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1.  Long-Term Incidence and Predicting Factors of Cranioplasty Infection after Decompressive Craniectomy 
Objective
The predictors of cranioplasty infection after decompressive craniectomy have not yet been fully characterized. The objective of the current study was to compare the long-term incidences of surgical site infection according to the graft material and cranioplasty timing after craniectomy, and to determine the associated factors of cranioplasty infection.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess graft infection in patients who underwent cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy between 2001 and 2011 at a single-center. From a total of 197 eligible patients, 131 patients undergoing 134 cranioplasties were assessed for event-free survival according to graft material and cranioplasty timing after craniectomy. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression methods were employed, with cranioplasty infection identified as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were also evaluated, including autogenous bone resorption, epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma and brain contusion.
Results
The median follow-up duration was 454 days (range 10 to 3900 days), during which 14 (10.7%) patients suffered cranioplasty infection. There was no significant difference between the two groups for event-free survival rate for cranioplasty infection with either a cryopreserved or artificial bone graft (p=0.074). Intergroup differences according to cranioplasty time after craniectomy were also not observed (p=0.083). Poor neurologic outcome at cranioplasty significantly affected the development of cranioplasty infection (hazard ratio 5.203, 95% CI 1.075 to 25.193, p=0.04).
Conclusion
Neurologic status may influence cranioplasty infection after decompressive craniectomy. A further prospective study about predictors of cranioplasty infection including graft material and cranioplasty timing is necessary.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.396
PMCID: PMC3488651  PMID: 23133731
Decompressive craniectomy; Cranioplasty infection; Neurologic outcome; Graft material; Cranioplasty timing
2.  The Quality of Life of Patients with Good Outcomes after Anterior Circulation Aneurysm Surgery Assessed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Korean Version 
Objective
Even in the patients with neurologically good outcome after intracranial aneurysm surgery, their perception of health is an important outcome issue. This study aimed to investigate the quality of life (QOL) and its predictors of patients who had a good outcome following anterior circulation aneurysm surgery as using the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Korean version.
Methods
We treated 280 patients with 290 intracranial aneurysms for 2 years. This questionnaire was taken and validated by 99 patients whose Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 4 and more and Global deterioration scale 3 and less at 6 months after the operation, and 85 normal persons. Each domain and facet was compared between the two groups, and a subgroup analysis was performed on the QOL values and hospital expenses of the aneurysm patients according to the type of craniotomy, approach, bleeding of the aneurysm and brain injury.
Results
Aneurysm patients showed a lower quality of life compared with control patients in level of independence, psychological, environmental, and spiritual domains. In the environmental domain, there were significant intergroup differences according to the type of craniotomy and the surgical approach used on the patients (p<0.05). The hospital charges were also significantly different according to the type of craniotomy (p<0.05).
Conclusion
Despite good neurological status, patients surgically treated for anterior circulation aneurysm have a low quality of life. The craniotomy size may affect the QOL of patients who underwent an anterior circulation aneurysm surgery and exhibited a good outcome.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.179
PMCID: PMC3483316  PMID: 23115658
Anterior circulation aneurysm; Quality of life; Craniotomy size; Surgical approach
3.  Cervical Disc Herniation Producing Acute Brown-Sequard Syndrome 
Brown-Sequard syndrome may be the result of penetrating injury to the spine, but many other etiologies have been described. This syndrome is most commonly seen with spinal trauma and extramedullary spinal neoplasm. A herniated cervical disc has been rarely reported as a cause of this syndrome. We present a case of a 28-year-old male patient diagnosed as large C3-C4 disc herniation with spinal cord compression. He presented with left hemiparesis and diminished sensation to pain and temperature in the right side below the C4 dermatome. Microdiscectomy and anterior cervical fusion with carbon fiber cage containing a core of granulated coralline hydroxyapatite was performed. After the surgery, rapid improvement of the neurologic deficits was noticed. We present a case of cervical disc herniation producing acute Brown-Sequard syndrome with review of pertinent literature.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.5.312
PMCID: PMC2693795  PMID: 19516953
Brown-Sequard syndrome; Cervical disc herniation; Microdiscectomy; Anterior cervical fusion
4.  Surgical Treatments for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Associated with Athetoid Cerebral Palsy 
Objective
To evaluate the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of the patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy associated with athetoid cerebral palsy.
Methods
The authors reviewed the clinical and neurodiagnostic findings, surgical managements and outcomes in six consecutive patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy associated with athetoid cerebral palsy who had been treated with surgical decompression and fusion procedures between January 1999 and December 2005. The mean age of the 6 patients (four women and two men) at the time of surgery was 42.8 years (range, 31-55 years). The mean follow-up period was 56.5 months (range, 17-112 months). The neurological outcome was evaluated before and after operations (immediately, 6 months after and final follow-up) using grading systems of the walking ability, brachialgia and deltoid power.
Results
At immediate postoperative period, after 6 months, and at final follow-up, all patients showed apparent clinical improvements in walking ability, upper extremity pain and deltoid muscle strength. Late neurological deterioration was not seen during follow-up periods. There were no serious complications related to surgery.
Conclusion
Surgical decompression and stabilization in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy associated with athetoid cerebral palsy have been challenging procedure up to now. Our results indicate that early diagnosis and appropriate surgical procedure can effectively improve the clinical symptoms and neurological function in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and athetoid cerebral palsy, even in those with severe involuntary movements.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.6.294
PMCID: PMC2588250  PMID: 19096635
Cerebral Palsy; Spinal Cord Compression; Decompression; Instrumentation

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