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1.  Cervical Compressive Myelopathy due to Anomalous Bilateral Vertebral Artery 
We report a very rare case of cervical compressive myelopathy by an anomalous bilateral vertebral artery (VA) entering the spinal canal at the C1 level and compressing the spinal cord. A 70-year-old woman had been suffering from progressive gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that a bilateral VA at the V4 segment had abnormal courses and caused compression to the high cervical cord. VA repositioning was performed by anchoring a suture between the artery and around the arachnoid membrane and dentate ligament, and then, microvascular decompression using a Teflon sponge was done between the VA and the spinal cord. The weakness in the patient improved in the lower extremity after the operation. Anomalous VA could be one of the rare causes of cervical compressive myelopathy. Additionally, an anchoring suture and microvascular decompression around the VA could be a sufficient and safe method to indirectly decompress the spinal canal.
PMCID: PMC3841280  PMID: 24294461
Vertebral artery anomaly; Cervical myelopathy; Microvascular decompression
2.  Spinal Epidural Arteriovenous Hemangioma Mimicking Lumbar Disc Herniation 
A spinal epidural hemangioma is rare. In this case, a 51 year-old female patient had low back pain and right thigh numbness. She was initially misdiagnosed as having a ruptured disc with possible sequestration of granulation tissue formation due to the limited number of spinal epidural hemangiomas and little-known radiological findings. Because there are no effective diagnostic tools to verify the hemangioma, more effort should be put into preoperative imaging tests to avoid misdiagnosis and poor decisions).
PMCID: PMC3488653  PMID: 23133733
Spinal hemangioma; Indocyanine green videoangiography; Spinal cavernous; Hemangioma; Spinal epidural hemangioma
3.  NFlex Dynamic Stabilization System : Two-Year Clinical Outcomes of Multi-Center Study 
Pedicle-based dynamic stabilization systems, in which semi-rigid rods or cords are used to restrict or control spinal segmental motion, aim to reduce or eliminate the drawbacks associated with rigid fusion. In this study, we analyzed the two-year clinical outcomes of patients treated with the NFlex (Synthes Spine, Inc.), a pedicle-based dynamic stabilization system.
Five sites participated in a retrospective study of 72 consecutive patients who underwent NFlex stabilization. Of these 72 patients, 65 were available for 2-year follow-up. Patients were included based on the presence of degenerative disc disease (29 patients), degenerative spondylolisthesis (16 patients), lumbar stenosis (9 patients), adjacent segment degeneration (6 patients), and degenerative lumbar scoliosis (5 patients). The clinical outcome measures at each assessment were Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to measure back pain, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) to measure functional status. Radiographic assessments included evidence of instrumentation failure or screw loosening.
Sixty-five patients (26 men and 39 women) with a mean age of 54.5 years were included. Mean follow-up was 25.6 months. The mean VAS score improved from 8.1 preoperatively to 3.8 postoperatively, representing a 53% improvement, and the ODI score from 44.5 to 21.8, representing a 51% improvement. Improvements in pain and disability scores were statistically significant. Three implant-related complications were observed.
Posterior pedicle-based dynamic stabilization using the NFlex system seems effective in improving pain and functional scores, with sustained clinical improvement after two years. With appropriate patient selection, it may be considered an effective alternative to rigid fusion.
PMCID: PMC3424174  PMID: 22949963
Lumbar spine; Posterior dynamic stabilization; Spinal fusion; Non-fusion stabilization
4.  Clinical Experience of the Dynamic Stabilization System for the Degenerative Spine Disease 
The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the dynamic stabilization system in the treatment of degenerative spinal diseases.
The study population included 20 consecutive patients (13 females, 7 males) with a mean age of 61±6.98 years (range 46-70) who underwent decompression and dynamic stabilization with the Dynesys system between January 2005 and August 2006. The diagnoses included spinal stenosis with degenerative spondylolisthesis (9/20, 45%), degenerative spinal stenosis (5/20, 25%), adjacent segmental disease after fusion (3/20, 15%), spinal stenosis with degenerative scoliosis (2/20, 10%) and recurrent intervertebral lumbar disc herniation (1/20, 5%). All of the patients completed the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Korean version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The following radiologic parameters were measured in all patients : global lordotic angles and segmental lordotic angles (stabilized segments, above and below adjacent segments). The range of motion (ROM) was then calculated.
The mean follow-up period was 27.25±5.16 months (range 16-35 months), and 19 patients (95%) were available for follow-up. One patient had to have the implant removed. There were 30 stabilized segments in 19 patients. Monosegmental stabilization was performed in 9 patients (47.3%), 9 patients (47.3%) underwent two segmental stabilizations and one patient (5.3%) underwent three segmental stabilizations. The most frequently treated segment was L4-5 (15/30, 50%), followed by L3-4 (12/30, 40%) and L5-S1 (3/30, 10%). The VAS decreased from 8.55±1.21 to 2.20±1.70 (p<0.001), and the patients' mean score on the Korean version of the ODI improved from 79.58%±15.93% to 22.17%±17.24% (p<0.001). No statistically significant changes were seen on the ROM at the stabilized segments (p=0.502) and adjacent segments (above segments, p=0.453, below segments, p=0.062). There were no patients with implant failure.
The results of this study show that the Dynesys system could preserve the motion of stabilized segments and provide clinical improvement in patients with degenerative spinal stenosis with instability. Thus, dynamic stabilization systems with adequate decompression may be an alternative surgical option to conventional fusion in selected patients.
PMCID: PMC2588217  PMID: 19096600
Dynamic; Stabilization system; Degenerative spinal disorder; Lumbar vertebra

Results 1-4 (4)