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1.  Locations and Clinical Significance of Non-Hemorrhagic Brain Lesions in Diffuse Axonal Injuries 
Objective
Detection of focal non-hemorrhagic lesion (NHL) has become more efficient in diffuse axonal injury (DAI) patients using an MRI. The aims of this study are to find out the radiological distribution, progress of NHL and its clinical significance.
Methods
Between September 2005 and October 2011, 32 individuals with NHLs on brain MRI were enrolled. NHLs were classified by brain location into 4 major districts and 13 detailed locations including cortical and subcortical, corpus callosum, deep nuclei and adjacent area, and brainstem. The severity of NHL was scored from grades 1 to 4, according to the number of districts involved. Fourteen patients with NHL were available for MRI follow-up and an investigation of the changes was conducted.
Results
Thirty-two patients had 59 NHLs. The most common district of NHL was cortical and subcortical area; 15 patients had 20 NHSs. However the most common specific location was the splenium of the corpus callosum; 14 patients had 14 lesions. The more lesions patients had, the lower the GCS, however, this was not a statistically meaningful difference. On follow-up MRI in 14 patients, out of 24 lesions, 13 NHLs resolved, 5 showed cystic change, and 6 showed atrophic changes.
Conclusion
NHLs were located most commonly in the splenium and occur frequently in the thalamus and the mesial temporal lobe. Because most NHS occur concomitantly with hemorrhagic lesions, it was difficult to determine their effects on prognosis. Since most NHLs resolve completely, they are probably less significant to prognosis than hemorrhagic lesions.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.377
PMCID: PMC3488648  PMID: 23133728
Traumatic brain injury; Diffuse axonal injury; Magnetic resonance imaging; Corpus callosum; Non-hemorrhagic
2.  Remote Cerebellar Hemorrhage after Lumbar Spinal Surgery 
Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is rare but potentially lethal as a complication of spinal surgery. We recently experienced a case of RCH in a 61-year-old man who showed mental deterioration after lumbar spinal surgery. There was dural tearing with subsequent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) loss during the surgery. Brain computed tomography scan revealed cerebellar hemorrhage, 3rd and 4th ventricular hemorrhage and pneumocephalus. He underwent suboccipital craniectomy and hematoma removal. The most important pathomechanism leading to RCH after spinal surgery has been known to be venous bleeding due to caudal sagging of cerebellum by rapid leak of large amount of CSF which seems to be related with this case. Dural repair and minimizing CSF loss after intraoperative dural tearing would be helpful to prevent postoperative RCH.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.5.501
PMCID: PMC2796361  PMID: 20041065
Remote cerebellar hemorrhage; Spinal surgery; Dural tear; Cerebrospinal fluid leakage
3.  Detection of Traumatic Cerebral Microbleeds by Susceptibility-Weighted Image of MRI 
Objective
Susceptibility-weighted image (SWI) is a sensitive magnetic resonance image (MRI) technique to detect cerebral microbleeds (MBLs), which would not be detected by conventional MRI. We performed SWI to detect MBLs and investigated its usefulness in the evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients.
Methods
From December 2006 to June 2007, twenty-one MTBI patients without any parenchymal hemorrhage on conventional MRI were selected. Forty-two patients without trauma were selected for control group. According to the presence of MBLs, we divided the MTBI group into MBLs positive [SWI (+)] and negative [SWI (-)] group. Regional distribution of MBLs and clinical factors were compared between groups.
Results
Fifty-one MBLs appeared in 16 patients of SWI (+) group and 16 MBLs in 10 patients of control group [control (+)], respectively. In SWI (+) group, MBLs were located more frequently in white matters than in deep nucleus different from the control (+) group (p < 0.05). Nine patients (56.3%) of SWI (+) group had various neurological deficits (disorientation in 4, visual field defect in 2, hearing difficulty in 2 and Parkinson syndrome in 1). Initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)/mean Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) were 13.9 ± 1.5 / 4.7 ± 0.8 and 15.0 ± 0.0 / 5.0 ± 0.0 in SWI (+) and SWI (-) groups, respectively (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
Traumatic cerebral MBLs showed characteristic regional distribution, and seemed to have an importance on the initial neurological status and the prognosis. SWI is useful for detection of traumatic cerebral MBLs, and can provide etiologic evidences for some post-traumatic neurologic deficits which were unexplainable with conventional MRI.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.4.365
PMCID: PMC2773396  PMID: 19893728
Traumatic brain injury; Susceptibility-weighted image; Microbleeds
4.  The Effect of Barbiturate Coma Therapy for the Patients with Severe Intracranial Hypertension: A 10-Year Experience 
Objective
Barbiturate coma therapy (BCT) has been known to be an useful method to control increased intracranial pressure (IICP) refractory to medical and surgical treatments. We have used BCT for patients with severe IICP during the past 10 years, and analyzed our results with review of literatures.
Methods
We analyzed 92 semicomatose or comatose patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 7 or less with severe IICP due to cerebral edema secondary to parenchymal damages irrespective of their causes. Forty patients who had received BCT with ICP monitoring from January 1997 to December 2006 were included in BCT group, and fifty-two patients who had been managed without BCT from January 1991 to December 1995 were divided into control group. We compared outcomes with Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) and survival rate between the two groups.
Results
Good outcome (GOS=4 and 5) rates at 3-month after insult were 27.5% and 5.8% in BCT and control group, respectively (p<0.01). One-year survival rates were 35.9% and 12.5% in BCT and control group, respectively (p<0.01). In BCT group, the mean age of good outcome patients (37.1 ± 14.9) was significantly lower than that of poor outcome patients (48.1 ± 13.5) (p<0.05).
Conclusion
With our 10-year experience, we suggest that BCT is an effective treatment method for severe IICP patients for better survival and GOS, especially for younger patients.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.3.141
PMCID: PMC2588298  PMID: 19096664
Barbiturate coma; Increased intracranial pressure; Survival; Glasgow outcome scale
5.  Neuroprotective Effect of Ginseng Total Saponins in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(2):291-296.
In the present study, we investigated whether ginseng total saponins (GTSs) protect hippocampal neurons after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. A moderate-grade TBI was made with the aid of a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device set at a velocity of 3.0 m/sec, a deformation of 3.0 mm, and a compression time of 0.2 sec at the right parietal area for adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Sham-operated rats that underwent craniectomy without impact served as controls. GTSs (100 and 200 mg/kg) or saline was injected intraperitoneally into the rats immediately post-injury. Twenty-four hours after the injury, the rats underwent neurological evaluation. Contusion volume and the number of hippocampal neurons were calculated with apoptosis evaluated by TUNEL staining. 24 hr post-injury, saline-injected rats showed a significant loss of neuronal cells in the CA2 region of the right hippocampus (53.4%, p<0.05) and CA3 (34.6%, p<0.05) compared with contralateral hippocampal region, a significant increase in contusion volume (34±8 µL), and significant increase in neurologic deficits compared with the GTSs groups. Treating rats with GTSs seemed to protect the CCI-induced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, decrease cortical contusion volume, and improve neurological deficits.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.2.291
PMCID: PMC2808608  PMID: 15832003
Brain Injuries; Panax; Saponins; Neuroprotective Agents; Hippocampus
6.  Development of a Rat Model of Graded Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Using a Pneumatic Impact Device 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2004;19(4):574-580.
An animal model of spinal cord trauma is essential for understanding the injury mechanisms, cord regeneration, and to aid the development of new therapeutic modalities. This study focused on the development of a graded experimental contusion model for spinal cord injury (SCI) using a pneumatic impact device made in Korea. A contusive injury was made to the dorsal aspect of the cord. Three trauma groups were defined according to the impact velocity (IV). A control group (n=6), received laminectomy only. Group 1 (n=10), 2 (n=10), and 3 (n=10) had IVs of 1.5 m/sec, 2.0 m/sec, and 3.5 m/sec respectively. Functional assessments were made up to the 14th day after injury. The cord was removed at the 14th post-injury day and prepared for histopathologic examination. Significant behavioral and histopathological abnormalities were found in control and each trauma group. All trauma groups showed severe functional impairment immediately after injury but following different rates of functional recovery (Fig. 5). As the impact velocity and impulse increased, the depth of contusive lesion revealed to be profound the results show that the rat model reproduces spinal cord lesions consistently, has a distinctive value in assessing the effects of impact energy.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2004.19.4.574
PMCID: PMC2816893  PMID: 15308850
Models, Animal; Spinal Cord Injuries; Equipment and Supplies; Equipment Design

Results 1-6 (6)