The aim of this study was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 gene and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes are associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL).
A total of 157 patients with OPLL and 222 controls were recruited for a case control association study investigating the relationship between SNPs of FGF2, FGFR1, FGFR2 and OPLL. To identify the association among polymorphisms of FGF2 gene, FGFR1, FGFR2 genes and OPLL, the authors genotyped 9 SNPs of the genes (FGF2 : rs1476217, rs308395, rs308397, and rs3747676; FGFR1 : rs13317 and rs2467531; FGFR2 : rs755793, rs1047100, and rs3135831) using direct sequencing method. SNPs data were analyzed using the SNPStats, SNPAnalyzer, Haploview, and Helixtree programs.
Of the SNPs, a SNP (rs13317) in FGFR1 was significantly associated with the susceptibility of OPLL in the codominant (odds ratio=1.35, 95% confidence interval=1.01-1.81, p=0.048) and recessive model (odds ratio=2.00, 95% confidence interval=1.11-3.59, p=0.020). The analysis adjusted for associated condition showed that the SNP of rs1476217 (p=0.03), rs3747676 (p=0.01) polymorphisms in the FGF2 were associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and rs1476217 (p=0.01) in the FGF2 was associated with ossification of the ligament flavum (OLF).
The results of the present study revealed that an FGFR1 SNP was significantly associated with OPLL and that a SNP in FGF2 was associated with conditions that were comorbid with OPLL (DISH and OLF).
OPLL; FGF2 gene; FGFR 1 & 2 genes; Polymorphism
To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar interbody fusion and its correlation with various factors (e.g., age, comorbidities, fusion level, bone quality) in patients over and under 65 years of age who underwent lumbar fusion surgery for degenerative lumbar disease.
One-hundred-thirty-three patients with lumbar degenerative disease underwent lumbar fusion surgery between June 2006 and June 2007 and were followed for more than one year. Forty-eight (36.1%) were older than 65 years of age (group A) and 85 (63.9%) were under 65 years of age (group B). Diagnosis, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and perioperative complications were recorded. The analysis of clinical outcomes was based on the visual analogue scale (VAS). Radiological results were evaluated using plain radiographs. Clinical outcomes, radiological outcomes, length of hospital stay, and complication rates were analyzed in relation to lumbar fusion level, the number of comorbidities, bone mineral density (BMD), and age.
The mean age of the patients was 61.2 years (range, 33-86 years) and the mean BMD was -2.2 (range, -4.8 to -2.8). The mean length of hospital stay was 15.0 days (range, 5-60 days) and the mean follow-up was 23.0 months (range, 18-30 months). Eighty-five (64.0%) patients had more than one preoperative comorbidities. Perioperative complications occurred in 27 of 133 patients (20.3%). The incidence of overall complication was 22.9% in group A, and 18.8% in group B but there was no statistical difference between the two groups. The mean VAS scores for the back and leg were significantly decreased in both groups (p < 0.05), and bony fusion was achieved in 125 of 133 patients (94.0%). There was no significant difference in bony union rates between groups A and B (91.7% in group A vs. 95.3% in group B, p = 0.398). In group A, perioperative complications were more common with the increase in fusion level (p = 0.027). Perioperative complications in both groups A (p = 0.035) and B (p = 0.044) increased with an increasing number of comorbidities.
Elderly patients with comorbidities are at a high risk for complications and adverse outcomes after lumbar spine surgery. In our study, clinical outcomes, fusion rates, and perioperative complication rates in older patients were comparable with those in younger populations. The number of comorbidities and the extent of fusion level were significant factors in predicting the occurrence of postoperative complications. However, proper perioperative general supportive care with a thorough fusion strategy during the operation could improve the overall postoperative outcomes in lumbar fusion surgery for elderly patients.
Elderly patients; Lumbar interbody fusion; Comorbidities; Complications
The presence of distant metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma decreases the 10-year survival rates of patients by 50%. This is a report of a 61-year-old female with follicular thyroid carcinoma who presented initially with low back pain. 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) demonstrated a hypointensity lesion in the left thyroid gland with malignant uptake in L1 vertebra and magnetic resonance images revealed paravertebral and epidural extension of mass in L1 vertebra. After thyroidectomy, histopathological study showed a follicular carcinoma. We performed L1 total en bloc spondylectomy with expandable cage for long-term local control. The technical details of total en bloc spondylectomy in follicular carcinoma are described herein.
Thyroid carcinoma; Total en bloc spondylectomy; Metastasis
To evaluate the surgical outcomes of ventral interbody grafting and anterior or posterior spinal instrumentation for the treatment of advanced spondylodiscitis in patients who had failed medical management.
A total of 28 patients were evaluated for associated medical illness, detected pathogen, level of involved spine, and perioperative complications. Radiological evaluation including the rate of bony union, segmental Cobb angle, graft- and instrumentation-related complications, and clinical outcomes by mean Frankel scale and VAS score were performed.
There are 14 pyogenic spondylodiscitis, 6 postoperative spondylodiscitis, and 8 tuberculous spondylodiscitis. There were 21 males and 7 females. Mean age was 51 years, with a range from 18 to 77. Mean follow-up period was 10.9 months. Associated medical illnesses were 6 diabetes, 3 pulmonary tuberculosis, and 4 chronic liver diseases. Staphylococcus was the most common pathogen isolated (25%), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found in 18% of the patients. Operative approaches, either anterior or posterior spinal instrumentation, were done simultaneously or delayed after anterior aggressive debridement, neural decompression, and structural interbody bone grafting. All patients with neurological deficits improved after operation, except only one who died from aggravation as military tuberculosis. Mean Frankel scale was changed from 3.78±0.78 preoperatively to 4.78±0.35 at final follow up and mean VAS score was improved from 7.43±0.54 to 2.07±1.12. Solid bone fusion was obtained in all patients except only one patient who died. There was no need for prolongation of duration of antibiotics and no evidence of secondary infection owing to spinal instrumentations.
According to these results, debridement and anterior column reconstruction with ventral interbody grafting and instrumentation is effective and safe in patients who had failed medical management and neurological deficits in advanced spondylodiscitis.
Advanced spondylodiscitis; Ventral interbody grafting; Spinal instrumentation
Although a significant correction of local kyphosis has been reported previously, only a few studies have investigated whether this correction leads to an improved overall sagittal alignment. The study objective was to determine whether an improvement in the local kyphotic angle improves the overall sagittal alignment. We examined and compared the effects of thoracic and lumbar level kyphoplasty procedures on local versus overall sagittal alignment of the spine.
Thirty-eight patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures who showed poor response to conventional, palliative medical therapy underwent single-level kyphoplasty. The pertinent clinical data of these patients, from June 2006 to November 2006, were reviewed retrospectively. We measured preoperative and postoperative vertebral body heights, which were classified as anterior, middle, or posterior fractured vertebral body heights. Furthermore, the local and overall sagittal angles after polymethylmethacrylate deposition were measured.
More height was gained at the thoracic level, and the middle vertebral height regained the most. A significant local kyphosis correction was observed at the fractured level, and the correction at larger spanning segments decreased with the distance from the fractured level.
The inflatable balloon kyphoplasty procedure was the most effective in regaining the height of the thoracic fractured vertebra in the middle vertebral body. The kyphosis correction by kyphoplasty was mainly achieved in the fractured vertebral body. Sagittal angular correction decreased with an increase in the distance from the fractured vertebra. No significant improvement was observed in the overall sagittal alignment after kyphoplasty. Further studies in a larger population are required to clarify this issue.
Kyphoplasty; Vertebral compression fracture; Sagittal alignment
To present the accuracy and safety of cervical pedicle screw insertion using the technique with direct exposure of the pedicle by laminoforaminotomy.
We retrospectively reviewed 12 consecutive patients. A total of 104 subaxial cervical pedicle screws in 12 patients had been inserted. We also assessed the clinical and radiological outcomes and analyzed the direction and grade of pedicle perforation (grade 0: no perforation, 1: <25%, 2: 20% to 50%, 3: >50% of screw diameter) on the postoperative vascular-enhanced computed tomography scans. Grade 2 and 3 were considered as incorrect position.
The correct position was found in 95 screws (91.3%); grade 0-75 screws, grade 1-20 screws and the incorrect position in 9 screws (8.7%); grade 2-6 screws, grade 3-3 screws. There was no neurovascular complication related with cervical pedicle screw insertion.
This technique (technique with direct exposure of the pedicle by laminoforaminotomy) could be considered relatively safe and easy method to insert cervical pedicle screw.
Cervical pedicle screw; Laminoforaminotomy; Pedicle perforation
To document lumbar lordosis (LL) of the spine and its change during surgeries with the different height but the same angle setting of the anterior cage. Additionally, we attempted to determine if sufficient LL is achieved at different cage heights and to quantify the change in LL during multi-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF).
The medical records and radiographs of 42 patients who underwent more than 2 level ALIFs between 2008 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated 3 parameters seen on lateral whole spine radiographs : LL, pelvic incidence (PI), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA). The mean follow-up time was 28.1 months and the final follow-up radiographs of all patients were reviewed at least 2 years after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired t-tests.
Lumbar lordosis had changed up to 30 degrees immediately and 2 years after surgery (preoperative mean LL, SVA : 22.45 degrees, 112.31 mm; immediate postoperative mean LL, SVA : 54.45 degrees, 37.36 mm; final follow-up mean LL, SVA : 49.56 degrees, 26.95 mm). Our goal of LL is to obtain as much PI as possible, preoperative mean PI value was 55.38±3.35. The pre-operative and two year post-surgery follow-up mean of the Japanese Orthopedic Association score were 9.2±0.6 and 13.2±0.6 (favorable outcome rate : 95%), respectively. In addition, we were able to obtain good clinical outcomes and sagittal balance with a subsidence rate of 22.7%.
We were able to achieve sufficient LL, such that it was similar to the PI, utilizing multi-level ALIF with the use of a tall cage with the same angle setting of the cage. We have found out that achieving sufficient lumbar lordosis and sagittal balance require an anterior lumbar cage with high angle and height.
ALIF; Anterior interbody fusion; Multilevel ALIF; Pelvic incidence; Anterior lumbar cage; Sagittal balance
Thyroid carcinoma is the commonest endocrinological malignancy. After papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most common histological subtype. Common presentations of FTC include a solitary thyroid nodule and cervical lymphadenopathy. The incidence of individuals diagnosed with thyroid cancer showing initially distant metastatic disease ranges from 1 to 9%. Also, the incidence of solitary bone metastasis from thyroid is only 2 to 3%. We report a case of a patient with FTC whose initial presentation was low back pain and right buttock pain due to vertebral metastasis rather than the usual neck lumps or symptoms of thyroid disease.
Follicular thyroid carcinoma; Spinal metastasis; Compression fracture
Plasmacytoma is a rare disease, which afflicts 2 to 3 people per every 100,000 of the general population. Solitary plasmacytoma accounts for 5% of the plasma cell neoplasm. Solitary plasmacytoma of the bone appears more vividly in the axial skeleton (25-60%), which has the red marrow and usually affects the thoracic vertebrae. We report a case of 54-year-old man who has a chest pain on the right side. After being treated for the muscle pain, his symptoms of pain were changed into weakness and allesthesia. We checked the MRI and found a mass lesion in the T5 vertebra, but there were no significant laboratory findings, in blood and urine samples. Finally, he got an operation due to the aggravation of the weakness. The result of biopsy indicated that it was a solitary plasmacytoma of the spine. After 5 months later, the weakness and allesthesia had disappeared.
Atypical plasmacytoma; Solitary spinal tumor
The etiology of acute pericarditis is often thought to be autoimmune, and Graves' disease has been reported in a few series to manifest as acute pericarditis. Since the etiology of recurrent pericarditis is known to be more associated with autoimmune causes, recurrent acute pericarditis may be a potential cardiovascular complication of Graves' disease. We report a case of recurrent acute pericarditis that was presumed to be associated with Graves' disease which was controlled after management of the problem of the thyroid.
Pericarditis; Graves disease
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterium causing nosocomial infections worldwide. To gain quick insight into the molecular basis of biofilm formation in A. baumannii, we determined the complete genome sequence of A. baumannii strain 1656-2, which forms sturdy biofilm and is resistant to multiple drugs.
Thromboembolism is one of the most critical complications of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). We report here a case of multi-organ infarctions related to HES. A 23-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with hemoptysis. Not only pulmonary, but also renal and splenic infarctions were detected on computed tomography images. Blood tests showed profound peripheral eosinophilia. She was diagnosed with HES with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We initiated infusion of corticosteroids, which effectively suppressed peripheral eosinophilia. However, consumptive coagulopathy did not improve and intracerebral hemorrhage related to thrombosis then developed. Addition of interferon-alpha resulted in the correction of the DIC associated with HES.
Hypereosinophilic syndrome; eosinophilia; thromboembolism; disseminated intravascular coagulation; consumptive coagulopathy; interferon-alpha
To evaluate radiographic results of anterior fusion methods in two-level cervical disc disease : tricortical autograft and plate fixation (ACDF-AP), cage and plate fixation (ACDF-CP), stand-alone cage (ACDF-CA), and corpectomy and plate fixation (ACCF).
The numbers of patients were 70 with a minimum 6 month follow-up (ACDF-AP : 12, ACDF-CP : 27, ACDF-CA : 15, and ACCF : 16). Dynamic simple X-ray and computed tomography were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, 6 month, and at the final follow-up. The fusion and subsidence rates at the final were determined, and global cervical lordosis (GCL), cervical range of motion, fused segment angle (FSA), and fused segment height (FSH) were analyzed.
Nonunion was observed in 4 (25%) patients with ACDF-CA, 1 (8%) patient with ACDF-AP, 1 (4%) patient with ACDF-CP. The number of loss of FSH (%) more than 3 mm were 2 patients (16%) in ACDF-AP, 3 patients (11%) in ACDF-CP, 5 patients (33%) in ACDF-CA, and 3 patients (20%) in ACCF. The GCL was decreased with ACDF-CA and increased with others. The FSA was increased with ACDF-AP, ACDF-CP, and ACCF, but ACDF-CA was decreased. At the final follow-up, the FSH was slightly decreased in ACDF-CP, ACDF-AP, and ACCF, but ACDF-CA was more decreased. Graft related complication were minimal. Screw loosening, plate fracture, cage subsidence and migration were not identified.
ACDF-CP demonstrated a higher fusion rate and less minimal FSH loss than the other fusions in two-level cervical disc disease. The ACDF-AP and ACCF methods had a better outcome than the ACDF-CA with respect to GCL, FSA, and FSH.
Radiographic comparison; Anterior cervical fusion methods; Two-level cervical disc diseases
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) with oral solubilized formula in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, patients with probable or definite ALS were randomized to receive oral solubilized UDCA (3.5 g/140 mL/day) or placebo for 3 months after a run-in period of 1 month and switched to receive the other treatment for 3 months after a wash-out period of 1 month. The primary outcome was the rate of progression, assessed by the Appel ALS rating scale (AALSRS), and the secondary outcomes were the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Fifty-three patients completed either the first or second period of study with only 16 of 63 enrolled patients given both treatments sequentially. The slope of AALSRS was 1.17 points/month lower while the patients were treated with UDCA than with placebo (95% CI for difference 0.08-2.26, P = 0.037), whereas the slopes of ALSFRS-R and FVC did not show significant differences between treatments. Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common with UDCA (P < 0.05). Oral solubilized UDCA seems to be tolerable in ALS patients, but we could not make firm conclusion regarding its efficacy, particularly due to the high attrition rate in this cross-over trial.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Ursodeoxycholic Acid; Cross-Over Trial
The multi-sized porous β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were fabricated by freeze drying followed by slurry coating using a multi-sized porous sponge as a template. Then, gelatin was dip coated on the multi-sized porous β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds under vacuum. The mechanical and biological properties of the fabricated scaffolds were evaluated and compared to the uniformly sized porous scaffolds and scaffolds that were not coated by gelatin. The compressive strength was tested by a universal testing machine, and the cell viability and differentiation behavior were measured using a cell counting kit and alkaline phosphatase activity using the MC3T3-E1 cells. In comparison, the gelatin-coated multi-sized porous β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold showed enhanced compressive strength. After 14 days, the multi-sized pores were shown to affect cell differentiation, and gelatin coatings were shown to affect the cell viability and differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the multi-sized porous β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold coated by gelatin enhanced the mechanical and biological strengths.
β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold; multi-sized pores; gelatin coating; mechanical property; biological property
Except for the I/D polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, there were few reports about the relationship between other genetic polymorphisms in this gene and the changes in cardiac structure and function of athletes. Thus, we investigated whether the G2350A polymorphism in the ACE gene is associated with the changes in cardiac structure and function of ball game players. Total 85 healthy ball game players were recruited in this study, and they were composed of 35 controls and 50 ball game players, respectively. Cardiac structure and function were measured by 2-D echocardiography, and the G2350A polymorphism in the ACE gene analyzed by the SNaPshot method.
There were significant differences in left ventricular mass index (LVmassI) value among each sporting discipline studied. Especially in the athletes of basketball disciplines, indicated the highest LVmassI value than those of other sporting disciplines studied (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant association between any echocardiographic data and the G2350A polymorphism in the ACE gene in the both controls and ball game players.
Our data suggests that the G2350A polymorphism in the ACE gene may not significantly contribute to the changes in cardiac structure and function of ball game players, although sporting disciplines of ball game players may influence the changes in LVmassI value of these athletes. Further studies using a larger sample size and other genetic markers in the ACE gene will be needed.
ACE; Ball Game Players; Echocardiography
The renin-angiotensin system has an important role in the pathogenesis of stroke. We investigated whether two missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs4762, Thr207Met, T207M; and rs699, Met268Thr, M268T) of angiotensinogen (AGT; serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 8) are associated with the development and clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We analyzed 197 stroke patients (120 IS and 77 ICH) and 301 control subjects. The patients were classified into subgroups in accordance to the scores of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Survey (NIHSS, <6 and ≥6) and Modified Barthel Index (MBI, <60 and ≥60). Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze the genotype and allele distributions of each SNP. One of the missense SNPs, rs4762 (T207M) was associated with the development of ICH (P=0.038 in log-additive model and P=0.021 in allele distributions). The T allele frequency of T207M was higher in the ICH group (16.2%) compared with the control group (9.6%). The TC haplotype frequency differed significantly between the ICH and control groups (P=0.014). With regard to clinical features, T207M correlated with the NIHSS scores of the ICH patients (P=0.039 in codominant1, P=0.015 in dominant, P=0.011 in overdominant and P=0.039 in log-additive models). However, the two missense SNPs, rs4762 and rs699, were not associated with IS and its clinical features, including NIHSS and MBI scores. These data suggest that a missense SNP (rs4762, T207M) of the AGT gene may be associated with the development of ICH and contribute to the neurological functional levels of ICH patients.
angiotensinogen; haplotype; intracerebral hemorrhage; ischemic stroke; single nucleotide polymorphism
We present the rare case of solitary xanthogranuloma in the upper cervical column mimicking a Brown-Sequard syndrome. A 29-year-old man complained with right hemiparesis and left hypoesthesia after a car accident. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed a lobulated homogenously well-enhancing mass in between posterior arch of the atlas (C1) and spinous process of the axis (C2) resulting in a marked spinal canal narrowing with cortical erosions. The patient was managed by complete resection of the tumor with partial laminectomy with lower half of C1 posterior arch and upper half of C2 spinous process. The authors advise complete removal of the xanthogranuloma and consideration as a differential diagnosis of lesions among upper cervical lesions.
Juvenile xanthogranuloma; Xanthogranuloma; Cervical vertebrae; Brown-Sequard syndrome
Livedoid vasculitis is a chronic dermatological problem with an unclear etiology. Clinical findings are petechiae with painful ulcers in both lower extremities, which heal to become hyperpigmented and porcelain-white satellite lesions. There are only a few reported cases of livedoid vasculitis presenting in combination with peripheral neuropathy.
We report the first case of a Korean patient presenting with mononeuritis multiplex combined with livedoid vasculitis, which was confirmed by electrophysiological and pathological studies.
Our report supports the possible vaso-occlusive etiology of livedoid vasculitis in multifocal ischemic neuropathy.
livedoid vasculitis; livedoid vasculopathy; mononeuritis multiplex; multifocal ischemic neuropathy
Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is an immune-mediated disorder that is characterized by slowly progressive and asymmetrical weakness, but its pathophysiological mechanism is uncertain. The hypothesis that MMN is an immunological disease has been supported by the proven therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin and the detection of antiganglioside antibodies in MMN patients. The coexistence of MMN with other immune diseases has been rarely reported.
A 37-year-old woman visited our hospital complaining of weakness in both hands. The clinical manifestations coincided well with MMN: predominantly distal upper-limb weakness, asymmetric involvement, a progressive course, absence of sensory symptoms, absence of pyramidal signs, and sparing of the cranial muscles. The electrophysiological findings also supported a diagnosis of MMN, with motor nerve conduction block in the median, ulnar, and radial nerves, without sensory nerve involvement. The patient was simultaneously diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which is a well-known immune-mediated disease.
The concurrence of MMN and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in our patient is significant for understanding the immunological characteristics of the two diseases.
multifocal motor neuropathy; hashimoto's thyroiditis; MMN
The rat middle cerebral artery thread-occlusion model has been widely used to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke and to develop therapeutic treatment. This study was conducted to analyze energy metabolism, apoptotic signal pathways, and genetic changes in the hippocampus of the ischemic rat brain.
Focal transient cerebral ischemia was induced by obstructing the middle cerebral artery for two hours. After 24 hours, the induction of ischemia was confirmed by the measurement of infarct size using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. A cDNA microarray assay was performed after isolating the hippocampus, and was used to examine changes in genetic expression patterns.
According to the cDNA microarray analysis, a total of 1,882 and 2,237 genes showed more than a 2-fold increase and more than a 2-fold decrease, respectively. When the genes were classified according to signal pathways, genes related with oxidative phosphorylation were found most frequently. There are several apoptotic genes that are known to be expressed during ischemic brain damage, including Akt2 and Tnfrsf1a. In this study, the expression of these genes was observed to increase by more than 2-fold. As energy metabolism related genes grew, ischemic brain damage was affected, and the expression of important genes related to apoptosis was increased/decreased.
Our analysis revealed a significant change in the expression of energy metabolism related genes (Atp6v0d1, Atp5g2, etc.) in the hippocampus of the ischemic rat brain. Based on this data, we feel these genes have the potential to be target genes used for the development of therapeutic agents for ischemic stroke.
Apoptosis; Energy metabolism; Focal cerebral ischemia; Gene expression; Hippocampus; Oxidative phosphorylation
To describe the clinical characteristics of idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis (IJT) in Koreans.
Medical records of 16 patients with IJT were analyzed during the period from 1997 to 2009. Diagnosis was based on biomicrosopic and fluorescein angiographic findings and the group was determined according to the Gass and Blodi classification.
We analyzed eight patients in group 1A (50%), two in group 1B (12.5%), and six in group 2A (37.5%). Diverse treatment modalities, such as macular laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, intravitreal antiangiogenic agent, and steroid injection, were applied for macular edema in nine eyes; however, only two eyes showed visual improvement.
In this case series, group 1A was the most common. For macular edema related to IJT, current treatment strategies had no consistent effect.
Idiopathic Juxtafoveal Retinal Telangiectasia; Intravitreal Injection; Macular edema; Photochemotherapy
Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suffer from hypoventilation, which can easily worsen during sleep. This study evaluated the efficacy of capnography monitoring in patients with ALS for assessing nocturnal hypoventilation and predicting good compliance with subsequent noninvasive ventilation (NIV) treatment.
Nocturnal monitoring and brief wake screening by capnography/pulse oximetry, functional scores, and other respiratory signs were assessed in 26 patients with ALS. Twenty-one of these patients were treated with NIV and had their treatment compliance evaluated.
Nocturnal capnography values were reliable and strongly correlated with the patients' respiratory symptoms (R2 = 0.211–0.305, p = 0.004–0.021). The duration of nocturnal hypercapnea obtained by capnography exhibited a significant predictive power for good compliance with subsequent NIV treatment, with an area-under-the-curve value of 0.846 (p = 0.018). In contrast, no significant predictive values for nocturnal pulse oximetry or functional scores for nocturnal hypoventilation were found. Brief waking supine capnography was also useful as a screening tool before routine nocturnal capnography monitoring.
Capnography is an efficient tool for assessing nocturnal hypoventilation and predicting good compliance with subsequent NIV treatment of ALS patients, and may prove useful as an adjunctive tool for assessing the need for NIV treatment in these patients.
To demonstrate that hypolipidemia is a typical feature of the mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to assess the association between hypolipidemia and disease stage, dietary intake, and sex.
We compared daily dietary intake, body weight, and serumlipid and glucose levels in ALS mice and wild-type controls at different stages of the disease.
Total cholesterol low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio were significantly lower in ALS mice compared with controls. Subgroup analysis revealed that the incidence of hypolipidemia was significantly greater in male, but not female, ALS mice compared with control mice and that hypolipidemia was present at the presymptomatic stage of the disease. This hypolipidemia can be found without a decrease in the serum levels of other energy sources, such as glucose, in the presymptomatic stage.
Hypolipidemia is present at the presymptomatic stage of the ALS mouse model in the absence of malnutrition, significant neuromuscular degeneration or regeneration, and respiratory difficulty. Our findings suggest that hypolipidemia might be associated with the pathomechanism of ALS and/or lipid-specific metabolism rather than simply an epiphenomenon of neuromuscular degeneration or energy imbalance.
The complications of transobturator tape (TOT) were known as lower urinary tract injury, postoperative urinary retention, urge incontinence, vaginal erosion, and etc. A 63-year-old woman presented with new onset of severe pain, heating, and swelling of the left thigh and perineum. She had undergone TOT implantation for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) 4 days previously in an outside clinic. Painful left thigh swelling and skin erythema were noted on the physical examination. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed multiple, large left medial thigh and obturator abscesses. Removal of the implanted tape and abscess drainage were performed immediately and two additional operations were needed for proper abscess drainage. We believe this case to be one of the most serious complications to occur since the introduction of the TOT procedure. Here we report this case and discuss its initial management along with a review of the literature.
Suburethral slings; Abscess myositis; Urinary stress incontinence