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1.  Status Epilepticus Caused by Nefopam 
Nefopam, a centrally acting analgesic, has been used to control postoperative pain. Reported adverse effects are anticholinergic, cardiovascular or neuropsychiatric. Neurologic adverse reactions to nefopam are confusion, hallucinations, delirium and convulsions. There are several reports about fatal convulsive seizures, presumably related to nefopam. A 71-year-old man was admitted for surgery for a lumbar spinal stenosis. He was administered intravenous analgesics : ketorolac, tramadol, orphenadrine citrate and nefopam HCl. His back pain was so severe that he hardly slept for several days; he even needed morphine and pethidine. At 4 days of administration of intravenous analgesics, the patient suddenly started generalized tonic-clonic seizures for 15 seconds, and subsequently, status epilepticus; these were not responsive to phenytoin and midazolam. After 3 days of barbiturate coma therapy the seizures were controlled. Convulsive seizures related to nefopam appear as focal, generalized, myoclonic types, or status epilepticus, and are not dose-related manifestations. In our case, the possibility of convulsions caused by other drugs or the misuse of drugs was considered. However, we first identified the introduced drugs and excluded the possibility of an accidental misuse of other drugs. Physicians should be aware of the possible occurrence of unpredictable and serious convulsions when using nefopam.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.5.448
PMCID: PMC4273008  PMID: 25535527
Adverse drug reaction; Barbiturate; Nefopam; Status epilepticus
2.  Multiple Spontaneous Simultaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhages 
Simultaneous occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in different arterial territories is an uncommon event. We report on two cases of multiple spontaneous simultaneous ICH for which we could find no specific cause. A 73-year-old man, with no related medical history, was admitted to the hospital with simultaneous bithalamic ICH, and subsequently died of recurrent pneumonia. Second patient was a 60-year-old man who presented with simultaneous ICH in the pons and thalamus; he died of recurrent bleeding. We review the possible pathological mechanisms, clinical and radiologic features of simultaneous multiple ICH.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2014.16.2.104
PMCID: PMC4102749  PMID: 25045650
Simultaneous; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Hypertension; Multiple
3.  Significance of C-Reactive Protein and Transcranial Doppler in Cerebral Vasospasm Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Objective
Cerebral vasospasm is a common and potentially devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Inflammatory processes seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of vasospasm. C-reactive protein (CRP) constitutes a highly sensitive inflammatory marker. Elevation of serum CRP levels has been demonstrated in patients with aSAH. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the possible relationship between CRP levels in the serum and transcranial Doppler (TCD) and the development of vasospasm in patients with aSAH.
Methods
A total of 61 adult patients in whom aSAH was diagnosed were included in the study from November 2008 to May 2011. The patients' demographics, Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher grade, CT scans, digital subtraction angiography studies, and daily neurological examinations were recorded. Serial serum CRP measurements were obtained on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 and TCD was measured on days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. All patients underwent either surgical or endovascular treatment within 24 hours of their hemorrhagic attacks.
Results
Serum CRP levels peaked on the 3rd postoperative day. There were significant differences between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day. There were significant differences between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group on the 3rd day in the mean middle cerebral artery velocities on TCD.
Conclusion
Patients with high levels of CRP on the 1st postoperative day and high velocity of mean TCD on the 3rd postoperative day may require closer observation to monitor for the development of vasospasm.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.4.289
PMCID: PMC3841270  PMID: 24294451
Cerebral aneurysms; C-reactive protein; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vasospasm
4.  Locations and Clinical Significance of Non-Hemorrhagic Brain Lesions in Diffuse Axonal Injuries 
Objective
Detection of focal non-hemorrhagic lesion (NHL) has become more efficient in diffuse axonal injury (DAI) patients using an MRI. The aims of this study are to find out the radiological distribution, progress of NHL and its clinical significance.
Methods
Between September 2005 and October 2011, 32 individuals with NHLs on brain MRI were enrolled. NHLs were classified by brain location into 4 major districts and 13 detailed locations including cortical and subcortical, corpus callosum, deep nuclei and adjacent area, and brainstem. The severity of NHL was scored from grades 1 to 4, according to the number of districts involved. Fourteen patients with NHL were available for MRI follow-up and an investigation of the changes was conducted.
Results
Thirty-two patients had 59 NHLs. The most common district of NHL was cortical and subcortical area; 15 patients had 20 NHSs. However the most common specific location was the splenium of the corpus callosum; 14 patients had 14 lesions. The more lesions patients had, the lower the GCS, however, this was not a statistically meaningful difference. On follow-up MRI in 14 patients, out of 24 lesions, 13 NHLs resolved, 5 showed cystic change, and 6 showed atrophic changes.
Conclusion
NHLs were located most commonly in the splenium and occur frequently in the thalamus and the mesial temporal lobe. Because most NHS occur concomitantly with hemorrhagic lesions, it was difficult to determine their effects on prognosis. Since most NHLs resolve completely, they are probably less significant to prognosis than hemorrhagic lesions.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.377
PMCID: PMC3488648  PMID: 23133728
Traumatic brain injury; Diffuse axonal injury; Magnetic resonance imaging; Corpus callosum; Non-hemorrhagic
5.  Radiological Apoplexy and Its Correlation with Acute Clinical Presentation, Angiogenesis and Tumor Microvascular Density in Pituitary Adenomas 
Objective
Pituitary apoplexy is life-threatening clinical syndrome caused by the rapid enlargement of a pituitary tumor due to hemorrhage and/or infarction. The pathogenesis of pituitary apoplexy is not completely understood. We analyzed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pituitary tumors and subsequently correlated the radiological findings with the clinical presentation. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was also performed to determine whether certain biomarkers are related to radiological apoplexy.
Methods
Thirty-four cases of pituitary adenoma were enrolled for retrospective analysis. In this study, the radiological apoplexy was defined as cases where hemorrhage, infarction or cysts were identified on MRI. Acute clinical presentation was defined as the presence of any of the following symptoms: severe sudden onset headache, decreased visual acuity and/or visual field deficit, and acute mental status changes. Angiogenesis was quantified by immunohistochemical expression of fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk-1), neuropilin (NRP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, while microvascular density (MVD) was assessed using Endoglin and CD31.
Results
Clinically, fourteen patients presented with acute symptoms and 20 for mild or none clinical symptoms. Radiologically, fifteen patients met the criteria for radiological apoplexy. Of the fifteen patients with radiologic apoplexy, 9 patients presented acute symptoms whereas of the 19 patient without radiologic apoplexy, 5 patients presented acute symptoms. Of the five biomarkers tracked, only VEGF was found to be positively correlated with both radiological and nonradiological apoplexy.
Conclusion
While pituitary apoplexy is currently defined in cases where clinical symptoms can be histologically confirmed, we contend that cases of radiologically identified pituitary hemorrhages that present with mild or no symptoms should be designated subacute or subclinical apoplexy. VEGF is believed to have a positive correlation with pituitary hemorrhage. Considering the high rate of symptomatic or asymptomatic pituitary tumor hemorrhage, additional studies are needed to detect predictors of the pituitary hemorrhage.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.4.281
PMCID: PMC3243828  PMID: 22200007
Pituitary adenoma; Pituitary apoplexy; Pituitary hemorrhage; Angiogenesis; Microvascular density; VEGF
6.  Spontaneous Pneumocephalus Associated with Pneumosinus Dilatans 
The majority of cases of pneumocephalus are secondary to trauma or medical intervention. Spontaneous, non-traumatic pneumocephalus is an uncommon condition. Most cases of spontaneous pneumocephalus require surgery. However, if there is no evidence of infection or cerebrospinal fluid leak, bed rest and follow-up imaging is an alternative treatment. Herein, we report a 31-year-old man with spontaneous pneumocephalus associated with pneumosinus dilatans.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.5.395
PMCID: PMC2883064  PMID: 20539803
Spontaneous pneumocephalus; Hyperpneumatization; Pneumosinus dilatans
7.  Pituitary Apoplexy Complicated by Chemical Meningitis and Cerebral Infarction 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(6):1085-1089.
A 41-yr-old man was admitted with acute headache, neck stiffness, and febrile sensation. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed pleocytosis, an increased protein level and, a decreased glucose concentration. No organisms were observed on a culture study. An imaging study revealed pituitary macroadenoma with hemorrhage. On the 7th day of the attack, confusion, dysarthria, and right-sided facial paralysis and hemiparesis were noted. Cerebral infarction on the left basal ganglia was confirmed. Neurologic deficits gradually improved after removal of the tumor by endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal approach. It is likely that the pituitary apoplexy, aseptic chemical meningitis, and cerebral infarction are associated with each other. This rare case can serve as a prime example to clarify the chemical characteristics of pituitary apoplexy.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.6.1085
PMCID: PMC2694622  PMID: 18162729
Cerebral Infarction; Meningitis; Pituitary Apoplexy
8.  Primary Malignant Lymphoma of the Cranial Vault with Extra- and Intracranial Extension 
Bone involvement is a common finding in many types of lymphomas, particularly in advanced stages. However, cranial vault affliction has been regarded as an exceedingly rare presentation. Here, we report the case of a patient with cranial vault lymphoma who presented with a scalp mass. An 81-year-old woman presented with a gradually growing and non-painful frontal scalp mass that she noticed one month before admission. It was a flatly elevated, round mass measuring about 6×4×4 cm. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a contrast-enhancing intracranial extradural mass at the counter-location of the scalp mass. The superior sagittal sinus was involved at the tumor site. Cerebral angiography showed that the tumor feeding vessels originated from the bilateral external carotid arteries. An operation was performed and the tumors were removed together with the involved bone. The pathologic diagnosis was malignant diffuse large B-cell type lymphoma. The patient was transferred to the Hemato-Oncology department for chemotherapy. Primary lymphoma of the cranial vault with scalp mass is very rare but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of scalp masses. Although the results of reported cases are variable, the combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy appears to offer favorable outcomes.
doi:10.14791/btrt.2013.1.1.32
PMCID: PMC4027115  PMID: 24904887
Primary lymphoma; Cranial vault; Scalp mass
9.  Transient Adverse Neurologic Effects of Spinal Pain Blocks 
Objective
Chronic neck or back pain can be managed with various procedures. Although these procedures are usually well-tolerated, a variety of side effects have been reported. In this study we reviewed cases of unexpected temporary adverse events after blocks and suggest possible causes.
Methods
We reviewed the records of patients treated with spinal pain blocks between December 2009 and January 2011. The types of blocks performed were medial branch blocks, interlaminar epidural blocks and transforaminal epidural blocks. During the first eight months of the study period (Group A), 2% mepivacaine HCL and triamcinolone was used, and during the last six months of the study period (Group B), mepivacaine was diluted to 1% with normal saline.
Results
There were 704 procedures in 613 patients. Ten patients had 12 transient neurologic events. Nine patients were in Group A and one was in Group B. Transient complications occurred in four patients after cervical block and in eight patients after lumbar block. Side effects of lumbar spine blocks were associated with the concentration of mepivacaine (p<0.05). The likely causes were a high concentration of mepivacaine in five patients, inadvertent vascular injection in three patients, intrathecal leak of local anesthetics in one, and underlying conversion disorder in one.
Conclusion
Spinal pain blocks are a good option for relieving pain, but clinicians should always keep in mind the potential for development of inevitable complications. Careful history-taking, appropriate selection of the anesthetics, and using real-time fluoroscopy could help reduce the occurrence of adverse events.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.228
PMCID: PMC3483324  PMID: 23115666
Adverse effect; Spinal pain; Conversion disorder; Medial branch blocks; Paralysis; C2 ganglion block
10.  The Effect of Radiofrequency Neurotomy of Lower Cervical Medial Branches on Cervicogenic Headache 
Objective
Cervicogenic headache (CGH) is known to be mainly related with upper cervical problems. In this study, the effect of radiofrequency neurotomy (RFN) for lower cervical (C4-7) medial branches on CGH was evaluated.
Methods
Eleven patients with neck pain and headache, who were treated with lower cervical RFN due to supposed lower cervical zygapophysial joint pain without symptomatic intervertebral disc problem or stenosis, were enrolled in this study. CGH was diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria of the cervicogenic headache international study group. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score and degree of VAS improvement (VASi) (%) were checked for evaluation of the effect of lower cervical RFN on CGH.
Results
The VAS score at 6 months after RFN was 2.7±1.3, which were significantly decreased comparing to the VAS score before RFN, 8.1±1.1 (p<0.001). The VASi at 6 months after RFN was 63.8±17.1%. There was no serious complication.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that lower cervical disorders can play a role in the genesis of headache in addition to the upper cervical disorders or independently.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.507
PMCID: PMC3272511  PMID: 22323937
Cervicogenic headache; Radiofrequency; Neurotomy; Medial branch
11.  Supratentorial Clear Cell Ependymoma Mimicking Oligodendroglioma : Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Clear cell ependymomas (CCEs) are rare variants of ependymomas. Tumors show anaplastic histological features and behave as an aggressive manner. CCEs have a predilection for extraneural metastases and early recurrence, and they demonstrate characteristic radiographic features. These tumors should be radiologically and pathologically differentiated from oligodendrogliomas. On microscopic examination, CCEs are composed of sheets of cells and resemble oligodendroglioma. However, upon closer examination, the nature of CCEs can be detected earlier, resulting in prompt treatment of the tumor. Although we report only one case, we emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Future description of more cases of these rare cancers is necessary to aid in their diagnosis and treatment.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.3.240
PMCID: PMC3218185  PMID: 22102956
Clear cell; Ependymoma; Oligodendroglioma; Histology; Prognosis
12.  Clinical Features of Acute Subdural Hematomas Caused by Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms 
Objective
Spontaneous acute subdural hematomas (aSDH) secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysms are rarely reported. This report reviews the clinical features, diagnostic modalities, treatments, and outcomes of this unusual and often fatal condition.
Methods
We performed a database search for all cases of intracranial aneurysms treated at our hospital between 2005 and 2010. Patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms who presented with aSDH on initial computed tomography (CT) were selected for inclusion. The clinical conditions, radiologic findings, treatments, and outcomes were assessed.
Results
A total of 551 patients were treated for ruptured intracranial aneurysms during the review period. We selected 23 patients (4.2%) who presented with spontaneous aSDH on initial CT. Ruptured aneurysms were detected on initial 3D-CT angiography in all cases. All ruptured aneurysms were located in the anterior portion of the circle of Willis. The World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade on admission was V in 17 cases (73.9%). Immediate decompressive craniotomy was performed 22 cases (95.7%). Obliteration of the ruptured aneurysm was achieved in all cases. The Glasgow outcome scales for the cases were good recovery in 5 cases (21.7%), moderate disability to vegetative in 7 cases (30.4%), and death in 11 cases (47.8%).
Conclusion
Spontaneous aSDH caused by a ruptured intracranial aneurysm is rare pattern of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. For early detection of aneurysm, 3D-CT angiography is useful. Early decompression with obliteration of the aneurysm is recommended. Outcomes were correlated with the clinical grade and CT findings on admission.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.1.6
PMCID: PMC3159885  PMID: 21892397
Acute subdural hematoma; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Intracranial aneurysm; CT angiography
13.  Neuroprotective Effect of Anthocyanin on Experimental Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury 
Objective
We investigated the neuroprotective effect of anthocyanin, oxygen radical scavenger extracted from raspberries, after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats.
Methods
The animals were divided into two groups : the vehicle-treated group (control group, n=20) received an oral administration of normal saline via stomach intubation immediately after SCI, and the anthocyanin-treated group (AT group, n=20) received 400 mg/kg of cyanidin 3-O-β-glucoside (C3G) in the same way. We compared the neurological functions, superoxide expressions and lesion volumes in two groups.
Results
At 14 days after SCI, the AT group showed significant improvement of the BBB score by 16.7±3.4%, platform hang by 40.0±9.1% and hind foot bar grab by 30.8±8.4% (p<0.05 in all outcomes). The degree of superoxide expression, represented by the ratio of red fluorescence intensity, was significantly lower in the AT group (0.98±0.38) than the control group (1.34±0.24) (p<0.05). The lesion volume in lesion periphery was 32.1±2.4 µL in the control and 24.5±2.3 µL in the AT group, respectively (p<0.05), and the motor neuron cell number of the anterior horn in lesion periphery was 8.3±5.1 cells/HPF in the control and 13.4±6.3 cells/HPF in the AT group, respectively (p<0.05).
Conclusion
Anthocyanin seemed to reduce lesion volume and neuronal loss by its antioxidant effect and these resulted in improved functional recovery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.4.205
PMCID: PMC3098422  PMID: 21607177
Spinal cord trauma; Anthocyanin; Antioxidants
14.  Association between Asymptomatic Urinary Tract Infection and Postoperative Spine Infection in Elderly Women : A Retrospective Analysis Study 
Objective
The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between asymptomatic urinary tract infection (aUTI) and postoperative spine infection.
Methods
A retrospective review was done in 355 women more than 65 years old who had undergone laminectomy and/or discectomy, and spinal fusion, between January 2004 and December 2008. Previously postulated risk factors (i.e., instrumentation, diabetes, prior corticosteroid therapy, previous spinal surgery, and smoking) were investigated. Furthermore, we added aUTI that was not previously considered.
Results
Among 355 patients, 42 met the criteria for aUTI (Bacteriuria ≥ 105 CFU/mL and no associated symptoms). A postoperative spine infection was evident in 15 of 355 patients. Of the previously described risk factors, multi-levels (p < 0.05), instrumentation (p < 0.05) and diabetes (p < 0.05) were proven risk factors, whereas aUTI (p > 0.05) was not statistically significant. However, aUTI with Foley catheterization was statistically significant when Foley catheterization was added as a variable to the all existing risk factors.
Conclusion
aUTI is not rare in elderly women admitted to the hospital for lumbar spine surgery. The results of this study suggest that aUTI with Foley catheterization may be considered a risk factor for postoperative spine infection in elderly women. Therefore, we would consider treating aUTI before operating on elderly women who will need Foley catheterization.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.4.265
PMCID: PMC2864818  PMID: 20461166
Asymptomatic UTI; Postoperative spine infection; Elderly women
15.  Interhemispheric Osteolipoma with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum 
Osteolipoma is an ossified lipoma with distinct components of fat and bone. We present a case of interhemispheric osteolipoma associated with total agenesis of the corpus callosum. A 20-year-old man complained of severe headache, nausea and vomiting. Brain computed tomography showed a low-density mass in an interhemispheric fissure, with high T1 and T2 magnetic resonance signals compatible with fat. The mass measured 4.9 × 2.9 cm in size and showed peripheral calcifications. There was another small piece of same signal mass within the lateral ventricular choroid plexus. The interhemispheric lesion was removed by an interhemispheric approach. Osteolipoma is rare in interhemispheric region, however, it should be a differential diagnosis of lesions with fat intensity mass and calcifications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.2.148
PMCID: PMC2836453  PMID: 20224717
Agenesis; Corpus callosum; Intracranial; Lipoma; Osteolipoma
16.  Recurrent Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation in a Child : Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are generally considered to be cured following angiographically proven complete resection. However, rare instances of AVM recurrence have been reported in both children and adults with negative findings on postoperative angiography. The authors present the case of a 12-year-old boy with recurrent AVM. The AVM was originally fed by the pericallosal arteries on both sides, and it showed changing patterns of supply at recurrence. The authors concluded that a negative postoperative angiogram is not necessarily indicative of a cure. Repeat angiography and regular follow-up examinations should be performed to exclude the possibility of recurrence, especially in children.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.6.401
PMCID: PMC2711243  PMID: 19609429
Arteriovenous malformations; Cerebral angiography; Recurrence
17.  The Effect of Barbiturate Coma Therapy for the Patients with Severe Intracranial Hypertension: A 10-Year Experience 
Objective
Barbiturate coma therapy (BCT) has been known to be an useful method to control increased intracranial pressure (IICP) refractory to medical and surgical treatments. We have used BCT for patients with severe IICP during the past 10 years, and analyzed our results with review of literatures.
Methods
We analyzed 92 semicomatose or comatose patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 7 or less with severe IICP due to cerebral edema secondary to parenchymal damages irrespective of their causes. Forty patients who had received BCT with ICP monitoring from January 1997 to December 2006 were included in BCT group, and fifty-two patients who had been managed without BCT from January 1991 to December 1995 were divided into control group. We compared outcomes with Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) and survival rate between the two groups.
Results
Good outcome (GOS=4 and 5) rates at 3-month after insult were 27.5% and 5.8% in BCT and control group, respectively (p<0.01). One-year survival rates were 35.9% and 12.5% in BCT and control group, respectively (p<0.01). In BCT group, the mean age of good outcome patients (37.1 ± 14.9) was significantly lower than that of poor outcome patients (48.1 ± 13.5) (p<0.05).
Conclusion
With our 10-year experience, we suggest that BCT is an effective treatment method for severe IICP patients for better survival and GOS, especially for younger patients.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.3.141
PMCID: PMC2588298  PMID: 19096664
Barbiturate coma; Increased intracranial pressure; Survival; Glasgow outcome scale
18.  Eosinophilic Granuloma Presenting as an Epidural Hematoma and Cyst 
Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare immunologic disorder characterized by histiocyte proliferation in multiple organ systems. Eosinophilic granuloma, a benign bone lesion, represents a focal form of LCH. We experienced a case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in a patient who presented with intracranial epidural hematoma and cyst on the midline of the frontal skull. A 10-year-old boy presented with a rapidly growing large scalp mass on the midline frontal area after mild head trauma. The scalp mass was painless and immobile. Plain skull x-ray showed a punched-out bone lesion. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a non-enhancing osteolytic lesion presenting with an epidural hematoma and cyst on the midline of the frontal skull. The lesion of the skull was completely resected and the patient's recovery was uneventful. The acute presentation of a solitary eosinophilic granuloma of skull with an epidural hematoma has been described in only five cases in the literature and we report the first case of LCH presenting as an intracranial epidural hematoma on frontal area.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.6.304
PMCID: PMC2588256  PMID: 19096637
Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; Epidural hematoma; Eosinophilic granuloma; Head trauma
19.  Lesion of Subthalamic Nucleus in Parkinsonian Rats : Effects of Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Agonists on the Neuronal Activities of the Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata 
Objective
It was hypothesized that dopamine agonist administration and subthalamic nucleus (STN) lesion in the rat might have a synergistic effect on the neuronal activities of substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) as observed in patients with Parkinson's disease. The effects of SKF38393 (a D1 receptor agonist) and Quinpirole (a D2 receptor agonist) were compared in parkinsonian rat models with 6- hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) after STN lesion.
Methods
SKF38393 and Quinpirole were consecutively injected intrastriatally. SNpr was microrecorded to ascertain the activity of the basal ganglia output structure. The effect of SKF38393 or Quinpirole injection on the firing rate and firing patterns of SNpr was investigated in medial forebrain bundle (MFB) lesioned rats and in MFB+STN lesioned rats.
Results
The administration of SKF38393 decreased SNpr neuronal firing rates and the percentage of burst neurons in the MFB lesioned rats, but did not alter them in MFB+STN lesioned rats. The administration ofQuinpirole significantly decreased the spontaneous firing rate in the MFB lesioned rats. However, after an additional STN lesion, it increased the percentage of burst neurons.
Conclusion
This study demonstrated that dopamine agonists and STN lesion decreased the hyperactive firing rate and the percentage of burst neurons of SNpr neurons in 6-OHDA lesioned rats, respectively. Quinpirole with STN lesion increased a percentage of burst neurons. To clear the exact interactive mechanism of D1 and D2 agonist and the corresponding location, it should be followed a study using a nonselective dopamine agonist and D1, D2 selective antagonist.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2007.42.6.455
PMCID: PMC2588170  PMID: 19096589
6-hydroxydopamine; Substantia nigra pars reticulate; Kainic acid; Subthalamic nucleus; Dopamine agonist; Parkinson's disease
20.  Therapeutic Effects of Holmium-166 Chitosan Complex in Rat Brain Tumor Model 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2005;46(1):51-60.
This study examined the effectiveness of Holmium-166 (Ho-166) chitosan complex therapy for a malignant glioma. Cultured C6 glioma cells (100,000 in 5 µl) were injected into the caudate/putamen of 200 - 250 gram Wistar rats. Five days later, a Ho-166 chitosan complex was injected into the same site of the glioma injection. Four injection doses were administered: the control group received PBS 10 µl, group 1 received an injection of 100 µCi (10 µl), group 2 received an injection of 50 µCi (5 µl), and group 3 received an injection of 10 µCi (1 µl). The average tumor volume for each group was 1.385 mm3 for the control group, 0.036 mm3 for group 1, 0.104 mm3 for group 2, and 0.111 mm3 for group 3. Compared with the control group, the size of the tumors in groups 1, 2 and 3 was reduced by an average of 97.4%, 92.5% and 91.9%, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve of group 2 was the longest, followed by groups 3, group 1 and the control. The mean survival was 22.8, 59, 60, and 44.6 days for the control group and groups 3, 2 and 1, respectively. H-E staining revealed that group 2 yielded the best results in the destruction of the malignant glioma. TUNEL staining and immunohistochemical studies indicated apoptotic features. The Ho-166 chitosan complex proved to be effective in destroying the malignant glioma.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2005.46.1.51
PMCID: PMC2823057  PMID: 15744805
Holmium-166 chitosan complex; malignant glioma; brachytherapy; therapeutic effects

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