Images in Improved Brain Hemodynamic Changes after Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis in Adult Patients with Moyamoya Disease 
MR perfusion and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) are well known imaging studies to evaluate hemodynamic change between prior to and following superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis in moyamoya disease. But their side effects and invasiveness make discomfort to patients. We evaluated the ivy sign on MR fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in adult patients with moyamoya disease and compared it with result of SPECT and MR perfusion images.
We enrolled twelve patients (thirteen cases) who were diagnosed with moyamoya disease and underwent STA-MCA anastomosis at our medical institution during a period ranging from September of 2010 to December of 2012. The presence of the ivy sign on MR FLAIR images was classified as Negative (0), Minimal (1), and Positive (2). Regions were classified into four territories: the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), the anterior MCA, the posterior MCA and the posterior cerebral artery.
Ivy signs on preoperative and postoperative MR FLAIR were improved (8 and 4 in the ACA regions, 13 and 4 in the anterior MCA regions and 19 and 9 in the posterior MCA regions). Like this result, the cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) on SPECT was significantly increased in the sum of CVR in same regions after STA-MCA anastomosis.
After STA-MCA anastomosis, ivy signs were decreased in the cerebral hemisphere. As compared with conventional diagnostic modalities such as SPECT and MR perfusion images, the ivy sign on MR FLAIR is considered as a useful indicator in detecting brain hemodynamic changes between preoperatively and postoperatively in adult moyamoya patients.
PMCID: PMC3841272  PMID: 24294453
Adult moyamoya; Ivy sign; MR FLAIR; STA-MCA anastomosis
3.  Two Indices Affecting the Directions of the Sylvian Fissure Dissection in Middle Cerebral Artery Bifurcation Aneurysms 
This study proposes more objective methods for deciding the appropriate direction of the sylvian fissure dissection during surgical clipping in middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysms.
We reviewed data of 36 consecutive patients with MCA bifurcation aneurysms. We measured 2 indices preoperatively on 3-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA). Analysis of the calculated data allowed us to select the appropriate direction of sylvian fissure dissection for ease of proximal control of M1. Statistically, Mann-Whitney test was used.
We classified subjects into 2 groups based on the technical level of M1 exposure during surgical clipping. When it was difficult to expose M1, subjects were assigned to Group I, and Group II were subjects in whom M1 exposure was easy. The mean difference between the distances extending from the limbus sphenoidale (LS) line to the internal carotid artery bifurcation and extending from the LS line to the MCA bifurcation was 1.00 ± 0.42 mm in group I and 4.39 ± 2.14 mm in group II. The mean M1 angle was 9.36 ± 3.73° in the group I and 34.05 ± 16.71° in the group II (M1 slope gap p < 0.05, M1 angle p < 0.05).
We have found an objective method for preoperatively verifying ease of exposure of M1 artery during surgical clipping. Therefore, we suggest use of the preoperative M1 slope gap and M1 angle as indicators in 3D-CTA selecting the direction of sylvian fissure dissection for easy proximal control of M1.
PMCID: PMC3804653  PMID: 24167795
Middle cerebral artery; Intracranial aneurysm; Dissecting; Three-dimensional cerebral angiography
4.  Meningeal Layers Around Anterior Clinoid Process as a Delicate Area in Extradural Anterior Clinoidectomy : Anatomical and Clinical Study 
Removal of the anterior clinoid process (ACP) is an essential process in the surgery of giant or complex aneurysms located near the proximal internal carotid artery or the distal basilar artery. An extradural clinoidectomy must be performed within the limits of the meningeal layers surrounding the ACP to prevent morbid complications. To identify the safest method of extradural exposure of the ACP, anatomical studies were done on cadaver heads.
Anatomical dissections for extradural exposure of the ACP were performed on both sides of seven cadavers. Before dividing the frontotemporal dural fold (FTDF), we measured its length from the superomedial apex attached to the periorbita to the posterolateral apex which connects to the anterosuperior end of the cavernous sinus.
The average length of the FTDF on cadaver dissections was 7 mm on the right side and 7.14 mm on the left side. Cranial nerves were usually exposed when cutting FTDF more than 7 mm of the FTDF.
The most delicate area in an extradural anterior clinoidectomy is the junction of the FTDF and the anterior triangular apex of the cavernous sinus. The FTDF must be cut from the anterior side of the triangle at the periorbital side rather than from the dural side. The length of the FTDF incision must not exceed 7 mm to avoid cranial nerve injury.
PMCID: PMC3488650  PMID: 23133730
Extradural clinoidectomy; Frontotemporal dural fold; Superior orbital fissure; Anatomical study
5.  Spontaneous Cervical Epidural Hematoma Causing Brown-Sequard Syndrome 
Korean Journal of Spine  2012;9(3):297-299.
Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma (SCEH) is a rare clinical entity and has a varied etiology. Urgent surgical decompression should be done to prevent serious permanent neurologic deficits. We describe a 59-year-old female who presented with Brown-Sequard syndrome due to spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma. Initially, she was misdiagnosed as cerebrovascular accident. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging revealed epidural hematoma to the right of the spinal cord extending from C3 to C6. She later underwent surgical evacuation and had complete restoration of neurologic function. The outcome in SCEH is essentially determined by the time taken from onset of the symptom to operation. Therefore, early and precise diagnosis such as careful history taking and MRI evaluation is mandatory.
PMCID: PMC4431024  PMID: 25983837
Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma; Brown-Sequard syndrome; Surgical decompression

Results 1-5 (5)