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1.  Transorbital Penetrating Intracranial Injury by a Chopstick 
A 38-year-old man fell from a chair with a chopstick in his hand. The chopstick penetrated his left eye. He noticed pain, swelling, and numbness around his left eye. On physical examination, a linear wound was noted at the medial aspect of the left eyelid. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) study showed a linear hypodense structure extending from the medial aspect of the left orbit to the occipital bone, suggesting a foreign body. This foreign body was hyperdense relative to normal parenchyma. From a CT scan with 3-dimensional reconstruction, the foreign body was found to be passing through the optic canal into the cranium. The clear plastic chopstick was withdrawn without difficulty. The patient was discharged home 3 weeks after his surgery. A treatment plan for a transorbital penetrating injury should be determined by a multidisciplinary team, with input from neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.414
PMCID: PMC3488655  PMID: 23133735
Penetrating; Foreign body; Orbit; Craniocerebral trauma
2.  Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Metastasized to Both the Skull and the Brain 
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) with skull and brain metastases is extremely rare. A 53-year-old patient diagnosed as skull metastasis of ASPS visited our clinic complaining of an outgrowing scalp mass in spite of radiation therapy. Past medical history revealed that the patient had been diagnosed and treated for ASPS of the thigh 4 years ago. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hyperintense ovoid mass on the T2-weighted image, an isointense on the T1-weighted image, and a homogeneous enhanced mass with gadolinium. Another small-sized enhanced mass with mild peritumoral swelling was found at the deep white matter of the left frontal lobe. A gross total resection of the skull lesion with cranioplasty was performed for the surgical defect. A histologic examination of the specimens revealed metastatic ASPS involving the skull. Surgery with a total removal of the lesions may be effective for improving a patient's symptoms especially from neurological dysfunction.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.1.55
PMCID: PMC3440505  PMID: 22993680
Alveolar soft part sarcoma; Brain metastasis; Sarcoma; Surgery
3.  Development of a Cognitive Level Explanation Model in Brain Injury : Comparisons between Disability and Non-Disability Evaluation Groups 
Objective
We investigated whether Disability Evaluation (DE) situations influence patients' neuropsychological test performances and psychopathological characteristics and which variable play a role to establish an explanation model using statistical analysis.
Methods
Patients were 536 (56.6%) brain-injured persons who met inclusion and exclusion criteria, classified into the DE group (DE; n = 300, 56.0%) and the non-DE group (NDE; n = 236, 44.0%) according to the neuropsychological testing's purpose. Next, we classified DE subjects into DE cluster 1 (DEC1; 91, 17.0%), DE cluster 2 (DEC2; 125; 23.3%), and DE cluster 3 (DEC3; 84, 15.7%) via two-step cluster analysis, to specify DE characteristics. All patients completed the K-WAIS, K-MAS, K-BNT, SCL-90-R, and MMPI.
Results
In comparisons between DE and NDE, the DE group showed lower intelligence quotients and more severe psychopathologic symptoms, as evaluated by the SCL-90-R and MMPI, than the NDE group did. When comparing the intelligence among the DE groups and NDE group, DEC1 group performed worst on intelligence and memory and had most severe psychopathologic symptoms than the NDE group did. The DEC2 group showed modest performance increase over the DEC1 and DEC3, similar to the NDE group. Paradoxically, the DEC3 group performed better than the NDE group did on all variables.
Conclusion
The DE group showed minimal "faking bad" patterns. When we divided the DE group into three groups, the DEC1 group showed typical malingering patterns, the DEC2 group showed passive malingering patterns, and the DEC3 group suggested denial of symptoms and resistance to treatment.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.6.506
PMCID: PMC3053545  PMID: 21430977
Disability evaluation; Brain injury; Malingering

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