There have been controversies in the treatment of elderly patients with glioblastoma. We introduce the outcome of the treatment of elderly patients with glioblastoma comparing with younger patients.
The author's hospital database was used to identify patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma after surgery between January 2006 and December 2013. Forty-eight patients (control group) were under age 65 and 16 patients (elderly group) were aged 65 years or over at the time of surgery.
The median age of the elderly group was 71 years and control group was 50 years. Mean number of medical comorbidities was 1.8 in the elderly group vs. 0.5 in the control group. The median progression free survival (PFS) was 5.6 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 19.9 months in all patients. The elderly group had a median PFS of 4.2 months vs. 8 months for the control group (log-rank test, p=0.762). Median OS was 8.2 months in the elderly group vs. 20.9 months in the control group (log-rank test, p=0.457). Major complications occurred in 5 cases (7.8%) for all patients. The ratio of completion of concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) was 81.3% and was the same between the two groups. In multivariable analysis, extent of resection (p=0.034) and completion of CCRT (p=0.023) were statistically significant, independent prognostic factors only for PFS in all patients by Cox proportional hazards model. Age was not an independent prognostic factor. As for OS, there was no significant factor.
Surgical resection and CCRT were well tolerated in elderly patients with glioblastoma, and maximal safe resection followed by timely CCRT could improve clinic-oncologic outcomes.
Elderly, outcome; Glioblastoma; Prognosis; Concomitant chemoradiotherapy
We investigated the effect of propofol and fentanyl on microelectrode recording (MER) and its clinical applicability during subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. We analyzed 8 patients with Parkinson's disease, underwent bilateral STN DBS with MER. Their left sides were done under awake and then their right sides were done with a continuous infusion of propofol and fentanyl under local anesthesia. The electrode position was evaluated by preoperative MRI and postoperative CT. The clinical outcomes were assessed at six months after surgery. We isolated single unit activities from the left and the right side MERs. There was no significant difference in the mean firing rate between the left side MERs (38.7±16.8 spikes/sec, n=78) and the right side MERs (35.5±17.2 spikes/sec, n=66). The bursting pattern of spikes was more frequently observed in the right STN than in the left STN. All the electrode positions were within the STNs on both sides and the off-time Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III scores at six months after surgery decreased by 67% of the preoperative level. In this study, a continuous infusion of propofol and fentanyl did not significantly interfere with the MER signals from the STN. The results of this study suggest that propofol and fentanyl can be used for STN DBS in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease improving the overall experience of the patients.
Parkinson Disease; Microelectrodes; Propofol; Fentanyl; Subthalamic Nucleus; Deep Brain Stimulation
Postoperative subgaleal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection is considered as one of the common minor surgical complication which can lead to prolonged hospitalization. We introduce "galeal tack-up suture" to prevent postoperative subgaleal CSF collection.
Galeal tack-up suture consists of various surgical techniques which aim to fix galea to cranium in order to prevent CSF pooling in subgaleal space. A total of 87 patients who underwent craniotomy were divided into two groups while closing the wound : group A with galeal tack-up suture and group B with routine wound closure without galeal tack-up suture. The patients were observed for postoperative subgaleal CSF collection.
Among 87 cranitomy cases, galeal tack-up suture was performed in 32 cases and routine wound closure was done in 55 cases. Postoperative subgaleal CSF collection occurred in 13 cases (15%) in which 12 cases occurred in group B patients and 1 case occurred in group A patients (p=0.026).
Galeal tack-up suture is an easy and effective technique in wound closure to prevent postoperative CSF collection.
Cerebrospinal fluid leak; Craniotomy; Scalp; Sutures
Primary intracranial fibrosarcomas (PIFs) are extremely rare and the origin of these tumors is still controversial. The rarity of primary intracranial fibrosarcomas makes it difficult to diagnose them correctly and establish a standard treatment. The pathologic diagnosis is made by distinguishing findings from light microscopic and immunohistochemistry analysis. PIFs have been known to be very aggressive neoplasms. The extra-axial location of the tumor could provide an opportunity to perform a total resection even if it does not mean a cure. We present a case of PIFs mimicking a falx meningioma in a 17-year-old man.
Fibrosarcoma; Primary CNS origin; Differential diagnosis
Brain metastasis occurs in 3.9-24% of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with an average interval from nephrectomy to brain metastasis of 1 to 3 years. A few cases have been reported where brain metastasis occurred after a delay of more than 10 years from the initial onset of renal cell carcinoma. This long interval for central nervous system metastasis from the primary cancer has been recognized as an indicator of better prognosis. Histopathological confirmation and aggressive treatment must be considered in these delayed brain metastases cases, since the patients usually show long survival and good prognosis. We present a case of a 76-year-old woman who developed extremely late multiple brain metastases 18 years after a nephrectomy for RCC.
Renal cell carcinoma; Brain metastasis; Recurrence
Extraventricular neurocytomas are rare brain tumors that have a diverse range of clinical characteristics. We describe two cases involving fluorescence-guided resection of extraventricular neurocytoma using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and evaluate the efficacy of the technique. We found that the tumor reactions to 5-ALA differed depending on the histologic grade. This finding shows that the 5-ALA fluorescence reaction may potentially be used as a biomarker of the clinical behavior of these tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which fluorescence-guided resection was utilized for the resection of extraventricular neurocytomas.
Extraventricular neurocytoma; Fluorescence guided surgery; 5-aminolevulinic acid
The 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced tumor fluorescence is a useful intraoperative marker for the diagnosis and the detection of various malignancies, but its use in meningioma is only reported infrequently. In meningioma, a complete resection of the tumor mass is crucial for the prevention of recurrence and postoperative morbidities. Deep sylvian meningioma is a rare type of meningioma where complete tumor removal is complicated by its deep anatomical location and close involvement with the middle cerebral artery. From our experience, 5-ALA-mediated fluorescence facilitated a safe excision whilst preserving critical neurovascular structures. To our best knowledge, this is first report from use of 5-ALA in a deep sylvian meningioma.
5-aminolevulinic acid; Resection; Deep sylvian meningioma; Meningioma without dural attachment
To evaluate the mechanism of the development of therapeutic resistance after temozolomide treatment, we focused on changes in O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and mismatch repair (MMR) between initial and recurrent glioblastomas. Tissue samples obtained from 24 paired histologically confirmed initial and recurrent adult glioblastoma patients who were initially treated with temozolomide were used for MGMT and MMR gene promoter methylation status and protein expression analysis using methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe amplification (MS-MLPA), methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), and immunohistochemical staining. There was a significant decrease in the methylation ratio of the MGMT promoter determined by MS-MLPA, which was not detectable with MSP, and MGMT protein expression changes were not remarkable. However, there was no epigenetic variability in MMR genes, and a relatively homogeneous expression of MMR proteins was observed in initial and recurrent tumors. We conclude that the development of reduced methylation in the MGMT promoter is one of the mechanisms for acquiring therapeutic resistance after temozolomide treatment in glioblastomas.
A spinal epidural hemangioma is rare. In this case, a 51 year-old female patient had low back pain and right thigh numbness. She was initially misdiagnosed as having a ruptured disc with possible sequestration of granulation tissue formation due to the limited number of spinal epidural hemangiomas and little-known radiological findings. Because there are no effective diagnostic tools to verify the hemangioma, more effort should be put into preoperative imaging tests to avoid misdiagnosis and poor decisions).
Spinal hemangioma; Indocyanine green videoangiography; Spinal cavernous; Hemangioma; Spinal epidural hemangioma
Ga-doped ZnO [GZO] thin films were employed for the transparent electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells [DSSCs]. The electrical property of the deposited GZO films was as good as that of commercially used fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO]. In order to protect the GZO and enhance the photovoltaic properties, a TiO2 blocking layer was deposited on the GZO surface. Then, TiO2 nanoparticles were coated on the blocking layer, and dye was attached for the fabrication of DSSCs. The fabricated DSSCs with the GZO/TiO2 glasses showed an enhanced conversion efficiency of 4.02% compared to the devices with the normal GZO glasses (3.36%). Furthermore, they showed better characteristics even than those using the FTO glasses, which can be attributed to the reduced charge recombination and series resistance.