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2.  Cholestyramine Use for Rapid Reversion to Euthyroid States in Patients with Thyrotoxicosis 
Endocrinology and Metabolism  2016;31(3):476-479.
Cholestyramine (CS) is an ion exchange resin, which binds to iodothyronines and would lower serum thyroid hormone level. The use of CS added to conventional antithyroid drugs to control thyrotoxicosis has been applied since 1980's, and several studies indicate that using CS in combination with methimazole (MZ) produces a more rapid decline in serum thyroid hormones than with only MZ treatment. Our recent retrospective review of five patients taking high dose MZ and CS, compared to age-, gender-, initial free thyroxine (T4) level-, and MZ dose-matched 12 patients with MZ use only, showed more rapid decline of both free T4 and triiodothyronine levels without more adverse events. CS could be safely applicable short-term adjunctive therapy when first-line antithyroid medications are not enough to adequately control severe thyrotoxicosis or side effects of antithyroid drug would be of great concern.
doi:10.3803/EnM.2016.31.3.476
PMCID: PMC5053062  PMID: 27469067
Thyrotoxicosis; Graves disease; Cholestyramine resin
3.  Endovascular Treatment of Symptomatic Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms 
Objective
Vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) are rare and many debates are present about treatment options. We review types and efficacy of our endovascular treatments and establish a safe endovascular therapeutic strategy regard to the angio-architecture of VADAs.
Materials and Methods
Between July 2008 and October 2015, we treated 22 patients with symptomatic VADAs. Fifteen patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from the ruptured VADAs, digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance image confirmed the diagnosis and endovascular treatments were followed as their angio-architecture.
Results
Clinical results were good in 13 patients (86.7%), and there were no technical problems during endovascular procedures. The other 2 patients with poor prognosis showed severe neurological deficits at the initial evaluation. Among the three different endovascular treatments, there were no radiologic cure in one patient with stent insertion alone, but the patient had no significant clinical symptoms either.
Conclusion
Endovascular treatments are safe and effective treatment option for managing VADAs and can be the first treatment of choice for most patients. To select proper endovascular treatment according to the angio-architecture of VADAs can reduce the risk of the treatment.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2016.18.3.201
PMCID: PMC5104843  PMID: 27847762
Vertebral artery; Dissecting aneurysms; Embolization
4.  Subdural Hematoma without Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Caused by the Rupture of Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm 
Pure subdural hematomas caused by a ruptured intracranial aneurysm are extremely rare. We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman who presented with headache without evidence of head trauma. Magnetic resonance angiography and conventional cerebral angiography revealed a ruptured aneurysm at the right middle cerebral artery bifurcation. The patient underwent surgical treatment and had a good outcome without any neurological deficit. The mechanisms and clinical characteristics of this condition are discussed.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2016.18.3.315
PMCID: PMC5104862  PMID: 27847781
Cerebral aneurysm; Subdural hematoma; Middle cerebral artery
5.  Relationship between metabolic syndrome and thyroid nodules in healthy Koreans 
Background/Aims:
This study evaluated the relationship between thyroid nodules and metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in apparently healthy Koreans.
Methods:
We reviewed the records of 3,298 subjects with no noticeable symptoms who underwent thyroid ultrasound imaging as part of a routine check-up between July 2009 and June 2010; of these, 1,308 were excluded based upon predefined criteria. Among the remaining 1,990 patients, we examined the association between MS and its components and the incidence of thyroid nodules.
Results:
Of the 1,990 subjects included in this study, 38.4% (n = 764) had thyroid nodules and 12.7% (n = 253) had MS. Female sex, older age, higher body mass index, larger waist circumference, higher glycated hemoglobin level, lower thyroid stimulating hormone level, and presence of MS were all closely related with the presence of thyroid nodules (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, the relevant number of MS components showed a positive linear correlation with the occurrence of thyroid nodules (p < 0.001). Evidence of MS alone was not independently associated with thyroid nodules after adjusting for sex and age in a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis; however, glycated hemoglobin for females and waist circumference for males, as well as both age and thyroid stimulating hormone for all patients, were identified as independent predictors for the existence of thyroid nodules (all p < 0.05).
Conclusions:
This study suggests a positive relationship between the components of MS and thyroid nodules in an ostensibly healthy Korean population. Our data support the idea that the recent increase in thyroid nodules is partly due to increases in both MS and obesity.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2016.31.1.98
PMCID: PMC4712440  PMID: 26767863
Thyroid nodule; Metabolic syndrome; Obesity
6.  Refractory Graves' Disease Successfully Cured by Adjunctive Cholestyramine and Subsequent Total Thyroidectomy 
Endocrinology and Metabolism  2015;30(4):620-625.
The three major forms of treatment for Graves thyrotoxicosis are antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine therapy and thyroidectomy. Surgery is the definitive treatment for Graves thyrotoxicosis that is generally recommended when other treatments have failed or are contraindicated. Generally, thyrotoxic patients should be euthyroid before surgery to minimize potential complications which usually requires preoperative management with thionamides or inorganic iodine. But several cases of refractory Graves' disease have shown resistance to conventional treatment. Here we report a 40-year-old female patient with Graves' disease who complained of thyrotoxic symptoms for 7 months. Her thyroid function test and thyroid autoantibody profiles were consistent with Graves' disease. One kind of thionamides and β-blocker were started to control her disease. However, she was resistant to nearly all conventional medical therapies, including β-blockers, inorganic iodine, and two thionamides. She experienced hepatotoxicity from the thionamides. What was worse is her past history of serious allergic reaction to corticosteroids, which are often used to help control symptoms. A 2-week regimen of high-dose cholestyramine improved her uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis and subsequent thyroidectomy was successfully performed. In conclusion, cholestyramine could be administered as an effective and safe adjunctive agent for preoperative preparation in patients with severe hyperthyroid Graves's disease that is resistant to conventional therapies.
doi:10.3803/EnM.2015.30.4.620
PMCID: PMC4722420  PMID: 26394731
Graves disease; Drug resistance; Cholestyramine resin
7.  Unusual Presentation of Cerebral Cavernous Malformation 
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) are vascular malformations of the central nervous system, which can be detected in the absence of any clinical symptoms. Nodules and cysts with mixed signal intensity and a peripheral hemosiderin rim are considered brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings typical of CMs. A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of abnormal MRI findings without significant neurological symptoms. A cyst with an internal fluid-fluid level was found in the left basal ganglia on the initial brain MRI. We decided to observe the natural course of the asymptomatic lesion with serial MRI follow-up. On MRI at the 5-month follow-up, the cystic mass was enlarged and showed findings consistent with those of cystic CM. Surgical resection was performed and the pathological diagnosis was CM. Our experience suggests that the initial presentation of a CM can be a pure cyst and neurosurgeons should consider the likelihood of CMs in cases of cystic cerebral lesions with intracystic hemorrhage.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2015.17.3.257
PMCID: PMC4626352  PMID: 26523262
Cavernous malformation; Cyst; Magnetic resonance imaging
8.  Differences in Physicians' and Patients' Perception of Acute Hypothyroid Symptoms Induced by Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal in Thyroid Cancer Patients: A Multicenter Survey in Korea 
European Thyroid Journal  2015;4(1):48-54.
Background
Acute short-term hypothyroidism induced by thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) for follow-up surveillance or therapeutic radioiodine causes patients with differentiated thyroid cancer to suffer from a myriad of deleterious symptoms.
Objectives
To know how patient recognition of hypothyroid symptoms compares to physician perception of patient symptoms.
Methods
The survey was performed in 10 referral hospitals throughout Korea from December 2010 to May 2011 and targeted patients with total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation. The survey consisted of questions regarding the effect of THW on patient symptoms, the duration of symptoms, impact on social life, and patient complaints. The physicians treating thyroid cancer patients also responded to the survey and provided their perceptions of patient symptoms and treatment decisions.
Results
About 70% of the patients responded that they experienced a negative physical or psychological impact on their life and work due to hypothyroid symptoms. However, 76% of doctors thought hypothyroidism could negatively impact a patient's daily life but would be endurable. Two thirds of physicians do not routinely recommend recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) to their patients. Multivariate analysis showed patients with female sex, stronger educational background, emotionally negative experiences of hypothyroidism, and younger age were more willing to pay for therapy that could prevent hypothyroidism symptoms.
Conclusions
There was a substantial gap in the perception of hypothyroid symptoms during THW between physicians and patients. Physicians who are aware of the seriousness of hypothyroidism in their patients were more likely to recommend the use of rhTSH for their patients.
doi:10.1159/000371512
PMCID: PMC4404901  PMID: 25960962
Thyroid cancer; Hypothyroidism; Symptoms; Physicians; Patients
9.  The Use of Gentamicin-Impregnated Collagen Sponge for Reducing Surgical Site Infection after Spine Surgery 
Korean Journal of Spine  2016;13(3):129-133.
Objective
Surgical site infection (SSI) is the one of the most frequent complications in hospitalized patients, and it extends hospital stays and causes extra morbidities. To reduce SSI after spine surgery, we applied the gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge (Collatamp G) during the operation and analyzed the results retrospectively.
Methods
Between October 2012 and December 2015, we collected data who applied the Collatamp G in spine surgery at a single institution. Demographic data of patients and another possible risk factors of SSI were also included, and we assessed the correlation between the risk factors and the developing of SSI by reviewing electronic medical records retrospectively.
Results
Three percent of all patients (10 of 280) developed the SSI and only 0.8% of patients who applied Collatamp G developed SSI (1 of 119). Otherwise, 5% of patients who did not apply Collatamp G developed SSI (9 of 161) (p=0.034). We also analyzed the correlation between SSI and other potential risk factors but nothings showed statistical correlation with SSI.
Conclusion
In this study, there were statistically significant results that SSI rate was decreased in the group of patients using Collatamp G in spine surgery generally. However, further studies are required to resolve some limitations in the future.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2016.13.3.129
PMCID: PMC5086464  PMID: 27799992
Gentamicin; Collagen; Surgical wound infection
10.  Rupture of De Novo Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm 8 Days after the Clipping of Ruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm 
Rapidly developed de novo aneurysm is very rare. We present a rapidly developed and ruptured de novo anterior communicating aneurysm 8 days after the rupture of another aneurysm. This de novo aneurysm was not apparent in the initial 3-dimensional computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography. We reviewed the literature and discussed possible mechanisms for the development of this de novo aneurysm.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.3.236
PMCID: PMC3836932  PMID: 24278654
De novo aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Aneurysm formation; Computed tomography angiography; Digital subtraction angiography
11.  Fatal Case of Cerebral Aspergillosis : A Case Report and Literature Review 
Cerebral aspergillosis is rare and usually misdiagnosed because its presentation is similar to that of a tumor. The correct diagnosis is usually made intra-operatively. Cerebral abscess with fungal infection is extremely rare and few cases have been reported, but it carries a poor prognosis.
A 73 year-old man presented with decreased visual acuity and paresis of the right cranial nerve III. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass in the right cavernous sinus, extened to the anterior crainial fossa and the superior orbital fissure. During surgery, a well encapsulated pus pocket was found, and histopathological examination of the mass resulted in the diagnosis of aspergillosis. Despite appropriate anti-fungal treatment, the patient eventually died from fatal cerebral ischemic change and severe brain swelling.
The correct diagnosis of cerebral aspergillosis can only be achieved by histopathological examination because clinical and radiological findings including MRI are not specific. Surgical intervention and antifungal therapy should be considered the optimal treatment. Early diagnosis and aggressive antifungal treatment provide good results.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.420
PMCID: PMC3488657  PMID: 23133737
Aspergillosis; Brain abscess; Neuroaspergillosis; Voriconazole
12.  Clinical utility of TERT promoter mutations and ALK rearrangement in thyroid cancer patients with a high prevalence of the BRAF V600E mutation 
Diagnostic Pathology  2016;11:21.
Background
Mutations in the TERT promoter, ALK rearrangement, and the BRAF V600E mutation are associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features in thyroid cancers. However, little is known about the impact of TERT promoter mutations and ALK rearrangement in thyroid cancer patients with a high prevalence of BRAF mutations.
Methods
We performed Sanger sequencing to detect BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations and both immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify ALK rearrangement on 243 thyroid cancers.
Results
TERT promoter mutations were not present in 192 well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC) without distant metastasis or in 9 medullary carcinomas. However, the mutations did occur in 40 % (12/30) of WDTC with distant metastasis, 29 % (2/7) of poorly differentiated carcinomas and 60 % (3/5) of anaplastic carcinomas. ALK rearrangement was not present in all thyroid cancers. The BRAF V600E mutation was more frequently found in WDTC without distant metastasis than in WDTC with distant metastasis (p = 0.007). In the cohort of WDTC with distant metastasis, patients with wild-type BRAF and TERT promoter had a significantly higher response rate after radioiodine therapy (p = 0.024), whereas the BRAF V600E mutation was significantly correlated with progressive disease (p = 0.025).
Conclusions
The TERT promoter mutation is an independent predictor for distant metastasis of WDTC, but ALK testing is not useful for clinical decision-making in Korean patients with a high prevalence of the BRAF V600E mutation. Radioiodine therapy for distant metastasis of WDTC is most effective in patients without BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations.
doi:10.1186/s13000-016-0458-6
PMCID: PMC4746931  PMID: 26857243
Thyroid cancer; BRAF V600E; Telomerase reverse transcriptase; Anaplastic lymphoma kinase; Iodine-131
13.  Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization for the Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysm 
Middle cerebral artery (MCA) fusiform aneurysms often have an unfavorable geometry that may limit surgical or endovascular treatment. Herein, we present a case of a fusiform aneurysm of the proximal MCA, which was successfully treated using stent-assisted coil embolization. A 42-year-old man presented with repeated headache and syncope. Five years earlier, a right MCA aneurysm had been treated by aneurismal wrapping. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed a partially-thrombosed proximal MCA aneurysm at the right perisylvian region. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed a multilobulated fusiform-shaped aneurysm. The patient underwent stent-assisted coil embolization under general anesthesia and symptoms resolved postoperatively. A three-month follow-up angiography revealed no recanalization of the aneurysm and indicated tolerable blood flow through the right MCA, as compared to the preoperative angiography. We suggest that in selected patients, stent-assisted coil embolization of proximal MCA fusiform aneurysms can be an effective treatment modality.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.5.406
PMCID: PMC2883067  PMID: 20539806
Middle cerebral artery; Fusiform aneurysm; Therapeutic embolization; Stent
14.  Treatment of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in South Korea in 2006 : A Nationwide Multicenter Survey from the Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgery 
Objective
There have been no clinical studies regarding the epidemiology and treatment outcome for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) in South Korea yet. Thus, The Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgery (KSCVS) decided to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, and outcome of the treatment of UIA in 2006, using the nationwide multicenter survey in South Korea.
Methods
A total of 1,696 cases were enrolled retrospectively over one year at 48 hospitals. The following data were obtained from all patients : age, sex, presence of symptoms, location and size of the aneurysm, treatment modality, presence of risk factors for stroke, and the postoperative 30-day morbidity and mortality.
Results
The demographic data showed female predominance and peak age of seventh and sixth decades. Supraclinoid internal carotid artery was the most common site of aneurysms with a mean size of 5.6 mm. Eight-hundred-forty-six patients (49.9%) were treated with clipping, 824 (48.6%) with coiling, and 26 with combined method. The choice of the treatment modalities was related to hospital (p = 0.000), age (p = 0.000), presence of symptom (p = 0.003), and location of aneurysm (p = 0.000). The overall 30-day morbidity and mortality were 7.4% and 0.3%, respectively. The 30-day mortality was 0.4% for clipping and 0.2% for coiling, and morbidity was 8.4% for clipping and 6.3% for coiling. Age (p = 0.010), presence of symptoms (p = 0.034), size (p = 0.000) of aneurysm, and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.000) were significant prognostic factors, while treatment modality was not.
Conclusion
This first nation-wide multicenter survey on UIAs demonstrates the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, outcome and the prognostic factors of the treatment of UIAs in South Korea. The 30-day postoperative outcome for UIAs seems to be reasonable morbidity and mortality in South Korea.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.2.112
PMCID: PMC2836445  PMID: 20224709
Aneurysm; Intracranial; Unruptured; National survey; Korea; Multicenter study; Treatment outcome
15.  Risk of Stroke with Temporary Arterial Occlusion in Patients Undergoing Craniotomy for Cerebral Aneurysm 
Objective
This study was performed to elucidate the technical and patient-specific risk factors for postoperative ischemia in patients undergoing temporary arterial occlusion (TAO) during the surgical repair of their aneurysms.
Methods
Eighty-nine consecutive patients in whom TAO was performed during surgical repair of an aneurysm were retrospectively analyzed. The demographics of the patients were analyzed with respect to age, Hunt and Hess grade on admission, Fisher grade of hemorrhage, aneurysm characteristics, timing of surgery, duration of temporary occlusion, and number of temporary occlusive episodes. Outcome was analyzed at the 3-month follow-up, along with the occurrence of symptomatic and radiological stroke.
Results
In overall, twenty-seven patients (29.3%) had radiologic ischemia attributable to TAO and fifteen patients (16.3%) had symptomatic ischemia attributable to TAO. Older age and poor clinical grade were associated with poor clinical outcome. There was a significantly higher rate of symptomatic ischemia in patients who underwent early surgery (p = 0.007). The incidence of ischemia was significantly higher in patients with TAO longer than 10 minutes (p = 0.01). In addition, patients who underwent repeated TAO, which allowed reperfusion, had a lower incidence of ischemia than those who underwent single TAO lasting for more than 10 minutes (p = 0.011).
Conclusion
Duration of occlusion is the only variable that needs to be considered when assessing the risk of postoperative ischemic complication in patients who undergo temporary vascular occlusion. Attention must be paid to the patient's age, grade of hemorrhage, and the timing of surgery. In addition, patients undergoing dissection when brief periods of temporary occlusion are performed may benefit more from intermittent reperfusion than continuous clip application. With careful planning, the use of TAO is a safe technique when used for periods of less than 10 minutes.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.1.31
PMCID: PMC2729821  PMID: 19707491
Temporary arterial occlusion; Intracranial aneurysm; Cerebral ischemia
16.  Predictors of Outcome in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Undergoing Unilateral Open-Door Laminoplasty 
Korean Journal of Spine  2015;12(4):261-266.
Objective
This study aimed to analyze prognostic factors affecting surgical outcomes of expansive laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).
Methods
Using the Frankel scale and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale, we retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 45 consecutive patients who underwent modified unilateral open-door laminoplasty using hydroxyapatite spacers and malleable titanium miniplates between June 2008 and May 2014. The patients were assigned to the good and poor clinical outcome groups, with good outcome defined as a JOA recovery rate >75%.
Results
The mean preoperative JOA scale was significantly higher in the good outcome group (14.95±3.21 vs. 10.78±6.07, p<0.001), whereas the preoperative cervical range of motion (ROM) in this group was significantly lower (29.89°±10.11 vs. 44.35°± 8.88, p<0.001). In univariate analysis, a high preoperative JOA scale (odds ratio (OR) 1.271, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.005-1.607) and low preoperative cervical ROM(OR 0.858, 95% CI 0.786-0.936) were statistically correlated with good outcomes. Furthermore, these factors demonstrated an independent association with clinical outcomes (preoperative JOA scale: OR 1.344, 95% CI 1.019-1.774, p=0.036; preoperative cervical ROM: OR 0.860, 95% CI 0.788-0.940, p=0.001).
Conclusion
In this study, a high preoperative JOA scale was associated with good clinical outcome after laminoplasty, whereas a higher preoperative cervical spine ROM was associated with poor clinical outcome. This may suggests that cervical mobility and preoperative neurological status affect clinical outcomes of laminoplasty.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2015.12.4.261
PMCID: PMC4731561  PMID: 26834814
Myelopathy; Cervical spondylosis; Ossification; Posterior longitudinal ligament; Laminoplasty; Prognosis
17.  Is Routine Repeated Head CT Necessary for All Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury? 
Objective
Repeated computed tomography (CT) follow up for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients is often performed. But there is debate the indication for repeated CT scans, especially in pediatric patients. Purpose of our study is to find risk factors of progression on repeated CT and delayed surgical intervention based on the repeated head CT.
Methods
Between March, 2007 and December, 2013, 269 pediatric patients (age 0-18 years) had admitted to our hospital for head trauma. Patients were classified into 8 subgroups according to mechanisms of injury. Types, amount of hemorrhage and amount changes on repeated CT were analyzed as well as initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores.
Results
Within our cohort of 269 patients, 174 patients received repeat CT. There were progression in the amount of hemorrhage in 48 (27.6%) patients. Among various hemorrhage types, epidural hemorrhage (EDH) more than 10 cc measured in initial CT was found to be at risk of delayed surgical intervention significantly after routine repeated CT with or without neurological deterioration than other types of hemorrhage. Based on initial GCS, severe head trauma group (GCS 3-8) was at risk of delayed surgical intervention after routine repeated CT without change of clinical neurologic status.
Conclusion
We suggest that the patients with EDH more than 10 cc or GCS below 9 should receive repeated head CT even though absence of significant clinical deterioration.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2015.58.2.125
PMCID: PMC4564744  PMID: 26361528
Computed tomography; Cranial epidural hemorrhage; Glasgow Coma Scale; Traumatic brain injury
18.  Multiple Schwannomas of the Spine: Review of the Schwannomatosis or Congenital Neurilemmomatosis: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Spine  2015;12(2):91-94.
Schwannomas are the most common benign nerve sheath tumors originating in Schwann cells. With special conditions like neurofibromatosis type 2 or entity called schwannomatosis, patients develop multiple schwannomas. But in clinical setting, distinguishing schwannomatosis from neurofibromatosis type 2 is challengeable. We describe 58-year-old male who presented with severe neuropathic pain, from schwannomatosis featuring multiple schwannomas of spine and trunk, and underwent surgical treatment. We demonstrate his radiologic and clinical findings, and discuss about important clinical features of this condition. To confirm schwannomatosis, we performed brain magnetic resonance imaging, and took his familial history. Staged surgery was done for pathological confirmation and relief of the pain. Schwannomatosis and neurofibromatosis type 2 are similar but different disease. There are diagnostic hallmarks of these conditions, including familial history, pathology, and brain imaging. Because of different prognosis, the two diseases must be distinguished, so diagnostic tests that are mentioned above should be performed in caution.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2015.12.2.91
PMCID: PMC4513176  PMID: 26217390
Neurofibromatosis type 2; Schwannoma; Schwannomatosis; Spine
19.  The Warthin-Like Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Comparison with Classic Type in the Patients with Coexisting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis 
Background. The Warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid (WLPTC) is a rare subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) resembling Warthin tumors of the salivary glands. Due to its rarity, the clinicopathologic and molecular features of WLPTC remain unclear. Methods. Of the 2,139 patients who underwent surgical treatment for PTC from 2012 to 2013, 40 patients with WLPTC were identified and compared to 200 consecutive patients with classic PTC. BRAF mutation was tested with pyrosequencing. Results. There were no significant differences in age, predilection for women, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, or lymph node metastasis between WLPTC and classic PTC. However, WLPTCs were more commonly associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than classic PTCs (93% versus 36%, resp., P < 0.001) and showed significantly lower rate of BRAF mutation when compared to classic PTCs (65% versus 84%, resp., P = 0.007). In classic PTC, the frequency of BRAF mutations was negatively correlated with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. When we compared WLPTC and classic PTC in the patients with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, there were no significant differences in clinicopathologic characteristics or the BRAF mutational rate between the two groups. Conclusions. Patients with WLPTC have similar demographic, clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics to those with classic PTC coexisting with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
doi:10.1155/2015/456027
PMCID: PMC4423001  PMID: 25983754
20.  Identification of Intermediate- to High-Risk Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Patients Who May Be Safely Managed without the Performance of Delayed Stimulated Thyroglobulin Measurements following Total Thyroidectomy and Radioactive Iodine Therapy 
Background. The measurement of stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) after total thyroidectomy and remnant radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation is the gold standard for monitoring disease status in patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). The aim of this study was to determine whether sTg measurement during follow-up can be avoided in intermediate- and high-risk PTC patients. Methods. A total of 346 patients with PTCs with an intermediate or high risk of recurrence were analysed. All of the patients underwent total thyroidectomy as well as remnant RAI ablation and sTg measurements. Preoperative and postoperative parameters were included in the analysis. Results. Among the preoperative parameters, age below 45 years and preoperative Tg above 19.4 ng/mL were significant risk factors for predicting detectable sTg during follow-up. Among the postoperative parameters, thyroid capsular invasion, lymph node metastasis, and ablative Tg above 2.9 ng/mL were independently correlated with a detectable sTg range. The combination of ablative Tg less than 2.9 ng/mL with pre- and postoperative independent risk factors for detectable sTg increased the negative predictive value for detectable sTg up to 98.5%. Conclusions. Based on pre- and postoperative parameters, a substantial proportion of patients with PTCs in the intermediate- and high-risk classes could avoid aggressive follow-up measures.
doi:10.1155/2015/318916
PMCID: PMC4306371  PMID: 25649811
21.  Radiofrequency Ablation to Treat Loco-Regional Recurrence of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(6):817-826.
Objective
To evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of loco-regional, recurrent, and well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
Materials and Methods
Thirty-five recurrent well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (RTC) in 32 patients were treated with RFA, between March 2008 and October 2011. RTCs were detected by regular follow-up ultrasound and confirmed by biopsy. All patients had fewer than 3 RTCs in the neck and were at high surgical risk or refused to undergo repeated surgery. Average number of RFA sessions were 1.3 (range 1-3). Post-RFA biopsy and ultrasound were performed. The mean follow-up period was 30 months. Pre- and post-RFA serum thyroglobulin values were evaluated.
Results
Thirty-one patients with 33 RTCs were treated with RFA only, whereas 1 patient with 2 RTCs was treated with RFA followed by surgery. At the last follow-up ultrasound, 31 (94%) of the 33 RTCs treated with RFA alone completely disappeared and the remaining 2 (6%) RTCs showed decreased volume. The largest diameter and volume of the 33 RTCs were markedly decreased by 93.2% (from 8.1 ± 3.4 mm to 0.6 ± 1.8 mm, p < 0.001) and 96.4% (from 173.9 ± 198.7 mm3 to 6.2 ± 27.9 mm3, p < 0.001), respectively. Twenty of the 21 RTCs evaluated with post-RFA biopsies (95%) were negative for malignancy. One (5%) showed remaining tumor that was removed surgically. The serum thyroglobulin was decreased in 19 of 26 patients (73%). Voice change developed immediately after RFA in 6 patients (19%) and was spontaneously recovered in 5 patients (83%).
Conclusion
Radiofrequency ablation can be effective in treating loco-regional, recurrent, and well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients at high surgical risk.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2014.15.6.817
PMCID: PMC4248639  PMID: 25469095
Radiofrequency ablation; Recurrent thyroid cancer; Efficacy; Thyroid; Ultrasound
22.  Accelerated Disease Progression after Discontinuation of Sorafenib in a Patient with Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer 
Endocrinology and Metabolism  2014;29(3):388-393.
Distant metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are rare and are associated with a poor prognosis. Here, we describe a patient with metastatic PTC who was treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, sorafenib) for several months that was acutely exacerbated by discontinuation. A 43-year-old male was diagnosed with PTC in February 2004 and underwent total thyroidectomy followed by two courses of high-dose radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. Despite two additional courses of high-dose RAI therapy, lung and muscle metastases were developed. Treatment with sorafenib was begun in September 2010. After 11 months treatment of sorafenib, newly developed metastatic lesions were found in mediastinal lymph nodes, liver, and bones. Considered as treatment failure, the administration of sorafenib was discontinued. Two weeks after sorafenib treatment was stopped, the disease progressed abruptly and caused death of the patient by respiratory failure. In our patient, PTC progressed rapidly after the cessation of sorafenib treatment. Patients with several other types of cancer have also experienced such rapid disease progression, termed "flare-ups." Physicians should be aware that flare-ups may occur in advanced PTC patients following the cessation of TKI therapy.
doi:10.3803/EnM.2014.29.3.388
PMCID: PMC4192805  PMID: 25309799
Thyroid neoplasms; Papillary; Neoplasm metastasis; Sorafenib
23.  Modified Open-door Laminoplasty Using Hydroxyapatite Spacers and Miniplates 
Korean Journal of Spine  2014;11(3):188-194.
Objective
Cervical laminoplasty has been widely accepted as one of the major treatments for cervical myelopathy and various modifications and supplementary procedures have been devised to achieve both proper decompression and stability of the cervical spine. We present the retrospectively analyzed results of a modified unilateral open-door laminoplasty using hydroxyapatite (HA) spacers and malleable titanium miniplates.
Methods
From June 2008 to May 2012, among patients diagnosed with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, the patients who received laminoplasty were reviewed. Clinical outcome was assessed using Frankel grade and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. The radiologic parameters were obtained from plain films, 3-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance images.
Results
A total of 125 cervical laminae were operated in 38 patients. 11 patients received 4-level laminoplasty and 27 patients received 3-level laminoplasty. Postoperatively, the mean Frankel grade and JOA score were significantly improved from 3.97 to 4.55 and from 12.76 to 14.63, respectively (p<0.001). Radiologically, cervical curvature was worsened from 19.09 to 15.60 (p=0.025). The percentage of range of motion preservation was 73.32±22.39%. The axial dimension of the operated spinal canal was increased from 1.75 to 2.70 cm2 (p<0.001).
Conclusion
In the presenting study, unilateral open-door laminoplasty using HA spacers and miniplates appears to be a safe, rapid and easy procedure to obtain an immediate and rigid stabilization of the posterior elements of the cervical spine. This modified laminoplasty method showed effective expansion of the spinal canal and favorable clinical outcomes.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2014.11.3.188
PMCID: PMC4206973  PMID: 25346767
Cervical vertebrae; Spinal cord compression; Ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament; Hydroxyapatites; Bone plates
24.  Classic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Tall Cell Features and Tall Cell Variant Have Similar Clinicopathologic Features 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2014;48(3):201-208.
Background
The tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (TCVPTC) is more aggressive than classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), but the percentage of tall cells needed to diagnose TCVPTC remains controversial. In addition, little is known about the clinicopathologic features of classic PTC with tall cell features (TCF).
Methods
We retrospectively selected and reviewed the clinicopathologic features and presence of the BRAF mutation in 203 cases of classic PTC, 149 cases of classic PTC with TCF, and 95 cases of TCVPTCs, which were defined as PTCs having <10%, 10-50%, and ≥50% tall cells, respectively.
Results
TCVPTCs and classic PTCs with TCF did not vary significantly in clinicopathologic characteristics such as pathologic (p) T stage, extrathyroidal extension, pN stage, lateral lymph node metastasis, or BRAF mutations; however, these features differed significantly in TCVPTCs and classic PTCs with TCF in comparison to classic PTCs. Similar results were obtained in a subanalysis of patients with microcarcinomas (≤1.0 cm in size).
Conclusions
Classic PTCs with TCF showed a similar BRAF mutation rate and clinicopathologic features to TCVPTCs, but more aggressive characteristics than classic PTCs.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.3.201
PMCID: PMC4087133  PMID: 25013418
Thyroid neoplasms; Histologic types; Classification; Tall cell features
25.  Atypical Noncontiguous Multiple Spinal Tuberculosis: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Spine  2014;11(2):77-80.
Objective
Spinal tuberculosis-associated symptoms are not so unique as to immediately indicate the proper diagnosis in most cases. Distinguishing spinal tuberculosis (Pott's disease) from pyogenic spondylitis is often difficult, and lesions metastatic from systemic malignancy are the other major entity from which spinal tuberculosis must be distinguished.
Clinical Presentation
A 27-year-old male patient presented with a history of back pain after a minor trauma 1 month ago. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed multiple osteolytic bone lesions at the bodies of T9, T10 and T11 vertebrae and the spinous processes of T12 and L1. Other noncontiguous osteolytic lesions were noted at S2 body and right sacro-iliac joint.
Intervention
To confirm the pathologic diagnosis, the patient underwent an open biopsy for the T12 and L1 spinous process lesions and a percutaneous transpedicular biopsy on T9, T10, T11 lesions. Frozen biopsy was reported as compatible with chronic granulomatous caseating necrosis without malignant cells. The final diagnosis was an atypical presentation of multiple spinal tuberculosis. The patient received an appropriate enteral anti-tuberculosis therapy and recovered without any complications. Follow-up MRI taken after a year of medical treatment revealed marked resolution of the lesions.
Conclusion
Current research indicates the incidence of multi-level noncontiguous, remote vertebral tuberculosis is 1.1% to 16%. Because tuberculous spondylitis could represent variant and atypical pattern, the disease should be considered in differential diagnosis along with other diseases such as metastatic neoplasm, pyogenic spondylitis, especially when the radiologic studies are revealing multiple spinal lesions.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2014.11.2.77
PMCID: PMC4124923  PMID: 25110488
Spondylitis; Spinal tuberculosis; Pott's disease

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