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1.  Simultaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection and Contralateral Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Dissecting Aneurysm 
The optimal treatment and appropriate follow-up period for an unruptured vertebral artery (VA) and/or posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) dissection have not been established. Decisions regarding treatment of these vascular lesions are usually based on the manifesting symptoms and changes in radiologic findings during the follow-up period. We experienced a patient who had a simultaneous unruptured VA dissection and a contralateral PICA dissecting aneurysm. We did not find such a case in other literature.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2012.14.3.228
PMCID: PMC3491219  PMID: 23210052
Dissection; Posterior inferior cerebellar artery; Vertebral artery
2.  Spontaneous Cerebellar Hemorrhage with the Fourth Ventricular Hemorrhage : Risk Factors Associated with Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt 
Objective
The purposes of this study are to investigate the factors that may be related to ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt in patients with cerebellar hematoma and the effect of severe fourth ventricular hemorrhage, causing obstructive hydrocephalus on subsequent VP shunt performance.
Methods
This study included 31 patients with spontaneous cerebellar hematoma and concomitant fourth ventricular hemorrhage, who did not undergo a surgical evacuation of hematoma. We divided this population into two groups; the VP shunt group, and the non-VP shunt group. The demographic data, radiologic findings, and clinical factors were compared in each group. The location of the hematoma (whether occupying the cerebellar hemisphere or the vermis) and the degree of the fourth ventricular obstruction were graded respectively. The intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) score was used to assess the IVH severity.
Results
Ten out of 31 patients underwent VP shunt operations. The midline location of cerebellar hematoma, the grade of fourth ventricle obstruction, and IVH severity were significantly correlated with that of VP shunt operation (p=0.015, p=0.013, p=0.028). The significant variables into a logistic regression multivariate model resulted in statistical significance for the location of cerebellar hemorrhage [p=0.05; odds ratio (OR), 8.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00 to 67.0], the grade of fourth ventricle obstruction (p=0.044; OR, 19.26; 95% CI, 1.07 to 346.6).
Conclusion
The location of the cerebellar hematoma on CT scans and the degree of fourth ventricle obstruction by IVH were useful signs for the selection of VP shunt operation in patients with spontaneous cerebellar hematoma and concomitant acute hydrocephalus.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.320
PMCID: PMC3488639  PMID: 23133719
Cerebellar hematoma; Intraventricular hemorrhage; Hydrocephalus; Fourth ventricular obstruction
3.  Accuracy and Safety of Bedside External Ventricular Drain Placement at Two Different Cranial Sites : Kocher's Point versus Forehead 
Objective
External ventricular drain (EVD) is commonly performed with a freehand technique using surface anatomical landmarks at two different cranial sites, Kocher's point and the forehead. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the accuracy and safety of these percutaneous ventriculostomies.
Methods
A retrospectively review of medical records and head computed tomography scans were examined in 227 patients who underwent 250 freehand pass ventriculostomy catheter placements using two different methods at two institutions, between 2003 and 2009. Eighty-one patients underwent 101 ventriculostomies using Kocher's point (group 1), whereas 146 patients underwent 149 forehead ventriculostomies (group 2).
Results
In group 1, the catheter tip was optimally placed in either the ipsilateral frontal horn or the third ventricle, through the foramen of Monro (grade 1) in 82 (81.1%) procedures, in the contralateral lateral ventricle (grade 2) in 4 (3.9%), and into eloquent structures or non-target cerebrospinal space (grade 3) in 15 (14.8%). Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) >1 mL developed in 5 (5.0%) procedures. Significantly higher incidences of optimal catheter placements were observed in group 2. ICH>1 mL developed in 11 (7.4%) procedures in group 2, showing no significant difference between groups. In addition, the mean interval from the EVD to ventriculoperitoneal shunt was shorter in group 2 than in group 1, and the incidence of EVD-related infection was decreased in group 2.
Conclusion
Accurate and safe ventriculostomies were achieved using both cranial sites, Kocher's point and the forehead. However, the forehead ventriculostomies provided more accurate ventricular punctures.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.4.317
PMCID: PMC3243834  PMID: 22200013
Computed tomography; Freehand; Hydrocephalus; Ventriculostomy
4.  Clinical Outcome of Cranial Neuropathy in Patients with Pituitary Apoplexy 
Objective
Pituitary apoplexy (PA) is described as a clinical syndrome characterized by sudden headache, vomiting, visual impairment, and meningismus caused by rapid enlargement of a pituitary adenoma. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical presentation and surgical outcome in PA presenting with cranial neuropathy.
Methods
Twelve cases (3.3%) of PA were retrospectively reviewed among 359 patients diagnosed with pituitary adenoma. The study included 6 males and 6 females. Mean age of patients was 49.0 years, with a range of 16 to 74 years. Follow-up duration ranged from 3 to 20 months, with an average of 12 months. All patients were submitted to surgery, using the transsphenoidal approach (TSA).
Results
Symptoms included abrupt headache (11/12), decreased visual acuity (12/12), visual field defect (11/12), and cranial nerve palsy of the third (5/12) and sixth (2/12). Mean height of the mass was 29.0 mm (range 15-46). Duration between the ictus and operation ranged from 1 to 15 days (mean 7.0). The symptom duration before operation and the recovery period of cranial neuropathy correlated significantly (p = 0.0286). TSA resulted in improvement of decreased visual acuity in 91.6%, visual field defect in 54.5%, and cranial neuropathy in 100% at 3 months after surgery.
Conclusion
PA is a rare event, complicating 3.3% in our series. Even in blindness following pituitary apoplexy cases, improvement of cranial neuropathy is possible if adequate management is initiated in time. Surgical decompression must be considered as soon as possible in cases with severe visual impairment or cranial neuropathy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.3.213
PMCID: PMC2966721  PMID: 21082047
Pituitary apoplexy; Pituitary adenoma; Cranial neuropathy; Transsphenoidal approach

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