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1.  Surgical versus Conservative Treatment for Lumbar Disc Herniation with Motor Weakness 
The aim of this study is to assess outcomes during first one year for patients with severe motor weakness caused by lumbar disc herniation that underwent surgical or nonsurgical treatment.
The 46 patients with motor weakness because of lumbar disc herniation who were treated at neurosurgical department and rehabilitation in our hospital from 2006 to 2010, retrospectively. Each group had 26 surgical treatments and 20 conservative treatments. We followed up 1, 3, 6 months and 12 month and monitored a Visual Analogue rating Scale (VAS) of back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and degree of motor weakness. We analyzed the differences between surgical and nonsurgical groups using Mann-Whitney U test and repeat measure ANOVA in each follow-up periods.
In the recovery of motor weakness, surgical treatment uncovered a rapid functional recovery in the early periods (p=0.003) and no difference between groups at the end of follow-up period was found (p>0.05). In VAS of back and leg, the interaction between time and group was not found (p>0.05) and there was no difference between groups (p>0.05). In ODI, the interaction between time and group was not found (p>0.05) and there was no difference between groups (p>0.05).
Surgical treatment for motor weakness caused by herniated intervertebral disc resulted in a rapid recovery in the short-term period, especially 1 month. We think early and proper surgical treatment in a case of motor weakness from disc herniation could be a good way for providing a chance for rapid alleviation.
PMCID: PMC3836923  PMID: 24278645
Lumbar Region; Disc; Herniation; Surgery; Weakness
2.  Extra and Intramedullary Anaplastic Ependymoma in Thoracic Spinal Cord 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(3):177-180.
Spinal ependymoma occupies 40-60% of primary spinal cord tumors and has a feature of intramedullary tumor. The tumor most commonly arises from the central canal of the spinal cord, the conus medullaris or the filum terminale and its pathological features are usually benign. Unlike above characteristics, intra and extramedullary ependymomas are reported very rarely and have wide variety of histological features. We present a rare case of spinal anaplastic ependymoma with an accompanied exophytic lesions extramedullary as well. The tumor was poorly delineated between a spinal cord and the extramedullary components in operative view. After we had confirmed the frozen biopsy as anaplastic ependymoma, the remnant mass embedded in the spinal cord was remained because of its unclear resection margin and the risk of neurological deterioration. She underwent radiotherapy with 50.4 Gy, and there were newly developed mass lesions at the lumbosacral region on the MRI, 14 months postoperatively.
PMCID: PMC3941770  PMID: 24757483
Ependymoma; Exophytic; Intradural extramedullary
3.  Transorbital Penetrating Intracranial Injury by a Chopstick 
A 38-year-old man fell from a chair with a chopstick in his hand. The chopstick penetrated his left eye. He noticed pain, swelling, and numbness around his left eye. On physical examination, a linear wound was noted at the medial aspect of the left eyelid. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) study showed a linear hypodense structure extending from the medial aspect of the left orbit to the occipital bone, suggesting a foreign body. This foreign body was hyperdense relative to normal parenchyma. From a CT scan with 3-dimensional reconstruction, the foreign body was found to be passing through the optic canal into the cranium. The clear plastic chopstick was withdrawn without difficulty. The patient was discharged home 3 weeks after his surgery. A treatment plan for a transorbital penetrating injury should be determined by a multidisciplinary team, with input from neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists.
PMCID: PMC3488655  PMID: 23133735
Penetrating; Foreign body; Orbit; Craniocerebral trauma
4.  Surgical Results of Selective Median Neurotomy for Wrist and Finger Spasticity 
This study aimed to evaluate the surgical outcomes of selective median neurotomy (SMN) for spastic wrist and fingers.
We studied 22 patients with wrist and finger spasticity refractory to optimal oral medication and physical therapy. The authors evaluated spasticity of the wrist and finger muscles by comparing preoperative states with postoperative states using the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). We checked patients for changes in pain according to the visual analog scale (VAS) and degree of satisfaction based on the VAS.
The preoperative mean MAS score was 3.27±0.46 (mean±SD), and mean MAS scores at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery were 1.82±0.5, 1.73±0.7, and 1.77±0.81 (mean±SD), respectively. On the last follow-up visit, the mean MAS score measured 1.64±0.9 (mean±SD). Wrist and finger spasticity was significantly decreased at 3, 6, and 12 months after the operation (p<0.01). The preoperative mean pain VAS score was 5.85±1.07 (mean±SD), and the mean pain VAS score on the last follow-up visit after surgery was 2.28±1.8 (mean±SD). Compared with the preoperative mean pain VAS score, postoperative mean pain VAS score was decreased significantly (p<0.01). On the basis of a VAS ranging from 0 to 100, the mean degree of patient satisfaction was 64.09±15.93 (mean±SD, range 30-90).
The authors propose SMN as a possible effective procedure in achieving useful, long-lasting tone and in gaining voluntary movements in spastic wrists and fingers with low morbidity rates.
PMCID: PMC3206285  PMID: 22053226
Median nerve; Surgical procedure; Muscle spasticity; Wrist; Fingers
5.  Ulnar Nerve Compression in Guyon's Canal by Ganglion Cyst 
Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal can result from repeated blunt trauma, fracture of the hamate's hook, and arterial thrombosis or aneurysm. In addition, conditions such as ganglia, rheumatoid arthritis and ulnar artery disease can rapidly compress the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal. A ganglion cyst can acutely protrude or grow, which also might compress the ulnar nerve. So, clinicians should consider a ganglion cyst in Guyon's canal as a possible underlying cause of ulnar nerve compression in patients with a sudden decrease in hand strength. We believe that early decompression with removal of the ganglion is very important to promote complete recovery.
PMCID: PMC3079103  PMID: 21519507
Guyon's canal; Ganglion cyst; Compression

Results 1-5 (5)