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1.  Symptoms Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions in Korean Adults 
Relation of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS) (physical concerns [PC], cognitive concerns [CC] and social concerns [SC]) with anxiety or depression has been inconsistently reported. One possible explanation on the mixed findings is the lack of reliable measurement that assesses AS dimensions.
This study was aimed to examine the specificity of dimensions of AS to anxiety and depression in a sample of Korean adults.
Settings and Design:
Participants included 426 Korean adults who were recruited by means of advertisements requesting volunteers for the psychological assessments.
Materials and Methods:
Participants completed measures of AS, anxious symptoms and depressive symptoms.
Statistical Analysis:
Linear regression equations were constructed.
It was found that PC and SC showed specificity to anxiety after adjusting for depression, while CC showed specificity to depression after controlling for anxiety.
The findings suggest specificity of PC and SC to anxiety and of CC to depression when their relationship was explored with the more reliable measurement. The present findings clarify the nature of dimensions of AS in Korean adults.
PMCID: PMC4031589  PMID: 24860222
Anxiety sensitivity; Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3; Korean
2.  Radiosurgical Techniques and Clinical Outcomes of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Brainstem Arteriovenous Malformations 
Brainstem arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare and radiosurgical management is complicated by the sensitivity of the adjacent neurological structures. Complete obliteration of the nidus is not always possible. We describe over 20 years of radiosurgical procedures for brainstem AVMs, focusing on clinical outcomes and radiosurgical techniques.
Between 1992 and 2011, the authors performed gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in 464 cerebral AVMs. Twenty-nine of the 464 patients (6.3%) reviewed had brainstem AVMs. This series included sixteen males and thirteen females with a mean age of 30.7 years (range : 5-71 years). The symptoms that led to diagnoses were as follows : an altered mentality (5 patients, 17.3%), motor weakness (10 patients, 34.5%), cranial nerve symptoms (3 patients, 10.3%), headache (6 patients, 20.7%), dizziness (3 patients, 10.3%), and seizures (2 patients, 6.9%). Two patients had undergone a previous nidus resection, and three patients had undergone a previous embolization. Twenty-four patients underwent only GKRS. With respect to the nidus type and blood flow, the ratio of compact type to diffuse type and high flow to low flow were 17 : 12 and 16 : 13, respectively. In this series, 24 patients (82.8%) had a prior hemorrhage. The mean target volume was 1.7 cm3 (range 0.1-11.3 cm3). The mean maximal and marginal radiation doses were 38.5 Gy (range 28.6-43.6 Gy) and 23.4 Gy (range 18-27 Gy), and the mean isodose profile was 61.3% (range 50-70%).
Twenty-four patients had brainstem AVMs and were followed for more than 3 years. Obliteration of the AVMs was eventually documented in 17 patients (70.8%) over a mean follow-up period of 77.5 months (range 36-216 months). With respect to nidus type and blood flow, the obliteration rate of compact types (75%) was higher than that of diffuse types (66.7%), and the obliteration rate of low flow AVMs (76.9%) was higher than that of high flow AVMs (63.6%) (p<0.05). Two patients (6.9%) with three hemorrhagic events suffered a hemorrhage during the follow-up period. The annual bleeding rate of AVM after GKRS was 1.95% per year. No adverse radiation effects or delayed cystic formations were found.
GKRS has an important clinical role in treatment of brainstem AVMs, which carry excessive surgical risks. Angiographic features and radiosurgical techniques using a lower maximal dose with higher isodose profiles are important for lesion obliteration and the avoidance of complications.
PMCID: PMC3550421  PMID: 23346325
Brainstem; Arteriovenous malformation; Gamma knife radiosurgery
3.  Long Term Outcomes of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Typical Trigeminal Neuralgia-Minimum 5-Year Follow-Up 
Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is the least invasive surgical option for patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). However, the indications and long term outcomes of GKRS are still controversial. Additionally, a series with uniform long-term follow-up data for all patients has been lacking. In the present study, the authors analyzed long-term outcomes in a series of patients with TN who underwent a single GKRS treatment followed by a minimum follow-up of 60 months.
From 1994 to 2009, 40 consecutive patients with typical, intractable TN received GKRS. Among these, 22 patients were followed for >60 months. The mean maximum radiation dose was 77.1 Gy (65.2-83.6 Gy), and the 4 mm collimator was used to target the radiation to the root entry zone.
The mean age was 61.5 years (25-84 years). The mean follow-up period was 92.2 months (60-144 months). According to the pain intensity scale in the last follow-up, 6 cases were grades I-II (pain-free with or without medication; 27.3%) and 7 cases were grade IV-V (<50% pain relief with medication or no pain relief; 31.8%). There was 1 case (facial dysesthesia) with post-operative complications (4.54%).
The long-term results of GKRS for TN are not as satisfactory as those of microvascular decompression and other conventional modalities, but GKRS is a safe, effective and minimally invasive technique which might be considered a first-line therapy for a limited group of patients for whom a more invasive kind of treatment is unsuitable.
PMCID: PMC3393862  PMID: 22792424
Trigeminal neuralgia; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Long-term follow-up
4.  Effect of airway pressure on lumbar epidural pressure during positive pressure ventilation 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2011;61(2):138-142.
The purpose of this study was to measure lumbar epidural pressure (EP) during the insertion of a Tuohy needle under general anesthesia and to evaluate the influence of airway pressure on EP.
Lumbar EP was measured directly through a Tuohy needle during intermittent positive pressure ventilation in fifteen patients. Mean and peak EP were recorded after peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) of 0, 15, and 25 cmH2O.
All measured lumbar EPs were positive, with the pressure increasing during inspiration and decreasing during expiration. Median EP was 6.0 mmHg (interquartile range, 4.0-8.0) at 0 cmH2O of PIP, 6.5 mmHg (4.5-8.5) at 15 cmH2O, and 8.5 mmHg (6.0-10.5) at 25 cmH2O, increasing significantly at 15 cm H2O PIP, and further increasing at 25 cmH2O (P < 0.001).
We demonstrate the influence of increased airway pressure on lumbar EP measured directly through a Tuohy needle. Lumbar EPs were positive, and increasing PIP levels significantly increased lumbar EP.
PMCID: PMC3167133  PMID: 21927684
Epidural pressure; General anesthesia; Lumbar
5.  Spreading pattern of contrast medium in the high thoracic epidural space in rabbits: the effect of neck flexion and extension 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(2):111-115.
Neck flexion has been shown to increase cranial spread of contrast agent when a small fixed volume was injected into the high thoracic epidural space. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of volume of contrast medium on its distribution through the high thoracic epidural space during neck extension and flexion using the rabbit model.
An epidural catheter was introduced into the epidural space of New Zealand white rabbits with the tip located at the T3-4 intervertebral level. The neck was extended or flexed (n = 8 for each group), and the contrast medium was injected with the volume increasing by increments of 0.1 ml/kg, up to 0.3 ml/kg. The spread of contrast medium was determined by counting the number of vertebral body units using lateral epidurographic images.
In both groups, the total spread of contrast medium was similar, increasing continuously with injected volume. The cranial spread was greater in the flexion group than the extension group. However, the caudal spread was greater in the extension than in the flexion group. In the extension group, the contrast medium spread caudally about twice as far as it spread cranially, but there was no statistically significant difference between cranial and caudal spread in the flexion group.
In the high thoracic epidural space of rabbit, the contrast medium of varying doses showed limited cranial spread. The flexion of the neck increased cranial spread and extension of the neck increased caudal spread.
PMCID: PMC2926426  PMID: 20740216
Contrast medium; Extension; Flexion; Neck; Rabbit; Thoracic epidural space
6.  Radiosurgical Considerations in the Treatment of Large Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations 
In order to establish the role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) in large intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), we analyzed clinical characteristics, radiological features, and radiosurgical outcomes.
Between March 1992 and March 2005, 28 of 33 patients with large AVMs (> 10 cm3 in nidus-volume) who were treated with GKS underwent single session radiosurgery (RS), and the other 5 patients underwent staged volumetric RS. Retrospectively collected data were available in 23 cases. We analyzed treatment outcomes in each subdivided groups and according to the AVM sizes. We compared the estimated volume, defined as primarily estimated nidus volume using MR images, with real target volume after excluding draining veins and feeding arteries embedded into the nidus.
Regarding those patients who underwent single session RS, 44.4% (8/18) had complete obliteration; regarding staged volumetric RS, the obliteration rate was 40% (2/5). The complete obliteration rate was 60% (6/10) in the smaller nidus group (10-15 cm3 size), and 25% (2/8) in the larger nidus group (over 15 cm3 size). One case of cerebral edema and two cases (8.7%) of hemorrhage were seen during the latent period. The mean real target volume for 18 single sessions of RS was 17.1 cm3 (10.1-38.4 cm3), in contrast with the mean estimated volume of 20.9 cm3 (12.0-45.0 cm3).
The radiosurgical treatment outcomes of large AVMs are generally poor. However, we presume that the recent development in planning software and imaging devices aid more accurate measurement of the nidus volume, therefore improving the treatment outcome.
PMCID: PMC2773398  PMID: 19893730
Gamma Knife radiosurgery; Arteriovenous Malformation; Intracerebral Hemorrhage; Obliteration; Complication; Outcome
7.  Multi-Modality Treatment for Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformation Associated with Arterial Aneurysm 
Intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) associated with aneurysm has been infrequently encountered and the treatment for this malady is challenging. We report here on our clinical experience with AVMs associated with arterial aneurysms that were managed by multimodality treatments, including clipping of the aneurysm, microsurgery, Gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKS) and Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) embolization.
We reviewed the treatment plans, radiological findings and clinical courses of 21 patients who were treated with GKS for AVM associated with aneurysm.
Twenty-seven aneurysms in 21 patients with AVMs were enrolled in this study. Hemorrhage was the most frequent presenting symptom (17 patients : 80.9%). Bleeding was caused by an AVM nidus in 11 cases, aneurysm rupture in 5 and an undetermined origin in 1. Five patients were treated for associated aneurysm with clipping followed by GKS for the AVM and 11 patients were treated with GDC embolization combined with GKS for an AVM. Although 11 associated aneurysms remained untreated after GKS, none of them ruptured and 4 aneurysms regressed during the follow up period. Two aneurysms increased in size despite the disappearance of the AVM nidus after GKS and then these aneurysms were treated with GDC embolization.
If combined treatment using microsurgery, GKS and endovascular treatment can be adequately used for these patients, a better prognosis can be obtained. In particular, GKS and GDC embolization are considered to have significant roles to minimize neurologic injury.
PMCID: PMC2744020  PMID: 19763213
Arteriovenous malformation; Aneurysm; Radiosurgery; Endovascular treatment; GDC embolization
8.  The relationship between perioperative nausea and vomiting and serum serotonin concentrations in patients undergoing cesarean section under epidural anesthesia 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(6):384-390.
Serotonin-also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT-can induce nausea and vomiting (NV) by peripheral mechanisms via the activation of 5-HT3 receptors. In this study, we observed perioperative NV, including intraoperative NV, and changes in serum 5-HT concentrations. We evaluated the relationship between perioperative NV and serum 5-HT levels in patients undergoing cesarean section under epidural anesthesia, and carried out a pilot study to determine if further studies on a larger scale were justified.
Twenty-eight patients who were scheduled for cesarean section under epidural anesthesia were included in the study. Patients were assigned to 2 groups according to the occurrence of NV after induction, i.e., an NV-positive or an NV-negative group. Serum 5-HT concentrations were measured before induction, at the time that NV occurred (in the case of the NV-positive group) or 5 min after the umbilical cord clamping (in the case of the NV-negative group) during surgery, and at 2 h postoperatively.
NV occurred in 10 of the 28 patients. No significant differences in serum 5-HT concentrations were found within or between the two groups.
This study suggests that there is no correlation between serum 5-HT concentration and the occurrence of perioperative NV in patients undergoing cesarean section under epidural anesthesia, and the findings do not seem to support further investigations regarding a possible relationship between serum 5-HT concentration and perioperative NV.
PMCID: PMC4280475  PMID: 25558338
Cesarean section; Epidural anesthesia; Perioperative nausea and vomiting; Serum serotonin
9.  Comparison of Treatment Methods in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis for Geriatric Patient: Nerve Block Versus Radiofrequency Neurotomy Versus Spinal Surgery 
Korean Journal of Spine  2014;11(3):97-102.
The incidence of spinal treatment, including nerve block, radiofrequency neurotomy, instrumented fusions, is increasing, and progressively involves patients of age 65 and older. Treatment of the geriatric patients is often a difficult challenge for the spine surgeon. General health, sociofamilial and mental condition of the patients as well as the treatment techniques and postoperative management are to be accurately evaluated and planned. We tried to compare three treatment methods of spinal stenosis for geriatric patient in single institution.
The cases of treatment methods in spinal stenosis over than 65 years old were analyzed. The numbers of patients were 371 underwent nerve block, radiofrequency neurotomy, instrumented fusions from January 2009 to December 2012 (nerve block: 253, radiofrequency neurotomy: 56, instrumented fusions: 62). The authors reviewed medical records, operative findings and postoperative clinical results, retrospectively. Simple X-ray were evaluated and clinical outcome was measured by Odom's criteria at 1 month after procedures.
We were observed excellent and good results in 162 (64%) patients with nerve block, 40 (71%) patient with radIofrequency neurotomy, 46 (74%) patient with spinal surgery. Poor results were 20 (8%) patients in nerve block, 2 (3%) patients in radiofrequency neurotomy, 3 (5%) patient in spinal surgery.
We reviewed literatures and analyzed three treatment methods of spinal stenosis for geriatric patients. Although the long term outcome of surgical treatment was most favorable, radiofrequency neurotomy and nerve block can be considered for the secondary management of elderly lumbar spinals stenosis patients.
PMCID: PMC4206970  PMID: 25346752
Nerve block; Radiofrequency neurotomy; Spinal surgery; Spinal stenosis; Elderly patient
10.  A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and multicenter trial of prophylactic effects of ramosetronon postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after craniotomy: comparison with ondansetron 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14:63.
Craniotomy patients have a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-center study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic ramosetron in preventing PONV compared with ondansetron after elective craniotomy in adult patients.
A total of 160 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I–II patients aged 19–65 years who were scheduled to undergo elective craniotomy for various intracranial lesions were enrolled in this study. All patients received total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil. Patients were randomly allocated into three groups to receive ondansetron (4 mg; group A, n  =  55), ondansetron (8 mg; group B, n  =  54), or ramosetron (0.3 mg; group C, n  =  51) intravenously at the time of dural closure. The incidence of PONV, the need for rescue antiemetics, pain score, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) consumption, and adverse events were recorded 48 h postoperatively.
Among the initial 160 patients, 127 completed the study and were included in the final analysis. The incidences of PONV were lower (nausea, 14% vs. 59% and 41%, respectively; P  <  0.001; vomiting, P  =  0.048) and the incidence of complete response was higher (83% vs. 37% and 59%, respectively; P  <  0.001) in group C than in groups A and B at 48 h postoperatively. There were no significant differences in the incidence of PONV or need for rescue antiemetics 0–2 h postoperatively, but significant differences were observed in the incidence of PONV and complete response among the three groups 2–48 h postoperatively. No statistically significant intergroup differences were observed in postoperative pain, PCA consumption, or adverse events.
Intravenous administration of ramosetron at 0.3 mg reduced the incidence of PONV and rescue antiemetic requirement in craniotomy patients. Ramosetron at 0.3 mg was more effective than ondansetron at 4 or 8 mg for preventing PONV in adult craniotomy patients.
Trial registration
Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS) Identifier: KCT0000320. Registered 9 January 2012.
PMCID: PMC4124476  PMID: 25104916
Craniotomy; Ondansetron; Postoperative nausea and vomiting; Ramosetron
11.  Propofol Infusion Associated Metabolic Acidosis in Patients Undergoing Neurosurgical Anesthesia: A Retrospective Study 
Propofol and volatile anesthesia have been associated with metabolic acidosis induced by increased lactate. This study was designed to evaluate changes in pH, base excess (BE), and lactate in response to different anesthetic agents and to characterize propofol infusion-associated lactic acidosis.
The medical records of patients undergoing neurosurgical anesthesia between January 2005 and September 2012 were examined. Patients were divided into 2 groups : those who received propofol (total intravenous anesthesia, TIVA) and those who received sevoflurane (balanced inhalation anesthesia, BIA) anesthesia. Propensity analysis was performed (1 : 1 match, n=47), and the characteristics of the patients who developed severe acidosis were recorded.
In the matched TIVA and BIA groups, the incidence of metabolic acidosis (11% vs. 13%, p=1) and base excess (p>0.05) were similar. All patients in the TIVA group who developed severe acidosis did so within 4 hours of the initiation of propofol infusion, and these patients improved when propofol was discontinued.
The incidence of metabolic acidosis was similar during neurosurgical anesthesia with propofol or sevoflurane. In addition, severe acidosis associated with propofol infusion appears to be reversible when propofol is discontinued.
PMCID: PMC4200361  PMID: 25328651
Acidosis; Neurosurgery; Propofol
12.  Sevoflurane versus propofol for interventional neuroradiology: a comparison of the maintenance and recovery profiles at comparable depths of anesthesia 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;66(4):290-294.
Sevoflurane and propofol are used widely for interventional neuroradiology (INR). Using the bispectral index (BIS), we compared the clinical properties of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia in patients undergoing INR at comparable depths of anesthesia.
The patients were allocated randomly into two groups. The sevoflurane group received propofol (1.5 mg/kg), alfentanil (5 µg/kg), and rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) for induction, and the propofol group was induced with a target effect-site concentration of propofol (4 µg/ml), alfentanil (5 µg/kg), and rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg). After intubation, anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane or propofol with 67% nitrous oxide in 33% oxygen. Sevoflurane and propofol concentrations were titrated to maintain the BIS at 50-60. Phenylephrine or opioid was used to maintain the mean arterial pressure within 20% of the baseline values. The amounts of phenylephrine or alfentanil used, the number of patients showing movement during the procedure, and the recovery times were recorded.
Compared to the propofol group, the sevoflurane group showed faster recovery in spontaneous ventilation, eye opening, extubation, and orientation (4 vs. 7 min, 7 vs. 9 min, 8 vs. 10 min, 10 vs. 14 min, respectively; P < 0.01). In the propofol group, significantly greater amounts phenylephrine were used (P < 0.05), and more patients moved during the procedure (P < 0.05).
The use of sevoflurane in maintaining anesthesia during INR was associated with faster recovery, less patient movement during the procedure, and a more stable hemodynamic response when compared to propofol.
PMCID: PMC4028556  PMID: 24851164
Bispectral index; Interventional radiology; Propofol; Sevoflurane
13.  Unintended Complication of Intracranial Subdural Hematoma after Percutaneous Epidural Neuroplasty 
Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (PEN) is a known interventional technique for the management of spinal pain. As with any procedures, PEN is associated with complications ranging from mild to more serious ones. We present a case of intracranial subdural hematoma after PEN requiring surgical evacuation. We review the relevant literature and discuss possible complications of PEN and patholophysiology of intracranial subdural hematoma after PEN.
PMCID: PMC4024820  PMID: 24851156
Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty; Subdural hematoma; Intracranial hypotension; Complication
14.  Sugammadex versus neostigmine reversal of moderate rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in Korean patients 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;65(6):501-507.
Rapid and complete reversal of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is desirable at the end of surgery. Sugammadex reverses rocuronium-induced NMB by encapsulation. It is well tolerated in Caucasian patients, providing rapid reversal of moderate (reappearance of T2) rocuronium-induced NMB. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sugammadex versus neostigmine in Korean patients.
This randomized, safety assessor-blinded trial (NCT01050543) included Korean patients undergoing general anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was given prior to intubation with maintenance doses of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg as required. Patients received sugammadex 2.0 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 µg/kg with glycopyrrolate 10 µg/kg to reverse the NMB at the reappearance of T2, after the last rocuronium dose. The primary efficacy endpoint was the time from sugammadex or neostigmine administration to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. The safety of these medications was also assessed.
Of 128 randomized patients, 118 had evaluable data (n = 59 in each group). The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) time to recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was 1.8 (1.6, 2.0) minutes in the sugammadex group and 14.8 (12.4, 17.6) minutes in the neostigmine group (P < 0.0001). Sugammadex was generally well tolerated, with no evidence of residual or recurrence of NMB; four patients in the neostigmine group reported adverse events possibly indicative of inadequate NMB reversal.
Sugammadex was well tolerated and provided rapid reversal of moderate rocuronium-induced NMB in Korean patients, with a recovery time 8.1 times faster than neostigmine. These results are consistent with those reported for Caucasian patients.
PMCID: PMC3888842  PMID: 24427455
Caucasian; Korean; Neostigmine; Neuromuscular blockade; Rocuronium; Sugammadex
15.  Long Term Clinical Outcomes of Malignant Meningiomas 
Malignant meningiomas are rare and have worse prognosis than benign meningiomas. We report our experience of a malignant meningioma and review relevant literature in an attempt to investigate the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of these tumors.
Fifteen patients underwent surgical treatment for intracranial malignant meningiomas between year 1990 and 2012 in our institution. Anaplastic meningiomas were diagnosed in thirteen cases and papillary meningiomas in two. Fourteen patients (93.3%) received radiotherapy after surgical resection. All patients were followed regularly including clinical-neurological follow-up as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Progression was determined radiographically when there was more than 10% of mass volume increase or when there were onset or worsening of neurological symptoms not attributable to other causes.
Six patients were male and nine were women, and their mean age was 56.9 years (range 36-78). The median follow-up was 54 months (range 3-246). According to our study result, the 5-year progression free survival rate of malignant meningiomas was 53.6%. There were 2 cases (13.3%) of postoperative complications. Recurrences were confirmed in 4 patients (26.7%) during follow-up, the median recurrence time was 35 months (range 12-61), and further procedures were performed. Two of the recurred patients were treated with radiosurgery after secondary tumor resection, and other two patients were treated with radiosurgery alone. There was no more recurred disease patients in the follow-up period after then.
We report the outcomes of the aggressive surgery with radiation of malignant meningiomas. Although the data is limited, we found that radiosurgery treatment had favorable tumor control on recurred patients from our experience.
PMCID: PMC4027110  PMID: 24904897
Malignant meningioma; Radiotherapy; Radiosurgery
16.  Internal-Specific Morphological Analysis of Sciatic Nerve Fibers in a Radiofrequency-Induced Animal Neuropathic Pain Model 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e73913.
This study investigated the reversible effects of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment at 42°C on the ultrastructural and biological changes in nerve and collagen fibers in the progression of neuropathic pain after rat sciatic nerve injury. Assessments of morphological changes in the extracellular matrices by atomic force microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome and picrosirius-red staining as well as the expressions of two fibril-forming collagens, types-I and -III, and two inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, were evaluated on day 30 after RF exposure. There were four groups for different RF thermal treatments: no treatment, no current, PRF, and continuous RF (CRF). An RF procedure similar to that used in human clinical trials was used in this study. The CRF treatment at 82°C led to neural and collagen damage by the permanent blockage of sensory nociceptors. The PRF treatment led to excellent performance and high expandability compared to CRF, with effects including slight damage and swelling of myelinated axons, a slightly decreased amount of collagen fibers, swelling of collagen fibril diameters, decreased immunoreactivity of collagen types-I and -III, presence of newly synthesized collagen, and recovery of inflammatory protein immunoreactivity. These evidence-based findings suggest that PRF-based pain relief is responsible for the temporary blockage of nerve signals as well as the preferential destruction of pain-related principal sensory fibers like the Aδ and C fibers. This suggestion can be supported by the interaction between the PRF-induced electromagnetic field and cell membranes; therefore, PRF treatment provides pain relief while allowing retention of some tactile sensation.
PMCID: PMC3774755  PMID: 24066083
17.  Disseminated Tuberculosis of Central Nervous System : Spinal Intramedullary and Intracranial Tuberculomas 
As a cause of spinal cord compression, intramedullary spinal tuberculoma with central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare. Aurthors report a 66-year-old female presented with multiple CNS tuberculomas including spinal intramedullary tuberculoma manifesting paraparesis and urinary dysfunction. We review the clinical menifestation and experiences of previous reported literature.
PMCID: PMC3772291  PMID: 24044085
Tuberculoma; Intramedullary lesion; Antituberculous treatment
18.  Evaluation of the Neurological Safety of Epidural Milnacipran in Rats 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2012;25(4):228-237.
Milnacipran is a balanced serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with minimal side effects and broad safety margin. It acts primarily on the descending inhibitory pain pathway in brain and spinal cord. In many animal studies, intrathecal administration of milnacipran is effective in neuropathic pain management. However, there is no study for the neurological safety of milnacipran when it is administered neuraxially. This study examined the neurotoxicity of epidural milnacipran by observing behavioral and sensory-motor changes with histopathological examinations of spinal cords in rats.
Sixty rats were divided into 3 groups, with each group receiving epidural administration of either 0.3 ml (3 mg) of milnacipran (group M, n = 20), 0.3 ml of 40% alcohol (group A, n = 20), or 0.3 ml of normal saline (group S, n = 20).
There were no abnormal changes in the behavioral, sensory-motor, or histopathological findings in all rats of groups M and S over a 3-week observation period, whereas all rats in group A had abnormal changes.
Based on these findings, the direct epidural administration of milnacipran in rats did not present any evidence of neurotoxicity in behavioral, sensory-motor and histopathological evaluations.
PMCID: PMC3468799  PMID: 23091683
epidural injection; milnacipran; neurotoxicity
19.  A Surgical Option for Multilevel Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Ponte Osteotomy to Achieve Optimal Lumbar Lordosis and Sagittal Balance 
To document lumbar lordosis (LL) of the spine and its change during surgeries with the different height but the same angle setting of the anterior cage. Additionally, we attempted to determine if sufficient LL is achieved at different cage heights and to quantify the change in LL during multi-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF).
The medical records and radiographs of 42 patients who underwent more than 2 level ALIFs between 2008 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated 3 parameters seen on lateral whole spine radiographs : LL, pelvic incidence (PI), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA). The mean follow-up time was 28.1 months and the final follow-up radiographs of all patients were reviewed at least 2 years after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired t-tests.
Lumbar lordosis had changed up to 30 degrees immediately and 2 years after surgery (preoperative mean LL, SVA : 22.45 degrees, 112.31 mm; immediate postoperative mean LL, SVA : 54.45 degrees, 37.36 mm; final follow-up mean LL, SVA : 49.56 degrees, 26.95 mm). Our goal of LL is to obtain as much PI as possible, preoperative mean PI value was 55.38±3.35. The pre-operative and two year post-surgery follow-up mean of the Japanese Orthopedic Association score were 9.2±0.6 and 13.2±0.6 (favorable outcome rate : 95%), respectively. In addition, we were able to obtain good clinical outcomes and sagittal balance with a subsidence rate of 22.7%.
We were able to achieve sufficient LL, such that it was similar to the PI, utilizing multi-level ALIF with the use of a tall cage with the same angle setting of the cage. We have found out that achieving sufficient lumbar lordosis and sagittal balance require an anterior lumbar cage with high angle and height.
PMCID: PMC3488646  PMID: 23133726
ALIF; Anterior interbody fusion; Multilevel ALIF; Pelvic incidence; Anterior lumbar cage; Sagittal balance
20.  Clinical Outcomes of Pulsed Radiofrequency Neuromodulation for the Treatment of Occipital Neuralgia 
Occipital neuralgia is characterized by paroxysmal jabbing pain in the dermatomes of the greater or lesser occipital nerves caused by irritation of these nerves. Although several therapies have been reported, they have only temporary therapeutic effects. We report the results of pulsed radiofrequency treatment of the occipital nerve, which was used to treat occipital neuralgia.
Patients were diagnosed with occipital neuralgia according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders classification criteria. We performed pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation when patients presented with clinical findings suggestive occipital neuralgia with positive diagnostic block of the occipital nerves with local anesthetics. Patients were analyzed according to age, duration of symptoms, surgical results, complications and recurrence. Pain was measured every month after the procedure using the visual analog and total pain indexes.
From 2010, ten patients were included in the study. The mean age was 52 years (34-70 years). The mean follow-up period was 7.5 months (6-10 months). Mean Visual Analog Scale and mean total pain index scores declined by 6.1 units and 192.1 units, respectively, during the follow-up period. No complications were reported.
Pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation of the occipital nerve is an effective treatment for occipital neuralgia. Further controlled prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the exact effects and long-term outcomes of this treatment method.
PMCID: PMC3393863  PMID: 22792425
Occipital neuralgia; Pulsed radiofrequency; Neuromodulation
21.  Korean Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3: Its Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity in Non-Clinical Samples 
Psychiatry Investigation  2012;9(1):45-53.
The aim here is to examine the factorial structure, internal consistency, and concurrent validity of the Korean version of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (K-ASI-3) in student samples in Korea. Also, we investigated the cross-cultural differences in the Social Concerns factor.
K-ASI-3 was administered to non clinical samples in Korea. Internal consistency, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were undertaken to examine the factorial structure and reliability of the K-ASI-3.
Results from CFA comparing our data to factor solutions commonly reported as representative of European-American samples indicated an adequate fit. The K-ASI-3 showed good performance on the indices of internal consistency and concurrent validity. In addition, using regression analyses, we found the Social Concerns factor is most strongly related to life satisfaction and worry. However, we found no evidence that Korean college students express more Social Concerns than their European Caucasian counterparts.
The authors demonstrate that the K-ASI-3 has highly internally consistent and psychometrically sound items, and that it reliably measures three lower-order domains assessing Physical, Social, and Cognitive Concerns.
PMCID: PMC3285740  PMID: 22396684
Anxiety sensitivity; Factor structure; Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3; Cross-cultural difference; Korean
22.  Effects of Low and High Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acids on Peridural Fibrosis and Inflammation in Lumbar Laminectomized Rats 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2011;24(4):191-198.
Postlaminectomy peridural fibrosis is inevitable. Some studies have compared and identified the effects of high molecular weight hyaluronic acids (HMWHA) and low molecular weight hyaluronic acids (LMWHA) on peridural fibrosis in postlaminectomy animal models. However, no studies have been found that compare pain behaviors between hyaluronic acids or among hyaluronic acids and other solid materials. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between pain-related behaviors and histopathologic changes in laminectomized rats using various peridurally administered materials.
Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats, laminectomized at the L5 and L6 levels, were divided into four groups: group C, laminectomy only; group L, laminectomy and LMWHA application; group H, laminectomy and HMWHA application; group F, laminectomy and fat interposition. Pain behaviors were checked before, 3 days, 1 week, and 3 weeks after surgery. Histopathological changes were checked at the L5 level 3 weeks after the surgery.
The 50% withdrawal thresholds in groups L and H were higher than that in groups C and F three days after laminectomy (P < 0.05). The paw withdrawal time did not change among the groups and in each group during the study period. Peridural fibrosis in group F was significantly lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05).
Hyaluronic acids significantly reduced mechanical allodynia but not thermal hyperalgesia. Peridural fibrosis did not show any correlation with pain behaviors. There have been limited studies on the correlation between peridural fibrosis and pain behavioral change, which should be verified by further studies.
PMCID: PMC3248582  PMID: 22220240
allodynia; failed back surgery syndrome; hyaluronic acid; laminectomy
23.  Effects of sevoflurane on neuronal cell damage after severe cerebral ischemia in rats 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2011;61(4):327-331.
The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of sevoflurane after severe forebrain ischemic injury. We also examined the relationship between the duration of ischemia and neuronal cell death.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-380 g) were subjected to 6 (each n = 6) or 10 min (each n = 10) of near-complete forebrain ischemia while anesthetized with either 50 mg/kg of zoletil given intraperitoneally or inhaled sevoflurane (2.3%). Ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion plus hemorrhagic hypotension (26-30 mmHg). Histologic outcomes were measured 7 days after ischemia in CA1 pyramidal cells of the rat hippocampus.
The mean percentage of necrotic cells in the hippocampal CA1 area decreased in the sevoflurane group compared to the zoletil group (25% vs. 40% after 6 min ischemia, respectively: P = 0.004 and 44% vs. 54% after 10 min of ischemia, respectively P = 0.03). The percentage of apoptotic cells was similar in all groups. The percentage of necrotic cells in each anesthetic groups was significantly higher in the 10 min ischemia group compared to the 6 min ischemia group (P = 0.004 in the sevoflurane group, P = 0.03 in the zoletil group).
The present data show that sevoflurane has neuroprotective effects in rats subjected to near-complete cerebral ischemia. Longer duration of ischemia is associated with more neuronal injury when compared to ischemia of shorter duration.
PMCID: PMC3219780  PMID: 22110887
Brain ischemia; Hippocampus; Inhalation anesthetics; Neuron
24.  Changes in Gene Expression in the Rat Hippocampus after Focal Cerebral Ischemia 
The rat middle cerebral artery thread-occlusion model has been widely used to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke and to develop therapeutic treatment. This study was conducted to analyze energy metabolism, apoptotic signal pathways, and genetic changes in the hippocampus of the ischemic rat brain.
Focal transient cerebral ischemia was induced by obstructing the middle cerebral artery for two hours. After 24 hours, the induction of ischemia was confirmed by the measurement of infarct size using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. A cDNA microarray assay was performed after isolating the hippocampus, and was used to examine changes in genetic expression patterns.
According to the cDNA microarray analysis, a total of 1,882 and 2,237 genes showed more than a 2-fold increase and more than a 2-fold decrease, respectively. When the genes were classified according to signal pathways, genes related with oxidative phosphorylation were found most frequently. There are several apoptotic genes that are known to be expressed during ischemic brain damage, including Akt2 and Tnfrsf1a. In this study, the expression of these genes was observed to increase by more than 2-fold. As energy metabolism related genes grew, ischemic brain damage was affected, and the expression of important genes related to apoptosis was increased/decreased.
Our analysis revealed a significant change in the expression of energy metabolism related genes (Atp6v0d1, Atp5g2, etc.) in the hippocampus of the ischemic rat brain. Based on this data, we feel these genes have the potential to be target genes used for the development of therapeutic agents for ischemic stroke.
PMCID: PMC3218173  PMID: 22102944
Apoptosis; Energy metabolism; Focal cerebral ischemia; Gene expression; Hippocampus; Oxidative phosphorylation
25.  Radiation-Induced Glioblastoma Multiforme in a Remitted Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Patient 
Radiation therapy has been widely applied for cancer treatment. Childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), characterized by frequent central nervous system involvement, is a well documented disease for the effect of prophylactic cranio-spinal irradiation. Irradiation, however, acts as an oncogenic factor as a delayed effect and it is rare that glioblastoma multiforme develops during the remission period of ALL. We experienced a pediatric radiation-induced GBM patient which developed during the remission period of ALL, who were primarily treated with chemotherapeutic agents and brain radiation therapy for the prevention of central nervous system (CNS) relapse. Additionally, we reviewed the related literature regarding on the effects of brain irradiation in childhood and on the prognosis of radiation induced GBM.
PMCID: PMC3218184  PMID: 22102955
Radiation; Glioblastoma multiforme; Acute lymphocytic leukemia

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