Brainstem arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare and radiosurgical management is complicated by the sensitivity of the adjacent neurological structures. Complete obliteration of the nidus is not always possible. We describe over 20 years of radiosurgical procedures for brainstem AVMs, focusing on clinical outcomes and radiosurgical techniques.
Between 1992 and 2011, the authors performed gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in 464 cerebral AVMs. Twenty-nine of the 464 patients (6.3%) reviewed had brainstem AVMs. This series included sixteen males and thirteen females with a mean age of 30.7 years (range : 5-71 years). The symptoms that led to diagnoses were as follows : an altered mentality (5 patients, 17.3%), motor weakness (10 patients, 34.5%), cranial nerve symptoms (3 patients, 10.3%), headache (6 patients, 20.7%), dizziness (3 patients, 10.3%), and seizures (2 patients, 6.9%). Two patients had undergone a previous nidus resection, and three patients had undergone a previous embolization. Twenty-four patients underwent only GKRS. With respect to the nidus type and blood flow, the ratio of compact type to diffuse type and high flow to low flow were 17 : 12 and 16 : 13, respectively. In this series, 24 patients (82.8%) had a prior hemorrhage. The mean target volume was 1.7 cm3 (range 0.1-11.3 cm3). The mean maximal and marginal radiation doses were 38.5 Gy (range 28.6-43.6 Gy) and 23.4 Gy (range 18-27 Gy), and the mean isodose profile was 61.3% (range 50-70%).
Twenty-four patients had brainstem AVMs and were followed for more than 3 years. Obliteration of the AVMs was eventually documented in 17 patients (70.8%) over a mean follow-up period of 77.5 months (range 36-216 months). With respect to nidus type and blood flow, the obliteration rate of compact types (75%) was higher than that of diffuse types (66.7%), and the obliteration rate of low flow AVMs (76.9%) was higher than that of high flow AVMs (63.6%) (p<0.05). Two patients (6.9%) with three hemorrhagic events suffered a hemorrhage during the follow-up period. The annual bleeding rate of AVM after GKRS was 1.95% per year. No adverse radiation effects or delayed cystic formations were found.
GKRS has an important clinical role in treatment of brainstem AVMs, which carry excessive surgical risks. Angiographic features and radiosurgical techniques using a lower maximal dose with higher isodose profiles are important for lesion obliteration and the avoidance of complications.
Brainstem; Arteriovenous malformation; Gamma knife radiosurgery
Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is the least invasive surgical option for patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). However, the indications and long term outcomes of GKRS are still controversial. Additionally, a series with uniform long-term follow-up data for all patients has been lacking. In the present study, the authors analyzed long-term outcomes in a series of patients with TN who underwent a single GKRS treatment followed by a minimum follow-up of 60 months.
From 1994 to 2009, 40 consecutive patients with typical, intractable TN received GKRS. Among these, 22 patients were followed for >60 months. The mean maximum radiation dose was 77.1 Gy (65.2-83.6 Gy), and the 4 mm collimator was used to target the radiation to the root entry zone.
The mean age was 61.5 years (25-84 years). The mean follow-up period was 92.2 months (60-144 months). According to the pain intensity scale in the last follow-up, 6 cases were grades I-II (pain-free with or without medication; 27.3%) and 7 cases were grade IV-V (<50% pain relief with medication or no pain relief; 31.8%). There was 1 case (facial dysesthesia) with post-operative complications (4.54%).
The long-term results of GKRS for TN are not as satisfactory as those of microvascular decompression and other conventional modalities, but GKRS is a safe, effective and minimally invasive technique which might be considered a first-line therapy for a limited group of patients for whom a more invasive kind of treatment is unsuitable.
Trigeminal neuralgia; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Long-term follow-up
Rapid and complete reversal of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is desirable at the end of surgery. Sugammadex reverses rocuronium-induced NMB by encapsulation. It is well tolerated in Caucasian patients, providing rapid reversal of moderate (reappearance of T2) rocuronium-induced NMB. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sugammadex versus neostigmine in Korean patients.
This randomized, safety assessor-blinded trial (NCT01050543) included Korean patients undergoing general anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was given prior to intubation with maintenance doses of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg as required. Patients received sugammadex 2.0 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 µg/kg with glycopyrrolate 10 µg/kg to reverse the NMB at the reappearance of T2, after the last rocuronium dose. The primary efficacy endpoint was the time from sugammadex or neostigmine administration to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. The safety of these medications was also assessed.
Of 128 randomized patients, 118 had evaluable data (n = 59 in each group). The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) time to recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was 1.8 (1.6, 2.0) minutes in the sugammadex group and 14.8 (12.4, 17.6) minutes in the neostigmine group (P < 0.0001). Sugammadex was generally well tolerated, with no evidence of residual or recurrence of NMB; four patients in the neostigmine group reported adverse events possibly indicative of inadequate NMB reversal.
Sugammadex was well tolerated and provided rapid reversal of moderate rocuronium-induced NMB in Korean patients, with a recovery time 8.1 times faster than neostigmine. These results are consistent with those reported for Caucasian patients.
Caucasian; Korean; Neostigmine; Neuromuscular blockade; Rocuronium; Sugammadex
The purpose of this study was to measure lumbar epidural pressure (EP) during the insertion of a Tuohy needle under general anesthesia and to evaluate the influence of airway pressure on EP.
Lumbar EP was measured directly through a Tuohy needle during intermittent positive pressure ventilation in fifteen patients. Mean and peak EP were recorded after peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) of 0, 15, and 25 cmH2O.
All measured lumbar EPs were positive, with the pressure increasing during inspiration and decreasing during expiration. Median EP was 6.0 mmHg (interquartile range, 4.0-8.0) at 0 cmH2O of PIP, 6.5 mmHg (4.5-8.5) at 15 cmH2O, and 8.5 mmHg (6.0-10.5) at 25 cmH2O, increasing significantly at 15 cm H2O PIP, and further increasing at 25 cmH2O (P < 0.001).
We demonstrate the influence of increased airway pressure on lumbar EP measured directly through a Tuohy needle. Lumbar EPs were positive, and increasing PIP levels significantly increased lumbar EP.
Epidural pressure; General anesthesia; Lumbar
Neck flexion has been shown to increase cranial spread of contrast agent when a small fixed volume was injected into the high thoracic epidural space. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of volume of contrast medium on its distribution through the high thoracic epidural space during neck extension and flexion using the rabbit model.
An epidural catheter was introduced into the epidural space of New Zealand white rabbits with the tip located at the T3-4 intervertebral level. The neck was extended or flexed (n = 8 for each group), and the contrast medium was injected with the volume increasing by increments of 0.1 ml/kg, up to 0.3 ml/kg. The spread of contrast medium was determined by counting the number of vertebral body units using lateral epidurographic images.
In both groups, the total spread of contrast medium was similar, increasing continuously with injected volume. The cranial spread was greater in the flexion group than the extension group. However, the caudal spread was greater in the extension than in the flexion group. In the extension group, the contrast medium spread caudally about twice as far as it spread cranially, but there was no statistically significant difference between cranial and caudal spread in the flexion group.
In the high thoracic epidural space of rabbit, the contrast medium of varying doses showed limited cranial spread. The flexion of the neck increased cranial spread and extension of the neck increased caudal spread.
Contrast medium; Extension; Flexion; Neck; Rabbit; Thoracic epidural space
This study investigated the reversible effects of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment at 42°C on the ultrastructural and biological changes in nerve and collagen fibers in the progression of neuropathic pain after rat sciatic nerve injury. Assessments of morphological changes in the extracellular matrices by atomic force microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome and picrosirius-red staining as well as the expressions of two fibril-forming collagens, types-I and -III, and two inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, were evaluated on day 30 after RF exposure. There were four groups for different RF thermal treatments: no treatment, no current, PRF, and continuous RF (CRF). An RF procedure similar to that used in human clinical trials was used in this study. The CRF treatment at 82°C led to neural and collagen damage by the permanent blockage of sensory nociceptors. The PRF treatment led to excellent performance and high expandability compared to CRF, with effects including slight damage and swelling of myelinated axons, a slightly decreased amount of collagen fibers, swelling of collagen fibril diameters, decreased immunoreactivity of collagen types-I and -III, presence of newly synthesized collagen, and recovery of inflammatory protein immunoreactivity. These evidence-based findings suggest that PRF-based pain relief is responsible for the temporary blockage of nerve signals as well as the preferential destruction of pain-related principal sensory fibers like the Aδ and C fibers. This suggestion can be supported by the interaction between the PRF-induced electromagnetic field and cell membranes; therefore, PRF treatment provides pain relief while allowing retention of some tactile sensation.
In order to establish the role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) in large intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), we analyzed clinical characteristics, radiological features, and radiosurgical outcomes.
Between March 1992 and March 2005, 28 of 33 patients with large AVMs (> 10 cm3 in nidus-volume) who were treated with GKS underwent single session radiosurgery (RS), and the other 5 patients underwent staged volumetric RS. Retrospectively collected data were available in 23 cases. We analyzed treatment outcomes in each subdivided groups and according to the AVM sizes. We compared the estimated volume, defined as primarily estimated nidus volume using MR images, with real target volume after excluding draining veins and feeding arteries embedded into the nidus.
Regarding those patients who underwent single session RS, 44.4% (8/18) had complete obliteration; regarding staged volumetric RS, the obliteration rate was 40% (2/5). The complete obliteration rate was 60% (6/10) in the smaller nidus group (10-15 cm3 size), and 25% (2/8) in the larger nidus group (over 15 cm3 size). One case of cerebral edema and two cases (8.7%) of hemorrhage were seen during the latent period. The mean real target volume for 18 single sessions of RS was 17.1 cm3 (10.1-38.4 cm3), in contrast with the mean estimated volume of 20.9 cm3 (12.0-45.0 cm3).
The radiosurgical treatment outcomes of large AVMs are generally poor. However, we presume that the recent development in planning software and imaging devices aid more accurate measurement of the nidus volume, therefore improving the treatment outcome.
Gamma Knife radiosurgery; Arteriovenous Malformation; Intracerebral Hemorrhage; Obliteration; Complication; Outcome
Intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) associated with aneurysm has been infrequently encountered and the treatment for this malady is challenging. We report here on our clinical experience with AVMs associated with arterial aneurysms that were managed by multimodality treatments, including clipping of the aneurysm, microsurgery, Gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKS) and Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) embolization.
We reviewed the treatment plans, radiological findings and clinical courses of 21 patients who were treated with GKS for AVM associated with aneurysm.
Twenty-seven aneurysms in 21 patients with AVMs were enrolled in this study. Hemorrhage was the most frequent presenting symptom (17 patients : 80.9%). Bleeding was caused by an AVM nidus in 11 cases, aneurysm rupture in 5 and an undetermined origin in 1. Five patients were treated for associated aneurysm with clipping followed by GKS for the AVM and 11 patients were treated with GDC embolization combined with GKS for an AVM. Although 11 associated aneurysms remained untreated after GKS, none of them ruptured and 4 aneurysms regressed during the follow up period. Two aneurysms increased in size despite the disappearance of the AVM nidus after GKS and then these aneurysms were treated with GDC embolization.
If combined treatment using microsurgery, GKS and endovascular treatment can be adequately used for these patients, a better prognosis can be obtained. In particular, GKS and GDC embolization are considered to have significant roles to minimize neurologic injury.
Arteriovenous malformation; Aneurysm; Radiosurgery; Endovascular treatment; GDC embolization
As a cause of spinal cord compression, intramedullary spinal tuberculoma with central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare. Aurthors report a 66-year-old female presented with multiple CNS tuberculomas including spinal intramedullary tuberculoma manifesting paraparesis and urinary dysfunction. We review the clinical menifestation and experiences of previous reported literature.
Tuberculoma; Intramedullary lesion; Antituberculous treatment
To document lumbar lordosis (LL) of the spine and its change during surgeries with the different height but the same angle setting of the anterior cage. Additionally, we attempted to determine if sufficient LL is achieved at different cage heights and to quantify the change in LL during multi-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF).
The medical records and radiographs of 42 patients who underwent more than 2 level ALIFs between 2008 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated 3 parameters seen on lateral whole spine radiographs : LL, pelvic incidence (PI), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA). The mean follow-up time was 28.1 months and the final follow-up radiographs of all patients were reviewed at least 2 years after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired t-tests.
Lumbar lordosis had changed up to 30 degrees immediately and 2 years after surgery (preoperative mean LL, SVA : 22.45 degrees, 112.31 mm; immediate postoperative mean LL, SVA : 54.45 degrees, 37.36 mm; final follow-up mean LL, SVA : 49.56 degrees, 26.95 mm). Our goal of LL is to obtain as much PI as possible, preoperative mean PI value was 55.38±3.35. The pre-operative and two year post-surgery follow-up mean of the Japanese Orthopedic Association score were 9.2±0.6 and 13.2±0.6 (favorable outcome rate : 95%), respectively. In addition, we were able to obtain good clinical outcomes and sagittal balance with a subsidence rate of 22.7%.
We were able to achieve sufficient LL, such that it was similar to the PI, utilizing multi-level ALIF with the use of a tall cage with the same angle setting of the cage. We have found out that achieving sufficient lumbar lordosis and sagittal balance require an anterior lumbar cage with high angle and height.
ALIF; Anterior interbody fusion; Multilevel ALIF; Pelvic incidence; Anterior lumbar cage; Sagittal balance
Milnacipran is a balanced serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with minimal side effects and broad safety margin. It acts primarily on the descending inhibitory pain pathway in brain and spinal cord. In many animal studies, intrathecal administration of milnacipran is effective in neuropathic pain management. However, there is no study for the neurological safety of milnacipran when it is administered neuraxially. This study examined the neurotoxicity of epidural milnacipran by observing behavioral and sensory-motor changes with histopathological examinations of spinal cords in rats.
Sixty rats were divided into 3 groups, with each group receiving epidural administration of either 0.3 ml (3 mg) of milnacipran (group M, n = 20), 0.3 ml of 40% alcohol (group A, n = 20), or 0.3 ml of normal saline (group S, n = 20).
There were no abnormal changes in the behavioral, sensory-motor, or histopathological findings in all rats of groups M and S over a 3-week observation period, whereas all rats in group A had abnormal changes.
Based on these findings, the direct epidural administration of milnacipran in rats did not present any evidence of neurotoxicity in behavioral, sensory-motor and histopathological evaluations.
epidural injection; milnacipran; neurotoxicity
Occipital neuralgia is characterized by paroxysmal jabbing pain in the dermatomes of the greater or lesser occipital nerves caused by irritation of these nerves. Although several therapies have been reported, they have only temporary therapeutic effects. We report the results of pulsed radiofrequency treatment of the occipital nerve, which was used to treat occipital neuralgia.
Patients were diagnosed with occipital neuralgia according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders classification criteria. We performed pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation when patients presented with clinical findings suggestive occipital neuralgia with positive diagnostic block of the occipital nerves with local anesthetics. Patients were analyzed according to age, duration of symptoms, surgical results, complications and recurrence. Pain was measured every month after the procedure using the visual analog and total pain indexes.
From 2010, ten patients were included in the study. The mean age was 52 years (34-70 years). The mean follow-up period was 7.5 months (6-10 months). Mean Visual Analog Scale and mean total pain index scores declined by 6.1 units and 192.1 units, respectively, during the follow-up period. No complications were reported.
Pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation of the occipital nerve is an effective treatment for occipital neuralgia. Further controlled prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the exact effects and long-term outcomes of this treatment method.
Occipital neuralgia; Pulsed radiofrequency; Neuromodulation
The aim here is to examine the factorial structure, internal consistency, and concurrent validity of the Korean version of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (K-ASI-3) in student samples in Korea. Also, we investigated the cross-cultural differences in the Social Concerns factor.
K-ASI-3 was administered to non clinical samples in Korea. Internal consistency, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were undertaken to examine the factorial structure and reliability of the K-ASI-3.
Results from CFA comparing our data to factor solutions commonly reported as representative of European-American samples indicated an adequate fit. The K-ASI-3 showed good performance on the indices of internal consistency and concurrent validity. In addition, using regression analyses, we found the Social Concerns factor is most strongly related to life satisfaction and worry. However, we found no evidence that Korean college students express more Social Concerns than their European Caucasian counterparts.
The authors demonstrate that the K-ASI-3 has highly internally consistent and psychometrically sound items, and that it reliably measures three lower-order domains assessing Physical, Social, and Cognitive Concerns.
Anxiety sensitivity; Factor structure; Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3; Cross-cultural difference; Korean
Postlaminectomy peridural fibrosis is inevitable. Some studies have compared and identified the effects of high molecular weight hyaluronic acids (HMWHA) and low molecular weight hyaluronic acids (LMWHA) on peridural fibrosis in postlaminectomy animal models. However, no studies have been found that compare pain behaviors between hyaluronic acids or among hyaluronic acids and other solid materials. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between pain-related behaviors and histopathologic changes in laminectomized rats using various peridurally administered materials.
Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats, laminectomized at the L5 and L6 levels, were divided into four groups: group C, laminectomy only; group L, laminectomy and LMWHA application; group H, laminectomy and HMWHA application; group F, laminectomy and fat interposition. Pain behaviors were checked before, 3 days, 1 week, and 3 weeks after surgery. Histopathological changes were checked at the L5 level 3 weeks after the surgery.
The 50% withdrawal thresholds in groups L and H were higher than that in groups C and F three days after laminectomy (P < 0.05). The paw withdrawal time did not change among the groups and in each group during the study period. Peridural fibrosis in group F was significantly lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05).
Hyaluronic acids significantly reduced mechanical allodynia but not thermal hyperalgesia. Peridural fibrosis did not show any correlation with pain behaviors. There have been limited studies on the correlation between peridural fibrosis and pain behavioral change, which should be verified by further studies.
allodynia; failed back surgery syndrome; hyaluronic acid; laminectomy
The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of sevoflurane after severe forebrain ischemic injury. We also examined the relationship between the duration of ischemia and neuronal cell death.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-380 g) were subjected to 6 (each n = 6) or 10 min (each n = 10) of near-complete forebrain ischemia while anesthetized with either 50 mg/kg of zoletil given intraperitoneally or inhaled sevoflurane (2.3%). Ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion plus hemorrhagic hypotension (26-30 mmHg). Histologic outcomes were measured 7 days after ischemia in CA1 pyramidal cells of the rat hippocampus.
The mean percentage of necrotic cells in the hippocampal CA1 area decreased in the sevoflurane group compared to the zoletil group (25% vs. 40% after 6 min ischemia, respectively: P = 0.004 and 44% vs. 54% after 10 min of ischemia, respectively P = 0.03). The percentage of apoptotic cells was similar in all groups. The percentage of necrotic cells in each anesthetic groups was significantly higher in the 10 min ischemia group compared to the 6 min ischemia group (P = 0.004 in the sevoflurane group, P = 0.03 in the zoletil group).
The present data show that sevoflurane has neuroprotective effects in rats subjected to near-complete cerebral ischemia. Longer duration of ischemia is associated with more neuronal injury when compared to ischemia of shorter duration.
Brain ischemia; Hippocampus; Inhalation anesthetics; Neuron
The rat middle cerebral artery thread-occlusion model has been widely used to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke and to develop therapeutic treatment. This study was conducted to analyze energy metabolism, apoptotic signal pathways, and genetic changes in the hippocampus of the ischemic rat brain.
Focal transient cerebral ischemia was induced by obstructing the middle cerebral artery for two hours. After 24 hours, the induction of ischemia was confirmed by the measurement of infarct size using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. A cDNA microarray assay was performed after isolating the hippocampus, and was used to examine changes in genetic expression patterns.
According to the cDNA microarray analysis, a total of 1,882 and 2,237 genes showed more than a 2-fold increase and more than a 2-fold decrease, respectively. When the genes were classified according to signal pathways, genes related with oxidative phosphorylation were found most frequently. There are several apoptotic genes that are known to be expressed during ischemic brain damage, including Akt2 and Tnfrsf1a. In this study, the expression of these genes was observed to increase by more than 2-fold. As energy metabolism related genes grew, ischemic brain damage was affected, and the expression of important genes related to apoptosis was increased/decreased.
Our analysis revealed a significant change in the expression of energy metabolism related genes (Atp6v0d1, Atp5g2, etc.) in the hippocampus of the ischemic rat brain. Based on this data, we feel these genes have the potential to be target genes used for the development of therapeutic agents for ischemic stroke.
Apoptosis; Energy metabolism; Focal cerebral ischemia; Gene expression; Hippocampus; Oxidative phosphorylation
Radiation therapy has been widely applied for cancer treatment. Childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), characterized by frequent central nervous system involvement, is a well documented disease for the effect of prophylactic cranio-spinal irradiation. Irradiation, however, acts as an oncogenic factor as a delayed effect and it is rare that glioblastoma multiforme develops during the remission period of ALL. We experienced a pediatric radiation-induced GBM patient which developed during the remission period of ALL, who were primarily treated with chemotherapeutic agents and brain radiation therapy for the prevention of central nervous system (CNS) relapse. Additionally, we reviewed the related literature regarding on the effects of brain irradiation in childhood and on the prognosis of radiation induced GBM.
Radiation; Glioblastoma multiforme; Acute lymphocytic leukemia
We describe a rare case of pulsed radiofrequency treatment for pain relief associated with meralgia paresthetica. A 58-year-old female presented with pain in the left anterior lateral thigh. An imaging study revealed no acute lesions compared with a previous imaging study, and diagnosis of meralgia paresthetica was made. She received temporary pain relief with lateral femoral cutaneous nerve blocks twice. We performed pulsed radiofrequency treatment, and the pain declined to 25% of the maximal pain intensity. At 4 months after the procedure, the pain intensity did not aggravate without medication. Pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation treatment on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve may offer an effective, low risk treatment in patients with meralgia paresthetica who are refractory to conservative medical treatment.
Meralgia paresthetica; Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve; Pulsed radiofrequency; Neuromodulation
In recent years the immunocompromised population has increased rapidly to include people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), drug abusers, and transplant patients. Accordingly, the incidence of intracranial fungal infection has increased. Our institution experienced 2 cases of internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion due to invasion of the cavernous sinus by an intracranial fungal infection. The first case was a 60-year-old man who presented with headache, eye pain, conjunctival injection, right-sided diplopia, and blurred vision. Infected tissues within the frontal and ethmoid sinuses were removed via bifrontal craniotomy and endoscopic sinus surgery through the Caldwell Luc approach. The second case was a 63-year-old woman who developed right-sided facial pain after a tooth extraction. The infection was not controlled despite continuous use of antifungal agents, resulting in death from sepsis. We believe that when intracranial fungal infection is suspected in a patient with orbital symptoms and a focal neurologic deficit, immediate angiographic investigation of possible ICA occlusion is warranted. Aggressive treatment with antifungal agents is the only way to improve prognosis.
Internal carotid artery occlusion; Fungal infection
A 43-year-old male presenting with headache and dizziness underwent craniotomy and gross total resection of an extraaxial tumor was achieved via left occipital interhemispheric approach. The tumor was diagnosed as papillary meningioma arising from the left falcotentorium with such pathologic characteristics of bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma. At postoperative day 40, he developed generalized tonic clonic seizure and then progressed to a status epilepticus pattern. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed irregular leptomeningeal enhancement with a significant peritumoral area. Through a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, we identified the meningioma cells of the papillary type from the CSF. At the postoperative day 60, he fell into semicomatose state, and the computed tomography imaging showed low density on both cerebral hemispheres, except the basal ganglia and cerebellum, with overall brain swelling and an increased intracranial pressure. He died on the following day. We experienced a rare case of a papillary meningioma with leptomeningeal seeding.
Papillary meningioma; Leptomeningeal seeding; Leptomeningeal enhancement; Generalized tonic clonic seizure; Status epilepticus
This randomized controlled study evaluated the efficacy of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) with fentanyl and ketorolac for neurosurgical patients, and compared the effectiveness of IV-PCA with intermittent analgesics injection.
The patients undergoing craniotomy were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients of group P (n = 53) received fentanyl (0.2 µg/kg/hr) and ketorolac (0.3 mg/kg/hr) via IV-PCA, and those of group N (n = 53) received intermittent fentanyl or ketorolac injection as needed. Pain was evaluated using a 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS) at postoperative 1, 4, and 24 hr. The amount of infused analgesic drugs, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, systolic arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and the incidence of nausea and miosis were measured at the same time points.
Although VAS of pain (VASp) was comparable at postoperative 1 hr (P = 0.168) between the two groups, the group P had significantly lower VASp at postoperative 4 hr (P = 0.007) and 24 hr (P = 0.017). In group P, less analgesic drugs were administered at postoperative 1 hr, and more analgesic drugs were administered at postoperative 24 hr. There were no differences between two groups with respect to nausea, GCS, systolic arterial pressure, and heart rate. IV-PCA did not further incur respiratory depression or miosis.
IV-PCA with fentanyl and ketorolac after craniotomy is more effective analgesic technique, without adverse events, than the intermittent administration of analgesics.
Craniotomy; Fentanyl; Ketorolac; Patient-controlled analgesia
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was developed as a measure of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). The aim here is to examine the factor structure and concurrent validity of the Korean version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (K-PANAS) in a clinical sample in Korea.
K-PANAS was administered to a clinical sample in Korea. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were undertaken to examine the factorial structure and reliability of the K-PANAS.
The reliability of K-PANAS is satisfactory. CFA showed that several of the models commonly used in Western populations provided an insufficient fit. The modified model provided a more adequate fit to the data.
The authors demonstrate that the K-PANAS has adequate psychometric properties, and that findings obtained in the West using PANAS were partially replicated.
Positive affect; Negative affect; The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
Although cerebellar hemangioblastomas are histopathologically benign, they yield a degree of malignant clinical behavior in long-term follow-up. We present two cases of long-term progression of renal cell carcinoma, which had been diagnosed as renal cysts during treatment for cerebellar hemangioblastoma. A 14-year-old male with von Hippel-Lindau disease was admitted for a cerebellar hemangioblastoma with multiple spinal hemangioblastomas and a renal cyst. After primary total resection of the cerebellar hemangioblastoma, the patient required two further surgeries after 111 and 209 months for a recurrent cerebellar hemangioblastoma. Furthermore, he underwent radical nephrectomy as his renal cyst had progressed to renal cell carcinoma 209 months after initial diagnosis. A 26-year-old male presented with multiple cerebellar hemangioblastomas associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease and accompanied by multiple spinal hemangioblastomas and multiple cystic lesions in the liver, kidney, and pancreas. He underwent primary resection of the cerebellar hemangioblastoma in association with craniospinal radiation for multiple intracranial/spinal masses. Unexpectedly, a malignant glioma developed 83 months after discovery of the cerebellar hemangioblastoma. At the same time, renal cell carcinoma, which had developed from an initial renal cyst, was diagnosed, and a radical nephrectomy was performed. In the view of long term clinical course, cerebellar hemangioblastoma associated with von Hipple-Lindau disease may redevelop even after primary total resection. In addition, associated lesions such as renal cysts may also progress to malignancy after the passing of a sufficient length of time.
Cerebellar hemangioblastoma; von Hippel-Lindau disease; Renal cyst; Renal cell carcinoma
The ADCON-L gel® (Gliatech, Cleveland, OH, USA), a carbohydrate polymer gel, has been shown in a controlled clinical study to inhibit postsurgical adhesions and improve a patient's clinical outcome. Immediate complication of this gel has been reported in the recent literature including back pain, radiculitis and durotomy. However, delayed detection of disturbance of muscle healing and attachment in late postoperative state has been rarely reported. This report documents an unexpected delayed detected complication of the anti-adhesion barrier gel, which was used after lumbar discectomy one year ago, with review of literature.
ADCON-L gel®; Lumbar surgery; Complication
Authors describe a patient who developed a myelopathy associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome and cervical myelopathy. We provide radiological evidence of non-compressive herniated cervical intervertebral disc with cord signal changes and show the clinical and electrophysiological result of coexisting Guillain-Barré syndrome and cervical myelopathy. We tried to introduce and review the case of Guillain-Barré syndrome which was combined with cervical myelopathy to let us recollect the presumptive cause.
Guillain-Barré syndrome; Cervical myelopathy