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1.  Inflammatory Pseudotumor in the Lateral Ventricle with Repeated Bleeding-Case Report- 
Inflammatory pseudotumor is an uncommon lesion with unknown etiology characterized by sclerosing inflammation which clinically and radiographically mimics a neoplastic lesion. A 47-year-old man presented with sudden headache and dysarthria. Brain CT scan revealed a 2.6×2.2 cm sized, round, and hyperdense mass in the anterolateral wall of the left lateral ventricular trigone. On MR imaging studies, the mass showed low signal intensity in the wall of the trigone on T2-weighted image, central mixed (iso- and high-) signal intensity with peripheral low-signal intensity on T1-weighted image. Subtle staining of left choroid plexus with irregular shaped distal branch of anterior choroidal artery was found on the cerebral angiography. These findings suggested a small tumorous lesion originated from the left choroid plexus. During the hospital days, the mass manifested as repeated hemorrhages. The mass was successfully removed via left occipital transcortical approach. The histopathological report of the specimen was hemorrhage and fibrosis, with dense lymphoplasma cell infiltration, suggestive of an inflammatory pseudotumor.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.2.99
PMCID: PMC2651413  PMID: 19274120
Intraventricular tumor; Inflammatory pseudotumor; Hemorrhage
2.  Significance of C-Reactive Protein and Transcranial Doppler in Cerebral Vasospasm Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Objective
Cerebral vasospasm is a common and potentially devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Inflammatory processes seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of vasospasm. C-reactive protein (CRP) constitutes a highly sensitive inflammatory marker. Elevation of serum CRP levels has been demonstrated in patients with aSAH. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the possible relationship between CRP levels in the serum and transcranial Doppler (TCD) and the development of vasospasm in patients with aSAH.
Methods
A total of 61 adult patients in whom aSAH was diagnosed were included in the study from November 2008 to May 2011. The patients' demographics, Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher grade, CT scans, digital subtraction angiography studies, and daily neurological examinations were recorded. Serial serum CRP measurements were obtained on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 and TCD was measured on days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. All patients underwent either surgical or endovascular treatment within 24 hours of their hemorrhagic attacks.
Results
Serum CRP levels peaked on the 3rd postoperative day. There were significant differences between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day. There were significant differences between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group on the 3rd day in the mean middle cerebral artery velocities on TCD.
Conclusion
Patients with high levels of CRP on the 1st postoperative day and high velocity of mean TCD on the 3rd postoperative day may require closer observation to monitor for the development of vasospasm.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.4.289
PMCID: PMC3841270  PMID: 24294451
Cerebral aneurysms; C-reactive protein; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vasospasm
3.  Locations and Clinical Significance of Non-Hemorrhagic Brain Lesions in Diffuse Axonal Injuries 
Objective
Detection of focal non-hemorrhagic lesion (NHL) has become more efficient in diffuse axonal injury (DAI) patients using an MRI. The aims of this study are to find out the radiological distribution, progress of NHL and its clinical significance.
Methods
Between September 2005 and October 2011, 32 individuals with NHLs on brain MRI were enrolled. NHLs were classified by brain location into 4 major districts and 13 detailed locations including cortical and subcortical, corpus callosum, deep nuclei and adjacent area, and brainstem. The severity of NHL was scored from grades 1 to 4, according to the number of districts involved. Fourteen patients with NHL were available for MRI follow-up and an investigation of the changes was conducted.
Results
Thirty-two patients had 59 NHLs. The most common district of NHL was cortical and subcortical area; 15 patients had 20 NHSs. However the most common specific location was the splenium of the corpus callosum; 14 patients had 14 lesions. The more lesions patients had, the lower the GCS, however, this was not a statistically meaningful difference. On follow-up MRI in 14 patients, out of 24 lesions, 13 NHLs resolved, 5 showed cystic change, and 6 showed atrophic changes.
Conclusion
NHLs were located most commonly in the splenium and occur frequently in the thalamus and the mesial temporal lobe. Because most NHS occur concomitantly with hemorrhagic lesions, it was difficult to determine their effects on prognosis. Since most NHLs resolve completely, they are probably less significant to prognosis than hemorrhagic lesions.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.377
PMCID: PMC3488648  PMID: 23133728
Traumatic brain injury; Diffuse axonal injury; Magnetic resonance imaging; Corpus callosum; Non-hemorrhagic
4.  Unilateral Thrombosis of a Deep Cerebral Vein Associated with Transient Unilateral Thalamic Edema 
Symptoms of deep cerebral vein thrombosis (DCVT) are variable and nonspecific. Radiologic findings are essential for the diagnoses. In the majority of cases of deep internal cerebral venous thrombosis, the thalamus is affected bilaterally, and venous hypertension by thrombosis causes parenchymal edema or venous infarction and may sometimes cause venous hemorrhage. Intravenous injections of mannitol can be administered or decompressive craniectomy can be performed for reduction of intracranial pressure. The objectives of antithrombotic treatment in DCVT include recanalization of the sinus or vein, and prevention of propagation of the thrombus. Herein, the authors report DCVT which was successfully treated by low molecular weight heparin.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2012.14.3.233
PMCID: PMC3491220  PMID: 23210053
Intracranial thrombosis; Venous thrombosis; Cerebral infarction; Brain edema
5.  Salvage Surgical Treatment for Failed Endovascular Procedure of a Blood Blister-Like Aneurysm 
The blood blister-like aneurysm (BBA) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare but clinically important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which accounts for 0.5% of incidences of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. BBA is a thin-walled, broad-based aneurysm that lacks an identifiable neck and is one of the most difficult lesions to treat. In this paper, a case is presented of a 57-year-old woman with SAH. Her cerebral angiography demonstrated a small BBA on the dorsal wall of her right ICA. Endovascular treatment that consisted of a stent-within-a-stent was attempted, but the replacement of the second stent failed, and the aneurysm became bigger. Surgery was performed by clipping the BBA with a Sundt slim-line encircling graft clip. The patient completely recovered with no complications. This treatment may be a salvageable option for BBA, especially when endovascular treatment has failed.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2012.14.2.99
PMCID: PMC3471259  PMID: 23210036
Blood-blister like aneurysm; Internal carotid artery; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Encircling graft clip; Endovascular stent
6.  The Effect of Radiofrequency Neurotomy of Lower Cervical Medial Branches on Cervicogenic Headache 
Objective
Cervicogenic headache (CGH) is known to be mainly related with upper cervical problems. In this study, the effect of radiofrequency neurotomy (RFN) for lower cervical (C4-7) medial branches on CGH was evaluated.
Methods
Eleven patients with neck pain and headache, who were treated with lower cervical RFN due to supposed lower cervical zygapophysial joint pain without symptomatic intervertebral disc problem or stenosis, were enrolled in this study. CGH was diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria of the cervicogenic headache international study group. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score and degree of VAS improvement (VASi) (%) were checked for evaluation of the effect of lower cervical RFN on CGH.
Results
The VAS score at 6 months after RFN was 2.7±1.3, which were significantly decreased comparing to the VAS score before RFN, 8.1±1.1 (p<0.001). The VASi at 6 months after RFN was 63.8±17.1%. There was no serious complication.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that lower cervical disorders can play a role in the genesis of headache in addition to the upper cervical disorders or independently.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.507
PMCID: PMC3272511  PMID: 22323937
Cervicogenic headache; Radiofrequency; Neurotomy; Medial branch
7.  Radiological Apoplexy and Its Correlation with Acute Clinical Presentation, Angiogenesis and Tumor Microvascular Density in Pituitary Adenomas 
Objective
Pituitary apoplexy is life-threatening clinical syndrome caused by the rapid enlargement of a pituitary tumor due to hemorrhage and/or infarction. The pathogenesis of pituitary apoplexy is not completely understood. We analyzed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pituitary tumors and subsequently correlated the radiological findings with the clinical presentation. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was also performed to determine whether certain biomarkers are related to radiological apoplexy.
Methods
Thirty-four cases of pituitary adenoma were enrolled for retrospective analysis. In this study, the radiological apoplexy was defined as cases where hemorrhage, infarction or cysts were identified on MRI. Acute clinical presentation was defined as the presence of any of the following symptoms: severe sudden onset headache, decreased visual acuity and/or visual field deficit, and acute mental status changes. Angiogenesis was quantified by immunohistochemical expression of fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk-1), neuropilin (NRP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, while microvascular density (MVD) was assessed using Endoglin and CD31.
Results
Clinically, fourteen patients presented with acute symptoms and 20 for mild or none clinical symptoms. Radiologically, fifteen patients met the criteria for radiological apoplexy. Of the fifteen patients with radiologic apoplexy, 9 patients presented acute symptoms whereas of the 19 patient without radiologic apoplexy, 5 patients presented acute symptoms. Of the five biomarkers tracked, only VEGF was found to be positively correlated with both radiological and nonradiological apoplexy.
Conclusion
While pituitary apoplexy is currently defined in cases where clinical symptoms can be histologically confirmed, we contend that cases of radiologically identified pituitary hemorrhages that present with mild or no symptoms should be designated subacute or subclinical apoplexy. VEGF is believed to have a positive correlation with pituitary hemorrhage. Considering the high rate of symptomatic or asymptomatic pituitary tumor hemorrhage, additional studies are needed to detect predictors of the pituitary hemorrhage.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.4.281
PMCID: PMC3243828  PMID: 22200007
Pituitary adenoma; Pituitary apoplexy; Pituitary hemorrhage; Angiogenesis; Microvascular density; VEGF
8.  Clinical Features of Acute Subdural Hematomas Caused by Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms 
Objective
Spontaneous acute subdural hematomas (aSDH) secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysms are rarely reported. This report reviews the clinical features, diagnostic modalities, treatments, and outcomes of this unusual and often fatal condition.
Methods
We performed a database search for all cases of intracranial aneurysms treated at our hospital between 2005 and 2010. Patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms who presented with aSDH on initial computed tomography (CT) were selected for inclusion. The clinical conditions, radiologic findings, treatments, and outcomes were assessed.
Results
A total of 551 patients were treated for ruptured intracranial aneurysms during the review period. We selected 23 patients (4.2%) who presented with spontaneous aSDH on initial CT. Ruptured aneurysms were detected on initial 3D-CT angiography in all cases. All ruptured aneurysms were located in the anterior portion of the circle of Willis. The World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade on admission was V in 17 cases (73.9%). Immediate decompressive craniotomy was performed 22 cases (95.7%). Obliteration of the ruptured aneurysm was achieved in all cases. The Glasgow outcome scales for the cases were good recovery in 5 cases (21.7%), moderate disability to vegetative in 7 cases (30.4%), and death in 11 cases (47.8%).
Conclusion
Spontaneous aSDH caused by a ruptured intracranial aneurysm is rare pattern of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. For early detection of aneurysm, 3D-CT angiography is useful. Early decompression with obliteration of the aneurysm is recommended. Outcomes were correlated with the clinical grade and CT findings on admission.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.1.6
PMCID: PMC3159885  PMID: 21892397
Acute subdural hematoma; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Intracranial aneurysm; CT angiography
9.  Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia Caused by Arachnoid Cyst in the Cerebellopontine Angle 
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a relatively rare condition characterized by severe, paroxysmal episodes of lancinating pain in the tongue, throat, ear, and tonsil. This disorder is assumed to be due to compression of the glossopharyngeal nerve by vascular structures. A 47-year-old woman complaining of sharp and lancinating pain in the right periauricular and submandibular areas visited our hospital. Swallowing, chewing, and lying on her right side triggered the pain. Her neurologic examination revealed no specific abnormalities. The results of routine hematologic and blood chemistry studies were all within normal limits. Carbamazepine and gabapentin were given, but her symptoms persisted. Her pain was temporarily relieved only by narcotic pain medication. MRI showed an arachnoid cyst located in the right cerebellomedullary cistern extending to the cerebellopontine cistern. Cyst removal was performed via a right retrosigmoid approach. Lateral suboccipital craniotomy was performed using the right park-bench position. After opening the dura and cerebellopontine angle, the arachnoid cyst was exposed. The arachnoid cyst was compressing the flattened lower cranial nerves at the right jugular fossa. Her symptoms resolved postoperatively. Two months after the operation, she was completely free from her previous symptoms.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.5.284
PMCID: PMC3115149  PMID: 21716901
Arachnoid cyst; Cerebellopontine angle; Glossopharyngeal neuralgia
10.  Neuroprotective Effect of Anthocyanin on Experimental Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury 
Objective
We investigated the neuroprotective effect of anthocyanin, oxygen radical scavenger extracted from raspberries, after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats.
Methods
The animals were divided into two groups : the vehicle-treated group (control group, n=20) received an oral administration of normal saline via stomach intubation immediately after SCI, and the anthocyanin-treated group (AT group, n=20) received 400 mg/kg of cyanidin 3-O-β-glucoside (C3G) in the same way. We compared the neurological functions, superoxide expressions and lesion volumes in two groups.
Results
At 14 days after SCI, the AT group showed significant improvement of the BBB score by 16.7±3.4%, platform hang by 40.0±9.1% and hind foot bar grab by 30.8±8.4% (p<0.05 in all outcomes). The degree of superoxide expression, represented by the ratio of red fluorescence intensity, was significantly lower in the AT group (0.98±0.38) than the control group (1.34±0.24) (p<0.05). The lesion volume in lesion periphery was 32.1±2.4 µL in the control and 24.5±2.3 µL in the AT group, respectively (p<0.05), and the motor neuron cell number of the anterior horn in lesion periphery was 8.3±5.1 cells/HPF in the control and 13.4±6.3 cells/HPF in the AT group, respectively (p<0.05).
Conclusion
Anthocyanin seemed to reduce lesion volume and neuronal loss by its antioxidant effect and these resulted in improved functional recovery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.4.205
PMCID: PMC3098422  PMID: 21607177
Spinal cord trauma; Anthocyanin; Antioxidants
11.  Capillary Hemangioma of the Thoracic Spinal Cord 
Capillary hemangiomas are common soft tissue tumors on the skin or mucosa of the head and neck in the early childhood, but very rare in the neuraxis. A 47-year-old man presented with one month history of back pain on the lower thoracic area, radiating pain to both legs, and hypesthesia below T7 dermatome. Thoracic spine MRI showed 1×1.3×1.5 cm, well-defined intradural mass at T6-7 disc space level, which showed isointensity to spinal cord on T1, heterogeneous isointensity on T2-weighted images, and homogeneous strong enhancement. The patient underwent T6-7 total laminotomy, complete tumor removal and laminoplasty. Histologically, the mass showed a capsulated nodular lesion composed of capillary-sized vascular channels, which were tightly packed into nodules separated by fibrous septa. These features were consistent with capillary hemangioma.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.3.272
PMCID: PMC2966732  PMID: 21082058
Capillary hemangioma; Spinal cord; Intradural extramedullary tumor
12.  Remote Cerebellar Hemorrhage after Lumbar Spinal Surgery 
Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is rare but potentially lethal as a complication of spinal surgery. We recently experienced a case of RCH in a 61-year-old man who showed mental deterioration after lumbar spinal surgery. There was dural tearing with subsequent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) loss during the surgery. Brain computed tomography scan revealed cerebellar hemorrhage, 3rd and 4th ventricular hemorrhage and pneumocephalus. He underwent suboccipital craniectomy and hematoma removal. The most important pathomechanism leading to RCH after spinal surgery has been known to be venous bleeding due to caudal sagging of cerebellum by rapid leak of large amount of CSF which seems to be related with this case. Dural repair and minimizing CSF loss after intraoperative dural tearing would be helpful to prevent postoperative RCH.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.5.501
PMCID: PMC2796361  PMID: 20041065
Remote cerebellar hemorrhage; Spinal surgery; Dural tear; Cerebrospinal fluid leakage
13.  Detection of Traumatic Cerebral Microbleeds by Susceptibility-Weighted Image of MRI 
Objective
Susceptibility-weighted image (SWI) is a sensitive magnetic resonance image (MRI) technique to detect cerebral microbleeds (MBLs), which would not be detected by conventional MRI. We performed SWI to detect MBLs and investigated its usefulness in the evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients.
Methods
From December 2006 to June 2007, twenty-one MTBI patients without any parenchymal hemorrhage on conventional MRI were selected. Forty-two patients without trauma were selected for control group. According to the presence of MBLs, we divided the MTBI group into MBLs positive [SWI (+)] and negative [SWI (-)] group. Regional distribution of MBLs and clinical factors were compared between groups.
Results
Fifty-one MBLs appeared in 16 patients of SWI (+) group and 16 MBLs in 10 patients of control group [control (+)], respectively. In SWI (+) group, MBLs were located more frequently in white matters than in deep nucleus different from the control (+) group (p < 0.05). Nine patients (56.3%) of SWI (+) group had various neurological deficits (disorientation in 4, visual field defect in 2, hearing difficulty in 2 and Parkinson syndrome in 1). Initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)/mean Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) were 13.9 ± 1.5 / 4.7 ± 0.8 and 15.0 ± 0.0 / 5.0 ± 0.0 in SWI (+) and SWI (-) groups, respectively (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
Traumatic cerebral MBLs showed characteristic regional distribution, and seemed to have an importance on the initial neurological status and the prognosis. SWI is useful for detection of traumatic cerebral MBLs, and can provide etiologic evidences for some post-traumatic neurologic deficits which were unexplainable with conventional MRI.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.4.365
PMCID: PMC2773396  PMID: 19893728
Traumatic brain injury; Susceptibility-weighted image; Microbleeds
14.  Endovascular Treatment for Common Iliac Artery Injury Complicating Lumbar Disc Surgery : Limited Usefulness of Temporary Balloon Occlusion 
Vascular injury during lumbar disc surgery is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. It has been managed by open vascular surgical repair. With recent technologic advance, endovascular treatment became one of effective treatment modalities. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman who suffered with common iliac artery injury during lumbar disc surgery that was treated successfully by endovascular repair with temporary balloon occlusion and subsequent insertion of a covered stent. Temporary balloon occlusion for 1.5 hours could stop bleeding, but growing pseudoaneurysm was identified at the injury site during the following 13 days. It seems that the temporary balloon occlusion can stall bleeding from arterial injury for considerable time duration, but cannot be a single treatment modality and requires subsequent insertion of a covered stent.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.3.261
PMCID: PMC2764027  PMID: 19844629
Endovascular repair; Covered stent; Balloon occlusion; Lumbar disc surgery; Common iliac artery; Pseudoaneurysm
15.  Dural Arteriovenous Fistula of Jugular Foramen with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : Selective Transarterial Embolization 
We report the case of a 64-year-old man with dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) at right jugular foramen, presented as subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. The malformation was fed by only the neuromeningeal trunk of the right ascending pharyngeal artery and drained into the right lateral medullary veins craniopetally. Complete embolization was attained by selective transarterial glue injection, but patient showed lower cranial neuropathies. A 3-month follow-up angiogram still showed persistent fistula occlusion. Transarterial glue embolization is a feasible method, only if a transvenous access is not possible in case of single channel fistula.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.3.199
PMCID: PMC2666127  PMID: 19352487
Dural arteriovenous fistula; Glue; Intra arterial injection; Subarachnoid hemorrhage
16.  The Effect of Barbiturate Coma Therapy for the Patients with Severe Intracranial Hypertension: A 10-Year Experience 
Objective
Barbiturate coma therapy (BCT) has been known to be an useful method to control increased intracranial pressure (IICP) refractory to medical and surgical treatments. We have used BCT for patients with severe IICP during the past 10 years, and analyzed our results with review of literatures.
Methods
We analyzed 92 semicomatose or comatose patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 7 or less with severe IICP due to cerebral edema secondary to parenchymal damages irrespective of their causes. Forty patients who had received BCT with ICP monitoring from January 1997 to December 2006 were included in BCT group, and fifty-two patients who had been managed without BCT from January 1991 to December 1995 were divided into control group. We compared outcomes with Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) and survival rate between the two groups.
Results
Good outcome (GOS=4 and 5) rates at 3-month after insult were 27.5% and 5.8% in BCT and control group, respectively (p<0.01). One-year survival rates were 35.9% and 12.5% in BCT and control group, respectively (p<0.01). In BCT group, the mean age of good outcome patients (37.1 ± 14.9) was significantly lower than that of poor outcome patients (48.1 ± 13.5) (p<0.05).
Conclusion
With our 10-year experience, we suggest that BCT is an effective treatment method for severe IICP patients for better survival and GOS, especially for younger patients.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.3.141
PMCID: PMC2588298  PMID: 19096664
Barbiturate coma; Increased intracranial pressure; Survival; Glasgow outcome scale
17.  Postoperative Changes in Paraspinal Muscle Volume: Comparison between Paramedian Interfascial and Midline Approaches for Lumbar Fusion 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(4):646-651.
In this study, we compared the paramedian interfascial approach (PIA) and the traditional midline approach (MA) for lumbar fusion to determine which approach resulted in the least amount of postoperative back muscle atrophy. We performed unilateral transforaminal posterior lumbar interbody fusion via MA on the symptomatic side and pedicle screw fixation via PIA on the other side in the same patient. We evaluated the damage to the paraspinal muscle after MA and PIA by measuring the preoperative and postoperative paraspinal muscle volume in 26 patients. The preoperative and postoperative cross-sectional area, thickness, and width of the multifidus muscle were measured by computed tomography. The degree of postoperative paraspinal muscle atrophy was significantly greater on the MA side than on the contralateral PIA side (-20.7% and -4.8%, respectively, p<0.01). In conclusion, the PIA for lumbar fusion yielded successful outcomes for the preservation of paraspinal muscle in these 26 patients. We suggest that the success of PIA is due to less manipulation and retraction of the paraspinal muscle and further studies on this technique may help confirm whether less muscle injury has positive effects on the long-term clinical outcome.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.4.646
PMCID: PMC2693813  PMID: 17728503
Paraspinal Muscle; Paramedian Approach; Muscle Atrophy; Lumbar Spine

Results 1-17 (17)