The effects of an oral hygienic care program (OHCP) have been reported in several diseases. However, no study exists investigating the influence of an OHCP on stroke patients or patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been reported, thus we sought to investigate the potential effect of an OHCP.
Materials and Methods
Fifty-six consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to the ICU were randomly assigned to two groups: the intervention (29 patients) and control groups (27 patients). The OHCP included tooth brushing with an inter-dental brush and tongue cleaner and cleaning with chlorhexidine was administered to patients by one dentist once per day during admission in the ICU (mean, 2.2 weeks). The plague index, gingival index, clinical attachment loss, and colonization degree of candida albicans were assessed.
After OHCP, the plaque index, gingival index, and colonization degree of candida albicans in saliva showed a significant decrease in the intervention group compared to those of the control group (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in clinical attachment loss and the colonization degree of candida albicans on the tongue (p>0.05).
Our OHCP was effective in improving the oral hygienic status and periodontal health of stroke patients during their stay in the ICU. Therefore, we recommend administration of the OHCP for stroke patients during their stay in the ICU.
Oral health promotion; stroke; intensive care unit
When objects collide, human observers perceive not only motion but also causal relations, such as which object caused the other to move. In the present experiments, we investigated whether such causal interpretations can actually influence the perceived path of apparent motion. Displays contained two alternately flashing motion targets positioned at either end of a semicircular occluder. Two additional “context objects” moved in such a way that the motion targets appeared to collide with and launch them. The collision was manipulated so that it was consistent with apparent motion either along the straight path between the targets or along a curved path passing behind the occluder. Subjects almost exclusively perceived motion consistent with the implied launch, which suggests that causally coherent interpretations can influence basic perceptual processes.
motion perception; causality; visual perception; cognition
Anisakiasis of the gastrointestinal tract is caused by the ingestion of raw fish or uncooked food infested with Anisakis larvae. A large number of cases of gastric anisakiasis have been reported in countries where the eating of raw fish is customary. However, there have been few reports of anisakiasis of the colon confirmed by colonoscopy and also very few reports of endoscopic ultrasonographic findings of anisakiasis. A 47-year-old man had epigastric pain with nausea after eating raw anchovies. Endoscopy found a living tubular structure penetrating into the lesser curvature of the stomach and the midtranseverse colon area. It was withdrawn with biopsy forceps. We report a case of anisakiasis simultaneously invading the stomach and the colon confirmed by endosopic utrasonographic findings and biopsy findings.
Anisakiasis; Endoscopy; Endosonography
In order to combine advantages of ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) with a high on-off ratio and graphene TFTs with extremely high carrier mobility, we present a facile methodology for fabricating ZnO thin film/graphene hybrid two-dimensional TFTs. Hybrid TFTs exhibited ambipolar behavior, an outstanding electron mobility of 329.7 ± 16.9 cm2/V·s, and a high on-off ratio of 105. The ambipolar behavior of the ZnO/graphene hybrid TFT with high electron mobility could be due to the superimposed density of states involving the donor states in the bandgap of ZnO thin films and the linear dispersion of monolayer graphene. We further established an applicable circuit model for understanding the improvement in carrier mobility of ZnO/graphene hybrid TFTs.
This study investigated the protective effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced testicular toxicity in male rats. DADS was gavaged to rats once daily for 3 days at 100 mg/kg/day. One hour after the final DADS treatment, the rats were given a single intraperitoneal dose of 150 mg/kg CP. All rats were killed and necropsied on day 56 after CP treatment. Parameters of testicular toxicity included reproductive organ weight, testicular sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility and morphology, epididymal index, and histopathologic examinations. The CP treatment caused a decrease in body weight, testicular sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility, and epididymal index. The histopathological examination revealed various morphological alterations, characterized by degeneration of spermatogonia/spermatocytes, vacuolization, and decreased number of spermatids/spermatocytes in the testis, and cell debris and mild oligospermia in the ductus epididymis. In contrast, DADS pretreatment effectively attenuated the testicular toxicity caused by CP, including decreased sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility, and epididymal index and increased histopathological alterations in the testis and epididymis. These results indicate that DADS attenuates testicular toxicity induced by CP in rats.
Cancer chemotherapy; cyclophosphamide; testicular toxicity; diallyl disulfide; protective effect
This study investigated the effects of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) on radiation-induced bone loss in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeN mice were divided into sham and irradiation (3 Gy, gamma-ray) groups. The irradiated mice were treated for 12 wk with vehicle, KRG (per os, p.o.) or KRG (intraperitoneal). Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, estradiol level, and biomechanical properties were measured. Tibiae were analyzed using micro-computed tomography. Treatment of KRG (p.o., 250 mg/kg of body weight/d) significantly preserved trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, structure model index, and bone mineral density of proximal tibia metaphysic, but did not alter the uterus weight of the mice. Serum ALP level was slightly reduced by KRG treatment. However, grip strength, mechanical property, and cortical bone architecture did not differ among the experimental groups. The results indicate that KRG can prevent radiation-induced bone loss in mice.
Panax ginseng; Korean Red Ginseng; Radiation; Bone loss; Trabecular bone
The use of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) is an established palliative treatment for malignant stenosis in the gastrointestinal tract; therefore, its application to benign stenosis is expected to be beneficial because of the more gradual and sustained dilatation in the stenotic portion. We aimed in this prospective observational study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of temporary SEMS placement in benign pyloric stenosis.
Twenty-two patients with benign stenosis of the prepylorus, pylorus, and duodenal bulb were enrolled and underwent SEMS placement. We assessed symptom improvement, defined as an increase of at least 1 degree in the gastric-outlet-obstruction scoring system after stent insertion.
No major complications were observed during the procedures. After stent placement, early symptom improvement was achieved in 18 of 22 patients (81.8%). During the follow-up period (mean 10.2 months), the stents remained in place successfully for 6 to 8 weeks in seven patients (31.8%). Among the 15 patients (62.5%) with stent migration, seven (46.6%) showed continued symptomatic improvement without recurrence of obstructive symptoms.
Despite the symptomatic improvement, temporary SEMS placement is premature as an effective therapeutic tool for benign pyloric stenosis unless a novel stent is developed to prevent migration.
Benign pyloric stenosis; Self-expandable metallic stent
The present study investigated the potential subacute toxicity of 1,4-dichlorobutane by a 4-week repeated oral dose in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test article was administered once daily by gavage to male rats at dose levels of 0, 100, 300, and 1,000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. All rats were sacrificed at the end of the treatment period. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, and organ weight were examined. At 1,000 mg/kg/day, an increase in the clinical signs and weights of the liver and kidneys was observed in the male rats. Serum biochemical investigations revealed an increase in alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, total bilirubin, phospholipids, blood urea nitrogen, and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. There were no treatment-related adverse effects in the low and middle-dose groups. In the present experimental conditions, the target organs were determined to be liver and kidney. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 300 mg/kg/day in rats.
1,4-Dichlorobutane; subacute toxicity; target organ; no-observed-adverse-effect level
Bone changes are common sequela of radiation therapy for cancer. The purpose of this study was to establish an experimental model of radiation-induced bone loss in adult mice using micro-computed tomography (µCT). The extent of changes following 2 Gy gamma irradiation (2 Gy/min) was studied at 4, 8, 12 or 16 weeks after exposure. Adult mice that received 1, 2, 4 or 6 Gy of gamma-rays were examined 12 weeks after irradiation. Tibiae were analyzed using µCT. Serum markers and biomechanical properties were measured and the osteoclast surface was examined. A significant loss of trabecular bone in tibiae was evident 12 weeks after exposure. Measurements performed after irradiation showed a dose-related decrease in trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and bone mineral density (BMD), respectively. The best-fitting dose-response curves were linear-quadratic. Taking the controls into accounts, the lines of best fit were as follows: BV/TV (%)= -0.071D2-1.799D+18.835 (r2=0.968, D=dose in Gy) and BMD (mg/cm3) = -3.547D2-14.8D+359.07 (r2=0.986, D=dose in Gy). Grip strength and body weight did not differ among the groups. No dose-dependent differences were apparent among the groups with regard to mechanical and anatomical properties of tibia, serum biochemical markers and osteoclast activity. The findings provide the basis required for better understanding of the results that will be obtained in any further studies of radiation-induced bone responses.
Radiation; bone loss; murine model; microcomputed tomography
Bisphosphonate generally seems to be safe, but hypocalcemia may occasionally develop in the course of bisphosphonate treatment. Hypocalcemia induced by bisphosphonate is usually mild and asymptomatic, but unrecognized or poorly treated hypocalcemia can lead to life-threatening state. A 78-year-old woman who had a history of hip arthroplasty and intravenous zoledronate treatment for femur neck fracture was presented to emergency department with altered mental status. It turned out that her symptom was due to severe hypocalcemia which was caused by intravenous zoledronate treatment. She also had renal dysfunction. She was treated by intravenous calcium gluconate and calcitriol administration. This case supports the need for evaluation of renal dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency and parathyroid gland dysfunction before bisphosphonate treatment and accurate monitoring of plasma calcium and creatinine levels. In addition, vitamin D and calcium supply during treatment with bisphosphonate is mandatory.
Bisphosphonates; Hypocalcemia; Osteoporosis
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the anatomic relationships between the uncinate process and surrounding neurovascular structures to prevent possible complications in anterior cervical surgery.
Twenty-eight formalin-fixed cervical spines were removed from adult cadavers and were studied. The authors investigated the morphometric relationships between the uncinate process, vertebral artery and adjacent nerve roots.
The height of the uncinate process was 5.6-7.5 mm and the width was 5.8-8.0 mm. The angle between the posterior tip of the uncinate process and vertebral artery was 32.2-42.4°. The distance from the upper tip of the uncinate process to the vertebral body immediately above was 2.1-3.3 mm, and this distance was narrowest at the fifth cervical vertebrae. The distance from the posterior tip of the uncinate process to the nerve root was 1.3-2.0 mm. The distance from the uncinate process to the vertebral artery was measured at three different points of the uncinate process : upper-posterior tip, lateral wall and the most antero-medial point of the uncinate process, and the distances were 3.6-6.1 mm, 1.7-2.8 mm, and 4.2-5.7 mm, respectively. The distance from the uncinate process tip to the vertebral artery and the angle between the uncinate process tip and vertebral artery were significantly different between the right and left side.
These data provide guidelines for anterior cervical surgery, and will aid in reducing neurovascular injury during anterior cervical surgery, especially in anterior microforaminotomy.
Anterior cervical surgery; Foraminotomy; Uncinate process, Vertebral artery; Nerve root
We investigated whether amodal completion can bias apparent motion (AM) to deviate from its default straight path toward a longer curved path, which would violate the well-established principle that AM follows the shortest possible path. Observers viewed motion sequences of two alternating rectangular tokens positioned at the ends of a semicircular occluder, with varying interstimulus intervals (ISIs; 100–500 ms). At short ISIs, observers tended to report simple straight-path motion—that is, outside the occluder. But at long ISIs, they became increasingly likely to report a curved-path motion behind the occluder. This tendency toward reporting curved-path motion was influenced by the shape of tokens, display orientation, the gap between tokens and the occluder, and binocular depth cues. Our results suggest that the visual system tends to minimize unexplained absence of a moving object, as well as its path length, such that AM deviates from the shortest path when amodal integration of motion trajectory behind the curved occluder can account for the objective invisibility of the object during the ISI.
Apparent motion; Occlusion; Amodal completion; Tunnel effect
The development of a serological marker for early diagnosis of isocyanate-induced occupational asthma (isocyanate-OA) may improve clinical outcome. Our previous proteomic study found that expression of vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) was upregulated in the patients with isocyanate-OA. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical relevance of VDBP as a serological marker in screening for isocyanate-OA among exposed workers and its role in the pathogenesis of isocyanate-OA. Three study groups including 61 patients with isocyanate-OA (group I), 180 asymptomatic exposed controls (AECs, group II), 58 unexposed healthy controls (NCs, group III) were enrolled in this study. The baseline serum VDBP level was significantly higher in group I compared with groups II and III. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting the phenotype of isocyanate-OA with VDBP were 69% and 81%, respectively. The group I subjects with high VDBP (≥ 311 µg/ml) had significantly lower PC20 methacholine levels than did subjects with low VDBP. The in vitro studies showed that TDI suppressed the uptake of VDBP into RLE-6TN cells, which was mediated by the downregulation of megalin, an endocytic receptor of the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-VDBP complex. Furthermore, toluene diisocyanate (TDI) increased VEGF production and secretion from this epithelial cells by suppression of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] production. The findings of this study suggest that the serum VDBP level may be used as a serological marker for the detection of isocyanate-OA among workers exposed to isocyanate. The TDI-induced VEGF production/secretion was reversed by 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, which may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for patients with isocyanate-OA.
asthma, occupational; biological markers; isocyanates; low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2; vascular endothelial growth factorA; vitamin D-binding protein
The waffle-cone technique is a modified stent application technique, which involves protrusion of the distal portion of a stent into an aneurysm fundus to provide neck support for subsequent coiling. The authors report two cases of wide necked basilar bifurcation aneurysms, which were not amenable to stent assisted coiling, that were treated using the waffle-cone technique with a Solitaire AB stent. A 58-year-old woman presented with severe headache. Brain CT showed subarachnoid hemorrhage and angiography demonstrated a ruptured giant basilar bifurcation aneurysm with broad neck, which was treated with a Solitaire AB stent and coils using the waffle-cone technique. The second case involved an 81-year-old man, who presented with dizziness caused by brain stem infarction. Angiography also demonstrated a large basilar bifurcation unruptured aneurysm with broad neck. Solitaire AB stent deployment using the waffle-cone technique, followed by coiling resulted in near complete obliteration of aneurysm. The waffle-cone technique with a Solitaire AB stent can be a useful alternative to conventional stent application when it is difficult to catheterize bilateral posterior cerebral arteries in patients with a wide-necked basilar bifurcation aneurysm.
Wide-necked aneurysm; Waffle-cone technique; Solitaire AB stent
This study was conducted to investigate the potential effects of α-chlorohydrin (ACH) on epididymal function and antioxidant system in male rats. The test chemical was administered to male rats by gavage at doses of 0, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Twenty-four male rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups, with six rats in each group. Spermatotoxicity was assessed by measurement of reproductive organ weight, testicular sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility and morphology, histopathologic examination, and oxidative damage analysis in rats. At 30 mg/kg/day, an increase in the incidence of clinical signs, epididymis weight, and gross necropsy findings of the epididymis, a decrease in the sperm motility, and an increased incidence of histopathological changes of the epididymis were observed in a dose-dependent manner. At 10 mg/kg/day, an increased incidence of clinical signs and histopathological changes and decreased sperm motility were observed. In the oxidative damage analysis, an increase in the malondialdehyde concentration and a decrease in the glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in the epididymal tissue were detected at ≥3 mg/kg/day. The results show that graded doses of ACH elicit depletion of the antioxidant defense system and that the spermatotoxicity of ACH may be due to the induction of oxidative stress.
α-Chlorohydrin; oxidative stress; reproductive dysfunction; sperm
Object recognition memory and contextual fear conditioning task performance in adult C57BL/6 mice exposed to cranial fast neutron irradiation (0.8 Gy) were examined to evaluate hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction following acute exposure to relatively low doses of fast neutrons. In addition, hippocampal neurogenesis changes in adult murine brain after cranial irradiation were analyzed using the neurogenesis immunohistochemical markers Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In the object recognition memory test and contextual fear conditioning, mice trained 1 and 7 days after irradiation displayed significant memory deficits compared to the sham-irradiated controls. The number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells decreased significantly 24 h post-irradiation. These results indicate that acute exposure of the adult mouse brain to a relatively low dose of fast neutrons interrupts hippocampal functions, including learning and memory, possibly by inhibiting neurogenesis.
fast neutron; hippocampus; learning and memory; neurogenesis
The treatment of bilateral vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still challenging. The authors report a rare case of bilateral VADA treated with coil trapping of ruptured VADA and covered stents implantation after multiple unsuccessful stent assisted coiling of the contralateral unruptured VADA. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe headache and sudden stuporous consciousness. Brain CT showed thick SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography demonstrated bilateral VADA. Based on the SAH pattern and aneurysm configurations, the right VADA was considered ruptured. This was trapped with endovascular coils without difficulty. One month later, the contralateral unruptured VADA was protected using a stent-within-a-stent technique, but marked enlargement of the left VADA was detected by 8-months follow-up angiography. Subsequently two times coil packing for pseudosacs resulted in near complete occlusion of left VADA. However, it continued to grow. Covered stents graft below the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin and a coronary stent implantation across the origin of the PICA resulted in near complete obliteration of the VADA. Covered stent graft can be used as a last therapeutic option for the management of VADA, which requires absolute preservation of VA flow.
Vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm; SAH; Stent assisted coiling; Trapping; Covered stent graft; Endovascular embolization
In this study, we investigated the effects of total ginseng saponin (TGS) on the cutaneous wound healing process using histological analysis. A total of 24 ICR mice, 5-weeks-old, were used for all in vivo experiments. Mice were divided into control and TGS-treated groups and four equidistant 1-cm full-thickness dorsal incisional wounds were created. The wounds were extracted at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-injury for histomorphometrical analysis including wound area and contracture measurements, keratinocyte migration rate, and calculation of infiltrating inflammatory cells. The results showed that the wound area was smaller and keratinocyte migration rate was higher in the TGS-treated group than that of the control group from days 3 to 7. Inflammatory cells in the TGS-treated group at days 1 and 3 were reduced compared to the control group. Wound contraction in the TGS-treated group was greater than in the control group on days 3 to 5, and collagen deposition in the TGS-treated group was higher than in the control group during wound healing. The results indicate a beneficial effect of TGS when used to treat skin wounds.
Panax ginseng; Skin wound healing; Total ginseng saponin; Mice
This in vitro study evaluated the detrimental effect of acute gamma (γ)-irradiation on rat immature hippocampal neurons. Rat immature hippocampal neurons (0.5 day in vitro) were irradiated with 0~4 Gy γ-rays. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a lactate dehydrogenase release assay at 24 h after γ-irradiation. Radiation-induced cytotoxicity in immature hippocampal neurons increased in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatments of pro-apoptotic caspase inhibitors and anti-oxidative substances significantly blocked γ-irradiation-induced cytotoxicity in immature hippocampal neurons. The results suggest that the caspase-dependent cytotoxicity of γ-rays in immature hippocampal cultured neurons may be caused by oxidative stress.
caspase; cytotoxicity; γ-ray; hippocampal neurons; oxidative stress
Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare vascular lesions of the brain. These lesions consist of one or more arterial connection to a single venous channel without true intervening nidus. A 24-year-old woman visited to our hospital because of headache, vomiting, dizziness and memory disturbance that persisted for three days. She complained several times of drop attack because of sudden weakness on both leg. Cerebral angiograms demonstrated a giant venous aneurysm on right frontal lobe beyond the genu of corpus callosum, multiple varices on both frontal lobes fed by azygos anterior cerebral artery, and markedly dilated draining vein into superior sagittal sinus, suggesting single channel pial AVF with multiple varices. Transarterial coil embolization of giant aneurysm and fistulous portion resulted in complete disappearance of pial AVF without complication.
Pial AVF; Giant venous aneurysm; Varices; Endovascular coils; Embolization
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a very common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Nerve growth factor (NGF) may be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. In this study, we investigated the effect of Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) on the ovarian morphology and NGF expression in an estradiol valerate (EV)-induced rat model. Polycystic ovaries were induced by a single intramuscular injection of estadiol valerate (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. KRGE was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 60 consecutive days, beginning 60 days after the induction. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized and NGF was normalized in the EV+KRGE group. KRGE lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in the polycystic ovaries. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of KRGE in the treatment of PCOS.
Panax ginseng; Polycystic ovary syndrome; Estradiol valerate; Pathophysiology; Ginseng extract
The present study investigated the potential adverse effects of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on pregnant dams and embryonic development following maternal exposure in rats.
MWCNTs were orally administered to pregnant rats from gestational day (GD) 6 through 19 at dose levels of 0, 8, 40, 200, and 1000 mg/kg/day. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food consumption, serum biochemistry, oxidant-antioxidant status, gross findings, organ weights, and Caesarean section findings were examined.
All animals survived to the end of the study. A decrease in thymus weight was observed in the highest dose group. However, maternal body weight, food consumption, serum biochemical parameters, and oxidant-antioxidant balance in the kidneys were not affected by treatment with MWCNTs. No treatment-related differences in gestational index, embryo-fetal mortality, or fetal and placental weights were observed between treated and control groups.
The results show that 14-day repeated oral dosing of MWCNTs during pregnancy induces minimal maternal toxicity at 1000 mg/kg/day in rats. Under these experimental conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of MWCNTs is considered to be 200 mg/kg/day for dams and 1000 mg/kg/day for embryonic development.
Carbon nanotubes; Pregnancy; Maternal toxicity; Oxidative stress; Serum biochemistry
Intermediate filaments, including nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), are important for the brain to accommodate neural activities and changes during development. The present study examined the temporal changes of nestin and GFAP protein levels in the postnatal development of the mouse hippocampus. Mouse hippocampi were sampled on postnatal day (PND) 1, 3, 6, 18, and 48. Western blot analysis showed that nestin expression was high at PND 1 and markedly decreased until PND 18. Conversely, GFAP expression was acutely increased in the early phase of postnatal development. Nestin immunoreactivity was localized mainly in the processes of ramified cells at PND 1, but expression subsequently decreased. In contrast, GFAP was evident mainly in the marginal cells of the hippocampus at PND 1, but immunoreactivity revealed satellite, radial, or ramified shapes of the cells from PND 6-48. This study demonstrates that the opposing pattern of nestin and GFAP expressions in mouse hippocampus during postnatal development occur in the early development stage (PND 1-18), suggesting that the opposing change of nestin and GFAP in early postnatal development is important for neural differentiation and positioning in the mouse hippocampus.
GFAP; hippocampus; mice; nestin; postnatal development
It has been clinically reported that toluene causes mental depression in humans. However, the detrimental effects of toluene exposure on brain function and the relation between features of mental depression and toluene exposure are poorly understood. This study evaluated depression-like behaviors in adult C57BL/6 mice after administration of toluene, and elucidated the effects of classical antidepressants on the depression-like behaviors. For the estimation of depression-like behaviors, tail suspension test (TST) and forcedswim test (FST) were performed 1, 4 and 16 days after toluene (0~1000 mg/kg bw) treatment. In addition, classical antidepressants such as fluoxetine (FLX, 20 mg/kg bw) and imipramine (IMI, 40 mg/kg bw) were administered 12 h and 1 h before the tests. In the TST and FST, toluene-treated mice exhibited a longer duration of immobility than vehicle-treated mice 1 and 4 days after toluene treatment. The depression-like behaviors were significantly reversed by FLX and IMI. The weight of the adrenal gland and the size of adrenocortical cells were significantly higher in toluene-treated mice compared to vehicle-treated controls. It is suggested that acute toluene exposure of adult mice is sufficiently detrimental to induce depression. In addition, this study has established a mouse model for a depressive state induced by toluene treatment.
Toluene; Depression; Behavior; Adrenal gland; Animal model
A new nonrigid motion illusion is presented based on patterns of aligned nonparallel line segments undergoing apparent motion. The illusory effect can be explained by the mismatch in local orientation segments that signals local rotational motion contradictory to the global translational motion.
apparent motion; illusory depth; nonrigid illusion; motion correspondence