Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain and frequently associated with other symptoms. Patients with FM commonly report cognitive complaints, including memory problem. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in neural correlates of working memory between FM patients and healthy subjects, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Nineteen FM patients and 22 healthy subjects performed an n-back memory task during MRI scan. Functional MRI data were analyzed using within- and between-group analysis. Both activated and deactivated brain regions during n-back task were evaluated. In addition, to investigate the possible effect of depression and anxiety, group analysis was also performed with depression and anxiety level in terms of Beck depression inventory (BDI) and Beck anxiety inventory (BAI) as a covariate. Between-group analyses, after controlling for depression and anxiety level, revealed that within the working memory network, inferior parietal cortex was strongly associated with the mild (r = 0.309, P = 0.049) and moderate (r = 0.331, P = 0.034) pain ratings. In addition, between-group comparison revealed that within the working memory network, the left DLPFC, right VLPFC, and right inferior parietal cortex were associated with the rating of depression and anxiety?
Our results suggest that the working memory deficit found in FM patients may be attributable to differences in neural activation of the frontoparietal memory network and may result from both pain itself and depression and anxiety associated with pain.
Sustained stress can have numerous pathologic effects. There have been several animal models for chronic stress. We tried to identify the changes of pain threshold and hippocampus in a model of chronic stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were kept in a cage filled with 23℃ water to a height of 2.2 cm for 7 days. Nociceptive thresholds, expressed in grams, were measured with a Dynamic Plantar Aesthesiometer. Golgi staining was used to identify hippocampal changes. To demonstrate how long allodynia was lasting, behavioral test was repeated daily on another experiment. Compared to control group, chronic stress group showed bilateral mechanical hyper-responsiveness on days 5 (P = 0.047) and 7 (P = 0.032). In general, dendrite atrophic changes within hippocampus of chronic stress model were much more prominent in comparison with control. Compared to control, decreased spine number (P < 0.001) and spine length (P < 0.001) on Golgi staining were seen in the hippocampus of animals with chronic stress. Bilateral mechanical hyperresponsiveness was recovered on day 19 in animals with chronic stress. Chronic stress may bring about central sensitization and hippocampal changes in rats.
Stress; Hippocampus; Hyperalgesia; Models, Animal
A 38-year-old man fell from a chair with a chopstick in his hand. The chopstick penetrated his left eye. He noticed pain, swelling, and numbness around his left eye. On physical examination, a linear wound was noted at the medial aspect of the left eyelid. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) study showed a linear hypodense structure extending from the medial aspect of the left orbit to the occipital bone, suggesting a foreign body. This foreign body was hyperdense relative to normal parenchyma. From a CT scan with 3-dimensional reconstruction, the foreign body was found to be passing through the optic canal into the cranium. The clear plastic chopstick was withdrawn without difficulty. The patient was discharged home 3 weeks after his surgery. A treatment plan for a transorbital penetrating injury should be determined by a multidisciplinary team, with input from neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists.
Penetrating; Foreign body; Orbit; Craniocerebral trauma
Tumors of the central nervous system are common in the pediatric population and constitute the second most prevalent tumor type in children. Within this group, spinal cord tumors are relatively rare and account for 1 to 10% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. We describe a very rare case of an intradural extramedullary spinal cord tumor with a subcutaneous mass and discuss its clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and treatment. A male infant was delivered normally, with uneventful development. At 16 days post-delivery, his family took him to a pediatrician because of a mass on his upper back. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine revealed a well-demarcated soft-tissue mass with central cystic change or necrosis at the subcutaneous layer of the posterior back (T2-7 level). Another mass was found with a fat component at the spinal canal of the T1-3 level, which was intradural extramedullary space. After six weeks, the spinal cord tumor and subcutaneous mass were grossly total resected; pathologic findings indicated an atypical myxoid spindle cell neoplasm, possibly nerve sheath in type. The final diagnosis of the mass was an atypical myxoid spindle cell neoplasm. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged after nine days without any neurological deficit. We report a rare case of an intradural extramedullary spinal tumor with subcutaneous mass in a neonate. It is necessary to monitor the patient's status by examining consecutive radiologic images, and the symptoms and neurological changes should be observed strictly during long-term follow-up.
Intradural extramedullary spinal cord neoplasm; Neonate; Congenital
Traumatic brachial plexus injuries can be devastating, causing partial to total denervation of the muscles of the upper extremities. Surgical reconstruction can restore motor and/or sensory function following nerve injuries. Direct nerve-to-nerve transfers can provide a closer nerve source to the target muscle, thereby enhancing the quality and rate of recovery. Restoration of elbow flexion is the primary goal for patients with brachial plexus injuries. A 4-year-old right-hand-dominant male sustained a fracture of the left scapula in a car accident. He was treated conservatively. After the accident, he presented with motor weakness of the left upper extremity. Shoulder abduction was grade 3 and elbow flexor was grade 0. Hand function was intact. Nerve conduction studies and an electromyogram were performed, which revealed left lateral and posterior cord brachial plexopathy with axonotmesis. He was admitted to Rehabilitation Medicine and treated. However, marked neurological dysfunction in the left upper extremity was still observed. Six months after trauma, under general anesthesia with the patient in the supine position, the brachial plexus was explored through infraclavicular and supraclavicular incisions. Each terminal branch was confirmed by electrophysiology. Avulsion of the C5 roots and absence of usable stump proximally were confirmed intraoperatively. Under a microscope, neurotization from the musculocutaneous nerve to two medial pectoral nerves was performed with nylon 8-0. Physical treatment and electrostimulation started 2 weeks postoperatively. At a 3-month postoperative visit, evidence of reinnervation of the elbow flexors was observed. At his last follow-up, 2 years following trauma, the patient had recovered Medical Research Council (MRC) grade 4+ elbow flexors. We propose that neurotization from medial pectoral nerves to musculocutaneous nerve can be used successfully to restore elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus injuries.
Brachial plexus; Neurotization; Pectoral nerve; Musculocutaneous nerve
This study aimed to evaluate the surgical outcomes of selective median neurotomy (SMN) for spastic wrist and fingers.
We studied 22 patients with wrist and finger spasticity refractory to optimal oral medication and physical therapy. The authors evaluated spasticity of the wrist and finger muscles by comparing preoperative states with postoperative states using the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). We checked patients for changes in pain according to the visual analog scale (VAS) and degree of satisfaction based on the VAS.
The preoperative mean MAS score was 3.27±0.46 (mean±SD), and mean MAS scores at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery were 1.82±0.5, 1.73±0.7, and 1.77±0.81 (mean±SD), respectively. On the last follow-up visit, the mean MAS score measured 1.64±0.9 (mean±SD). Wrist and finger spasticity was significantly decreased at 3, 6, and 12 months after the operation (p<0.01). The preoperative mean pain VAS score was 5.85±1.07 (mean±SD), and the mean pain VAS score on the last follow-up visit after surgery was 2.28±1.8 (mean±SD). Compared with the preoperative mean pain VAS score, postoperative mean pain VAS score was decreased significantly (p<0.01). On the basis of a VAS ranging from 0 to 100, the mean degree of patient satisfaction was 64.09±15.93 (mean±SD, range 30-90).
The authors propose SMN as a possible effective procedure in achieving useful, long-lasting tone and in gaining voluntary movements in spastic wrists and fingers with low morbidity rates.
Median nerve; Surgical procedure; Muscle spasticity; Wrist; Fingers
Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal can result from repeated blunt trauma, fracture of the hamate's hook, and arterial thrombosis or aneurysm. In addition, conditions such as ganglia, rheumatoid arthritis and ulnar artery disease can rapidly compress the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal. A ganglion cyst can acutely protrude or grow, which also might compress the ulnar nerve. So, clinicians should consider a ganglion cyst in Guyon's canal as a possible underlying cause of ulnar nerve compression in patients with a sudden decrease in hand strength. We believe that early decompression with removal of the ganglion is very important to promote complete recovery.
Guyon's canal; Ganglion cyst; Compression
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and outcome of selective musculocutaneous neurotomy (SMcN) for spastic elbow.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 14 patients with spasticity of their elbows. The patients were selected using clinical and analytical scales, as well as nerve block tests, for assessment. Their mean age was 37.29 years (range, 19-63 years). SMcN was performed for these patients, and the mean follow-up period was 30.71 months (range, 19-54 months).
The modified Ashworth scale (MAS) scores recorded before and after the SMcN showed that the patients' mean preoperative MAS score of 3.28 ± 0.12 was improved to 1.71 ± 0.12, 1.78 ± 0.18, 1.92 ± 0.16 and 1.78 ± 0.18 at postoperative 3, 6, 12 months and last follow-up, respectively. On the basis of a visual analogue score ranging from 0-100, the patients' mean degree of satisfaction score was 65.00 ± 16.52 (range, 30-90).
We believe that SMcN can be a good and effective treatment modality with low morbidity in appropriately selected patients who have localized spastic elbow with good antagonist muscles and without joint contracture.
Elbow; Muscle spasticity; Musculocutaneous nerve; Neurotomy; Surgical procedure
A 52-year-old female patient presented with an 8-year history of progressively intense pain, cold sensitivity, and severe tenderness to palpation of the ulnar side of the tip of her right little finger. Subsequent diagnostic evaluation with ultrasonographic imaging revealed the presence of a glomus tumor in the tender area. Glomus tumors are benign, occurring in the vascular hamartomatous tubercles of the glomus body, which is a myoarterial apparatus typically found in the reticular dermis of the skin. Distal glomus tumors are relatively uncommon, and account for approximately 1% of all hand tumors. Most of them are located in the subungual area because of its high concentration of glomus bodies. We report a case of a glomus tumor with a typical triad of symptoms, yet with a rare location : on the pulp of the ulnar aspect of the distal phalanx of the right little finger.
Glomus tumor; Finger; Pain
Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is an effective treatment for bladder and bowel dysfunction, and also has a role in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. We report two cases of intractable pain associated with cauda equina syndrome (CES) that were treated successfully by SNS. The first patient suffered from intractable pelvic pain with urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence after surgery for a herniated lumbar disc. The second patient underwent surgery for treatment of a burst fracture and developed intractable pelvic area pain, right leg pain, excessive urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, voiding difficulty and constipation one year after surgery. A SNS trial was performed on both patients. Both patients' pain was significantly improved and urinary symptoms were much relieved. Neuromodulation of the sacral nerves is an effective treatment for idiopathic urinary frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence. Sacral neuromodulation has also been used to control various forms of pelvic pain. Although the mechanism of action of neuromodulation remains unexplained, numerous clinical success reports suggest that it is a therapy with efficacy and durability. From the results of our research, we believe that SNS can be a safe and effective option for the treatment of intractable pelvic pain with incomplete CES.
Sacral Plexus; Neuromodulator; Pain; Cauda Equina
Selective neurotomy is generally a safe, effective, and long-lasting treatment for patients with spastic equinovarus foot deformity. We retrospectively analyzed the results of microsurgical selective tibial neurotomy (STN) for spastic feet in adults and children.
A neurosurgeon selected 32 patients with 45 spastic feet (adults : 13, children : 32) to undergo microsurgical STN between October 1998 and September 2007. A physician of rehabilitation assessed spasticity pre- and postoperatively, that was based on the Ashworth scale, ankle clonus, and the amplitude of ankle dorsiflexion. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 36.7 months in adults and 42.5 months in children.
Spastic components of the feet were corrected immediately after surgery in both the adult and child groups. The mean Ashworth's grade changed from 3.6 ± 0.40 to 1.6 ± 0.70 in adults and from 3.7 ± 0.69 to 1.4 ± 0.49 in children. Mean ankle clonus decreased markedly, from 1.6 ± 0.79 to 0.3 ± 0.42 in adults and from 1.7 ± 0.65 to 0.3 ± 0.56 in children. The mean amplitude of ankle dorsiflexion was improved, but eight (adults: 4, children: 4) contracted feet needed complementary orthopedic correction for acceptable results.
STN can be effective in the long-term for improving lower limb function and reduction of equinovarus deformity. Our results demonstrate that STN might be an effective procedure for treating localized harmful spastic feet in adults and children.
Foot; Spasticity; Surgical procedures; Children; Adults
A 54-year-old man experienced injury to the second finger of his left hand due to damage from a paintball gun shot 8 years prior, and the metacarpo-phalangeal joint was amputated. He gradually developed mechanical allodynia and burning pain, and there were trophic changes of the thenar muscle and he reported coldness on his left hand and forearm. A neuroma was found on the left second common digital nerve and was removed, but his symptoms continued despite various conservative treatments including a morphine infusion pump on his left arm. We therefore attempted median nerve stimulation to treat the chronic pain. The procedure was performed in two stages. The first procedure involved exposure of the median nerve on the mid-humerus level and placing of the electrode. The trial stimulation lasted for 7 days and the patient's symptoms improved. The second procedure involved implantation of a pulse generator on the left subclavian area. The mechanical allodynia and pain relief score, based on the visual analogue scale, decreased from 9 before surgery to 4 after surgery. The patient's activity improved markedly, but trophic changes and vasomotor symptom recovered only moderately. In conclusion, median nerve stimulation can improve chronic pain from complex regional pain syndrome type II.
Complex regional pain syndrome; Median nerve; Peripheral nerve stimulation
Acidic saline injections produce mechanical hyperresponsiveness in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We investigated the effect of milnacipran in conjunction with tramadol on the pain threshold in an acidic saline animal model of pain.
The left gastrocnemius muscle of 20 male rats was injected with 100 µL of saline at pH 4.0 under brief isoflurane anesthesia on days 0 and 5. Rats administered acidic saline injections were separated into four study subgroups. After determining the pre-drug pain threshold, rats were injected intraperitoneally with one of the following regimens; saline, milnacipran alone (60 mg/kg), milnacipran (40 mg/kg) plus tramadol (20 mg/kg), or milnacipran (40 mg/kg) plus tramadol (40 mg/kg). Paw withdrawal in response to pressure was measured at 30 min, 120 min, and 5 days after injection. Nociceptive thresholds, expressed in grams, were measured with a Dynamic Plantar Aesthesiometer (Ugo Basile, Italy) by applying increasing pressure to the right or left hind paw until the rat withdrew the paw.
A potent antihyperalgesic effect was observed when tramadol and milnacipran were used in combination (injected paw, p=0.001; contralateral paw, p=0.012). This finding was observed only at 30 min after the combination treatment.
We observed potentiation of the antihyperalgesic effect when milnacipran and tramadol were administered in combination in an animal model of fibromyalgia. Further research is required to determine the efficacy of various combination treatments in fibromyalgia in humans.
Fibromyalgia; Pain; Acidic saline animal model; Tramadol; Milnacipran
While syringomyelia is not a rare spinal disorder, syringomyelia associated with a spinal arachnoid cyst is very unusual. Here, we report a 62-year-old man who suffered from gait disturbance and numbness of bilateral lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the presence of a spinal arachnoid cyst between the 7th cervical and 3rd thoracic vertebral segment and syringomyelia extending between the 6th cervical and 1st thoracic vertebral segment. The cyst had compressed the spinal cord anteriorly. Syringomyelia usually results from lesions that partially obstruct cerebrospinal fluid flow. Therefore, we concluded that the spinal arachnoid cyst was causing the syringomyelia. After simple excision of the arachnoid cyst, the symptoms were relieved. A follow-up MRI demonstrated that the syringomyelia had significantly decreased in size after removal of the arachnoid cyst. This report presents an unusual case of gait disturbance caused by syringomyelia associated with a spinal arachnoid cyst.
Syringomyelia; Arachnoid cyst; Spinal cord neoplasm
Although the incidence of unilateral abducens nerve palsy has been reported to be as high as 1% to 2.7% of head trauma cases, bilateral abducens nerve palsy following trauma is extremely rare. In this report, we present the case of a patient who developed a bilateral abducens nerve palsy and hypoglossal nerve palsy 3 days after suffering head trauma. He had a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 15 points. Computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated clivus epidural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage on the basal cistern. Herein, we discuss the possible mechanisms of these nerve palsies and its management.
Abducens nerve palsy; Hypoglossal nerve palsy; Epidural hematoma; Clivus
The purpose of the present study is to assess the long-term results of microsurgical dorsal root entry zonotomy (MDT) for the treatment of medically intractable upper-extremity spasticity.
The records of nine adult patients who underwent MDT by one operating neurosurgeon from March 1999 to June 2004 were retrospectively reviewed by another investigator who had no role in the management of these patients. In all patients, MDT was performed on all roots of the upper limb (from C5 to T1) for spasticity of the upper extremity. The degree of spasticity was measured by the Modified Ashworth Scale (grade 0-4). Severity of the pain level was determined using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS, score 0-10). Also, patient satisfaction of the post-operative outcome was assessed.
Comparing the preoperative and postoperative spasticity using the Modified Ashworth Scale, we observed improvement in all patients, particularly in five of the nine patients (55.6%) who improved by three grades over an average of 66.4 months (range, 40-96). Regarding patient satisfaction, seven patients (77.8%) had affirmative results. None of the patients experienced severe, life-threatening, postoperative complications. We observed a decrease in the intensity of painful spasms to less than three scores as measured by NRS in all four patients with associated pain.
This study shows that MDT provides significant, long-term reduction of harmful spasticity and associated pain in the upper limbs.
Muscle spasticity; Upper extremity; Spinal cord; DREZ operation; Long-term effect
A 62-year-old female patient suffered from numbness and resting pain in the right ring and little fingers for 3 years. We confirmed cubital tunnel syndrome with electrodiagnostic study and performed the operation. We found seven firm consistent nodules, compressing the overlying the ulnar nerve, proximal to the medial epicondyle in the operation field. Histological finding showed synovial chondromatosis. We report a rare case of a patient with cubital tunnel syndrome caused by synovial chondromatosis.
Cubital tunnel syndrome; Synovial chondromatosis
The purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting the failure of trials (<50% pain reduction in pain for trial period) to improve success rate of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) trial.
A retrospective review of the failed trials (44 patients, 36.1%) among the patients (n=122) who underwent SCS trial between January 1990 and December 1998 was conducted. We reviewed the causes of failed trial stimulation, age, sex, etiology of pain, type of electrode, and third party support.
Of the 44 patients, 65.9% showed unacceptable pain relief in spite of sufficient paresthesia on the pain area with trial stimulation. Four of six patients felt insufficient paresthesia with stimulation had the lesions of the spinal cord. Seventy five percent of the patients experienced unpleasant or painful sensation during stimulation had allodynia dominant pain. Third-party involvement, sex, age and electrode type had no influence on the outcome.
We conclude that SCS trial is less effective for patients with neuropathic pain of cord lesions, postherpetic neuropathy or post-amputation state. Further, patients with allodynia dominant pain can feel unpleasant or painful during trial stimulation.
Spinal cord stimulation; Cord lesion; Allodynia; Paresthesia; Chronic pain
We report a case of arachnoid cyst in which subdural hematoma and intracystic hemorrhage developed spontaneously. Usually, arachnoid cysts are asymptomatic, but can become symptomatic because of cyst enlargement or hemorrhage, often after mild head trauma. Although they are sometimes combined with subdural hematoma, intracystic hemorrhage has rarely been observed. Our patient had a simultaneous subdural hematoma and intracystic hemorrhage without evidence of head trauma.
Arachnoid cyst; Spontaneous intracystic hemorrhage; Subdural hematoma
Arsenic is a widely-distributed environmental component that is associated with a variety of cancer and non-cancer adverse health effects. Additional lifestyle factors, such as diet, contribute to the manifestation of disease. Recently, arsenic was found to increase inflammation and liver injury in a dietary model of fatty liver disease. The purpose of the present study was to investigate potential mechanisms of this diet-environment interaction via a high throughput metabolomics approach. GC×GC-TOF MS was used to identify metabolites that were significantly increased or decreased in the livers of mice fed a Western diet (a diet high in fat and cholesterol) and co-exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. The results showed that there are distinct hepatic metabolomic profiles associated with eating a high fat diet, drinking arsenic-contaminated water, and the combination of the two. Among the metabolites that were decreased when arsenic exposure was combined with a high fat diet were short-chain and medium-chain fatty acid metabolites and the anti-inflammatory amino acid, glycine. These results are consistent with the observed increase in inflammation and cell death in the livers of these mice, and they point to potentially novel mechanisms by which these metabolic pathways could be altered by arsenic in the context of diet-induced fatty liver disease.
GC×GC-TOF MS; metabolomics; liver; sodium arsenite; high fat diet
Few studies have reported on injury of the mammillothalamic tract (MTT) in patients with stroke. However, no study in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has been reported. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we attempted to investigate injury of the MTT in patients with SAH.
We recruited 16 patients with SAH and 15 control participants. DTI was obtained at 5.7±1.5 weeks after onset and reconstruction of the MTT was performed using the probabilistic tractography method. The fractional anisotropy (FA) value and tract number of the MTT and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score were determined. Values of FA and tract volume showing a decrement of more than two SDs that of normal control were defined as abnormal.
The FA value and tract volume in the patient group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05). In addition, MMSE showed strong (r=0.67, p=0.005) positive correlation with tract volume without correlation with FA. In the individual analysis, 16 MTTs of 32 MTTs in 16 patients showed abnormalities of the MTT in terms of the FA value, the tract volume or the presence of a reconstructed MTT. As a result, 10 (62.5%) of 16 patients showed abnormality of the MTT in at least one hemisphere.
We found that patients with SAH showed injury of the MTT and this injury showed correlation with cognitive dysfunction.
No study on the characteristics of injury of the corticospinal tract (CST) or corticoreticular pathway (CRP) in patients with putaminal hemorrhage has been reported. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography, we attempted to investigate the characteristics of injury of the CST and CRP in hemiparetic patients with putaminal hemorrhage.
Fifty seven consecutive patients with putaminal hemorrhage and 57 healthy control subjects were recruited for this study. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed during the early period (8 ~ 30 days) after onset. We defined injury of the CST or CRP in terms of the configuration (discontinuation of a neural tract) or abnormal DTT parameters (the fractional anisotrophy value or fiber number was more than two standard deviations lower than that of normal control subjects). The Motricity Index, the modified Brunnstrom Classification, and the Functional Ambulation Categories were used for evaluation of motor function.
Among 57 patients, injury of the CST was found in 41 patients (71.9%) and injury of the CRP was found in 50 patients (87.8%), respectively, and 37 patients (64.9%) had injury of both the CST and CRP. All three motor functions of patients with injury of both the CST and CRP were significantly lower than those of patients with injury of either the CST or CRP (p < 0.05).
Our results indicate that the putaminal hemorrhage frequently accompanies injury of both the CST and CRP, and the CRP appears to be more vulnerable to putaminal hemorrhage than the CST. These findings suggest the necessity for evaluation of both the CRP and the CST in patients with putaminal hemorrhage.
Putaminal hemorrhage; Corticospinal tract; Corticoreticular pathway; Diffusion tensor imaging; Motor function
Objectives: Little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms of cognitive impairment in patients with putaminal hemorrhage (PH). Using diffusion tensor tractography, we investigated injury of the cingulum in patients with PH.
Methods: We recruited 63 patients with PH, who were classified according to three groups, based on integrity of the cingulum to the lower portion of the genu of the corpus callosum: group A; preserved integrity, group B; discontinuation of integrity in the affected hemisphere, and group C; discontinuation of integrity in both hemispheres.
Results: Thirty four patients (54.0%) belonged to group A, 16 patients (25.4%) to group B, and the remaining 13 patients (20.6%) to group C. Regarding the Mini-Mental State Examination, significant differences were observed between group A and group C, and between group B and group C without significant difference between group A and group B (p < 0.05). In terms of the volume of hematoma, significant differences were observed among the three groups (p < 0.05). Regarding the most anterior point of the hematoma, significant differences were observed between group A and groups B and C (p < 0.05); in contrast, regarding the most point of hematoma, significant differences were observed between group C and groups A and B, respectively (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: We found that the anterior cingulum is vulnerable to PH. Therefore, our results suggest the necessity for evaluation of the cingulum in patients with PH particularly if the hematoma is large or close to the anterior margin or midline of the brain.
cingulum; putaminal hemorrhage; cognitive function; diffusion tensor tractography; location of hematoma
To assess the efficacy of pregabalin by showing differences in the neuronal activities of fibromyalgia (FM) patients before and after longitudinal treatment using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Materials and Methods
In total, 21 female patients with FM and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. FM patients underwent fMRI at baseline and following pharmacological therapy with pregabalin to diminish their pain. Pressure-pain stimuli were delivered on the subject’s thumbnail bed during fMRI scans. Brain activation regions in fMRI were evaluated for longitudinal changes using a paired t-test. Changes in clinical features were also assessed with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale Score (SSS), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
Clinical scores were reduced significantly following therapy with five of the six clinical tests (FIQ, BFI, BDI, WPI, SSS; p < 0.05). Brain activation post-treatment was significantly lower than that pre-treatment in 13 regions of the brain (p < 0.001).
Our findings confirm that pregabalin influences aspects of the whole pain matrix, using fMRI, inducing longitudinal changes in neuronal activity during the pain state, and that it reduces pain and other core symptoms of FM. This method could be applied to other longitudinal clinical trials of pharmacological treatments for FM.