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1.  Seizures after Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage 
Objective
In patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the risk factors for seizure and the effect of prophylactic anticonvulsants are not well known. This study aimed to determine the risk factor for seizures and the role for prophylactic anticonvulsants after spontaneous ICH.
Methods
Between 2005 and 2010, 263 consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH were retrospectively assessed with a mean follow-up of 19.5 months using medical records, updated clinical information and, when necessary, direct patient contact. The seizures were classified as early (within 1 week of ICH) or late (more than 1 week after ICH). The outcomes were measured with the Glasgow Outcome Scale at discharge and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at both 2 weeks and discharge.
Results
Twenty-two patients (8.4%; 9 patients with early seizures and 13 patients with late seizures) developed seizures after spontaneous ICH. Out of 263 patients, prophylactic anticonvulsants were administered in 216 patients. The prophylactic anticonvulsants were not associated with a reduced risk of early (p=0.094) or late seizures (p=0.326). Instead, the factors associated with early seizure were cortical involvement (p<0.001) and younger age (60 years or less) (p=0.046). The risk of late seizure was increased by cortical involvement (p<0.001) and communicating hydrocephalus (p=0.004). The prophylactic anticonvulsants were associated with a worse mRS at 2 weeks (p=0.024) and at last follow-up (p=0.034).
Conclusion
Cortical involvement may be a factor for provoked seizures. Although the incidence of early seizures tended to decrease in patients prescribed prophylactic anticonvulsants, no statistical difference was found.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.312
PMCID: PMC3488638  PMID: 23133718
Risk factors; Seizure; Intracerebral hemorrhage, spontaneous; Anticonvulsants
2.  Spontaneous Epidural Hematoma from Skull Base Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
We report a case of an acute spontaneous epidural hematoma (EDH) due to skull base metastasis in a 46-year-old male patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The patient presented with the acute onset of severe headache followed by unconsciousness, and computed tomography showed a large EDH in the right temporal and parietal lobes with midline shift. Emergency evacuation of the EDH was performed, and the hemorrhage was determined to be secondary to skull base metastasis of HCC.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.6.461
PMCID: PMC2899036  PMID: 20617094
Epidural hematoma; Skull base metastasis; Hepatocellular carcinoma

Results 1-2 (2)