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1.  Hemorrhagic Recurrence in Diffuse Astrocytoma without Malignant Transformation 
Although uncommon, hemorrhage can be a complication of low grade glioma with an unfavorable prognosis such as transformation to higher grade glioma. To our knowledge, hemorrhagic recurrence of World Health Organization Grade II, diffuse astrocytoma without malignant transformation has not been reported. Thus, we report a case of diffuse astrocytoma with hemorrhagic recurrence without malignant transformation. The patient had undergone craniotomy and tumor removal 7 years previously. Annual follow-up MRIs had shown evidence of slow tumor recurrence. With the sudden onset of seizure, the patient was diagnosed as hemorrhagic recurrence and underwent second tumor removal highly suspecting malignant change into higher grade glioma. Histopathology confirmed diffuse astrocytoma without malignant changes. As the patient's postoperative condition was excellent, we plan to withhold chemotherapy and radiation therapy for use as a later treatment option.
PMCID: PMC4231623  PMID: 25408937
Astrocytoma; Glioma; Recurrence
2.  Three-Year Experience of Pouch Dilatation and Slippage Management after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;55(1):149-156.
Pouch dilatation and band slippage are the most common long-term complications after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). The aim of the study is to present our experience of diagnosis and management of these complications.
Materials and Methods
The pars flaccida technique with anterior fixation of the fundus was routinely used. All band adjustments were performed under fluoroscopy. We analyzed the incidence, clinico-radiologic features, management, and revisional surgeries for treatment of these complications. We further presented the outcome of gastric plication techniques as a measure for prevention of these complications.
From March 2009 to March 2012, we performed LAGB on 126 morbidly obese patients. Among them, 14 patients (11.1%) were diagnosed as having these complications. Four patients (3.2%) had concentric pouch dilatations, which were corrected by band adjustment. Ten (7.9%) had eccentric pouch with band slippage. Among the ten patients, there were three cases of posterior slippage, which were corrected by reoperation, and seven cases of eccentric pouch dilatation with anterior slippage. Three were early anterior slippage, which was managed conservatively. Two were acute anterior slippage, one of whom underwent a revision. There were two cases of chronic anterior slippage, one of whom underwent a revision. The 27 patients who underwent gastric plication did not present with eccentric pouch with band slippage during the follow-up period.
The incidence of pouch dilatation with/without band slippage was 11.1%. Management should be individualized according to clinico-radiologic patterns. Gastric plication below the band might prevent these complications.
PMCID: PMC3874894  PMID: 24339300
Pouch dilatation; band slippage; laparoscopic adjustable gastric band
3.  Fulminant Meningitis after Radiotherapy for Clival Chordoma 
The best treatment for clival chordoma is obtained with total surgical excision, sometimes combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula is a fatal complication that may occur following extended transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) and adjuvant radiotherapy. We report a case of fulminant meningitis without a CSF fistula in a 57-year-old woman who underwent TSS and multiple radiotherapies for a clival chordoma. She presented to our emergency room with copious epistaxis and odor inside her nasal cavity and had an unexpected fatal outcome. She was diagnosed with meningitis based on CSF culture and blood culture. While treating clival chordomas with adjuvant radiotherapy, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of fulminant meningitis.
PMCID: PMC4027102  PMID: 24904902
Chordoma; Radiotherapy; Meningitis
5.  Endoscope-Assisted Microsurgical Removal of an Epidermoid Tumor within the Cavernous Sinus 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(6):1216-1219.
Epidermoid tumor of the cavernous sinus is rare. The aim of this case report is to discuss the role of neuroendoscopes in the removal of such lesions. A 21-year-old man presented with 6-year history of progressive headache, diplopia, and visual disturbance. Work-up revealed an epidermoid tumor located in the right cavernous sinus. An extradural transcavernous approach was utilized via a traditional frontotemporal craniotomy with endoscopic assistance. The postoperative course was uneventful with immediate improvement of the patient's headache. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete removal of the tumor. There were no signs of recurrence during a 2-year follow-up period. The endoscope is a useful tool for removing epidermoid tumors from the cavernous sinus and enhances visualization of areas that would otherwise be difficult to visualize with microscopes alone. Endoscopes also help minimize the retraction of neurovascular structures.
PMCID: PMC3481371  PMID: 23074125
Epidermoid tumor; cavernous sinus; endoscope-assisted microsurgery
6.  Early experience with diagnosis and management of eroded gastric bands 
Band erosion is a well-known complication of laparoscopic adjustable gastric band placement. We gained experience with laparoscopic removal of an eroded gastric band.
We retrospectively reviewed the operative log of our obesity surgery unit to identify all operations performed for band erosion from March 2009 to May 2011.
During the study period, a total of six of 96 patients (6.3%), five females and one male, were diagnosed with band erosion and underwent surgical removal of the band system. The median time interval from the initial gastric band placement to the diagnosis of band erosion was 8.5 months (range, 7 to 22 months), with most band erosion occurring within the first year (5/6, 83%). The median body mass index at band removal was 28.4 kg/m2. Upper abdominal pain was the most common symptom (5/6, 83%), and other signs and symptoms were port site infection (3/6, 50%) and loss of restriction and weight regain (1/6, 17%). All eroded bands were removed using laparoscopy. Further complications after laparoscopic removal of the band system were observed in three cases. One patient showed multiple intra-abdominal abscesses requiring insertion of a pigtail catheter for drainage. The other two patients experienced sepsis with localized peritonitis, eventually requiring laparoscopic washout and drainage.
Gastric band erosion requires the removal of the gastric band. Laparoscopic removal is technically achievable in the majority of patients with eroded gastric band. The method can be challenging, has potential postoperative complications (fistula, abscess), and should be attempted only by experienced surgeons.
PMCID: PMC3268139  PMID: 22324042
Gastric banding; Bariatric surgery; Band erosion; Morbid obesity; Complications
7.  Preliminary Study of Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Adult Moyamoya Disease and Improvement after Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Bypass 
Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic cerebrovascular occlusive disease of unknown etiology. In addition, the neurocognitive impairment of adults with MMD is infrequently reported and, to date, has not been well described. We attempted to determine both the neurocognitive profile of adult moyamoya disease and whether a superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis can improve the neurocognitive impairment in exhibiting hemodynamic disturbance without stroke.
From September 2010 through November 2012, 12 patients with angiographically diagnosed MMD underwent STA-MCA anastomosis for hemodynamic impairment. Patients with hypoperfusion and impaired cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) capacity but without evidence of ischemic stroke underwent a cognitive function test, the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB). Five patients agreed to undergo a follow-up SNSB test. Data from preoperative and postoperative neurocognitive function tests were compared and analyzed.
Five of 12 patients were enrolled. The median age was 45 years (range, 24-55 years). A comparison of preoperative to postoperative status of SNSB, memory domain, especially delayed recall showed significant improvement. Although most of the domains showed improvement after surgery, the results were not statistically significant.
In our preliminary study, large proportions of adult patients with MMD demonstrate disruption of cognitive function. This suggests the possibility of chronic hypoperfusion as a primary cause of the neurocognitive impairment. When preoperative and postoperative status of cognitive function was compared, memory domain showed remarkable improvement. Although further study is needed, neurocognitive impairment may be an indication for earlier intervention with reperfusion procedures that can improve cognitive function.
PMCID: PMC4217053  PMID: 25368759
Neurocognitive impairment; Moyamoya disease; STA-MCA anastomosis
8.  Congenital Anomaly of the Atlas Misdiagnosed as Posterior Arch Fracture of the Atlas and Atlantoaxial Subluxation 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2014;6(1):96-100.
Partial or complete absence of the posterior arch of the atlas is a well-documented anomaly but a relatively rare condition. This condition is usually asymptomatic so most are diagnosed incidentally. There have been a few documented cases of congenital defects of the posterior arch of the atlas combined with atlantoaxial subluxation. We report a very rare case of congenital anomaly of the atlas combined with atlantoaxial subluxation, that can be misdiagnosed as posterior arch fracture.
PMCID: PMC3942609  PMID: 24605195
Congenital anomaly of the atlas; Posterior arch fracture; Atlantoaxial subluxation
9.  The Polyphenol Chlorogenic Acid Attenuates UVB-mediated Oxidative Stress in Human HaCaT Keratinocytes 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics  2014;22(2):136-142.
We investigated the protective effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA), a polyphenol compound, on oxidative damage induced by UVB exposure on human HaCaT cells. In a cell-free system, CGA scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet B (UVB). Furthermore, CGA absorbed electromagnetic radiation in the UVB range (280–320 nm). UVB exposure resulted in damage to cellular DNA, as demonstrated in a comet assay; pre-treatment of cells with CGA prior to UVB irradiation prevented DNA damage and increased cell viability. Furthermore, CGA pre-treatment prevented or ameliorated apoptosis-related changes in UVB-exposed cells, including the formation of apoptotic bodies, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and alterations in the levels of the apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3. Our findings suggest that CGA protects cells from oxidative stress induced by UVB radiation.
PMCID: PMC3975475  PMID: 24753819
Chlorogenic acid; Human keratinocyte; Ultraviolet B; Oxidative stress; Apoptosis
10.  A Case of Endovascular Treatment for Followed by Side to Side Bypass for Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Involved Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery 
Treatment of complex aneurysms usually entails not only direct clipping but also alternative treatment modality. We recently experienced a case of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm and obtained good treatment outcomes. Our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion with posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to PICA side anastomosis might be a good treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. A 45-year-old woman has a left vertebral dissecting aneurysm with dizziness. Based on the aneurysmal morphology and the involvement of PICA, the patient underwent side to side anastomosis of the PICA. This was followed by the endovascular segmental coil occlusion. The aneurysmal sac was completely obliterated. At a 2-year follow-up, the patient achieved a good patency of both PICA. In conclusion our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion of the parent artery followed by PICA to PICA bypass surgery through a midline suboccipital approach is a reasonable multimodal treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms.
PMCID: PMC3928346  PMID: 24570816
PICA dissecting aneurysm; Segmental occlusion; Multimodal treatment; Complex aneurysm
11.  Hepatitis A virus infection during pregnancy in Korea: Hepatitis A infection on pregnant women 
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science  2013;56(6):368-374.
Although there is a large body of data on acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) worldwide, data regarding the occurrence of HAV during pregnancy is limited. It is commonly acknowledged that HAV is not associated with severe outcomes or complications during pregnancy. In contrast, there are several reported cases of vertical HAV transmission. Moreover, it has been recently reported that HAV infection during pregnancy is associated with gestational complications. In Korea, the incidence of HAV infection has increased from 317 cases in 2002 to 13,117 cases in 2009. However, HAV infection during pregnancy is rarely reported in Korea.
This study was conducted as a retrospective cohort series of pregnant women presenting to Korea University Medical Center between January 2000 and October 2009 in whom a diagnosis of HAV infection was made.
During study period, there were 12 cases of HAV in pregnant women, including two cases with preterm contraction, two cases with cholestatic hepatitis, and one case with fetal ascites and intra-abdominal calcification.
HAV infection during pregnancy is associated with high prevalence of maternal and fetal complications. Because the incidence of HAV infection in women of reproductive age is increasing, a further focus on preventing HAV infection during pregnancy is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3859013  PMID: 24396815
Hepatitis A; Pregnancy; Pregnancy complications
12.  The Usefulness of the Ivy Sign on Fluid-Attenuated Intensity Recovery Images in Improved Brain Hemodynamic Changes after Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis in Adult Patients with Moyamoya Disease 
MR perfusion and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) are well known imaging studies to evaluate hemodynamic change between prior to and following superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis in moyamoya disease. But their side effects and invasiveness make discomfort to patients. We evaluated the ivy sign on MR fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in adult patients with moyamoya disease and compared it with result of SPECT and MR perfusion images.
We enrolled twelve patients (thirteen cases) who were diagnosed with moyamoya disease and underwent STA-MCA anastomosis at our medical institution during a period ranging from September of 2010 to December of 2012. The presence of the ivy sign on MR FLAIR images was classified as Negative (0), Minimal (1), and Positive (2). Regions were classified into four territories: the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), the anterior MCA, the posterior MCA and the posterior cerebral artery.
Ivy signs on preoperative and postoperative MR FLAIR were improved (8 and 4 in the ACA regions, 13 and 4 in the anterior MCA regions and 19 and 9 in the posterior MCA regions). Like this result, the cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) on SPECT was significantly increased in the sum of CVR in same regions after STA-MCA anastomosis.
After STA-MCA anastomosis, ivy signs were decreased in the cerebral hemisphere. As compared with conventional diagnostic modalities such as SPECT and MR perfusion images, the ivy sign on MR FLAIR is considered as a useful indicator in detecting brain hemodynamic changes between preoperatively and postoperatively in adult moyamoya patients.
PMCID: PMC3841272  PMID: 24294453
Adult moyamoya; Ivy sign; MR FLAIR; STA-MCA anastomosis
13.  Two Indices Affecting the Directions of the Sylvian Fissure Dissection in Middle Cerebral Artery Bifurcation Aneurysms 
This study proposes more objective methods for deciding the appropriate direction of the sylvian fissure dissection during surgical clipping in middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysms.
We reviewed data of 36 consecutive patients with MCA bifurcation aneurysms. We measured 2 indices preoperatively on 3-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA). Analysis of the calculated data allowed us to select the appropriate direction of sylvian fissure dissection for ease of proximal control of M1. Statistically, Mann-Whitney test was used.
We classified subjects into 2 groups based on the technical level of M1 exposure during surgical clipping. When it was difficult to expose M1, subjects were assigned to Group I, and Group II were subjects in whom M1 exposure was easy. The mean difference between the distances extending from the limbus sphenoidale (LS) line to the internal carotid artery bifurcation and extending from the LS line to the MCA bifurcation was 1.00 ± 0.42 mm in group I and 4.39 ± 2.14 mm in group II. The mean M1 angle was 9.36 ± 3.73° in the group I and 34.05 ± 16.71° in the group II (M1 slope gap p < 0.05, M1 angle p < 0.05).
We have found an objective method for preoperatively verifying ease of exposure of M1 artery during surgical clipping. Therefore, we suggest use of the preoperative M1 slope gap and M1 angle as indicators in 3D-CTA selecting the direction of sylvian fissure dissection for easy proximal control of M1.
PMCID: PMC3804653  PMID: 24167795
Middle cerebral artery; Intracranial aneurysm; Dissecting; Three-dimensional cerebral angiography
14.  The Comparisons of Surgical Outcomes and Clinical Characteristics between the Far Lateral Lumbar Disc Herniations and the Paramedian Lumbar Disc Herniations 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(3):155-159.
The purpose of this study is to analyze clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of the far lateral and the paramedian disc herniations.
The 88 patients who underwent an operation for lumbar disc herniations were reviewed. Visual analogue scale of leg and back pain, occurrence of sensory dysesthesia and motor deficit before and after operations were used to compare the far lateral with the paramedian disc herniations.
Statistically, the far lateral herniations had more severe radicular leg pain and showed more frequent occurrence of sensory dysesthesia than paramedian herniations before operation (p<0.05). In the far lateral herniation group, preoperatively, 15 patients (75%) had sensory dysesthesia and among them, 4 patients (27%) showed improvement. In the paramedian herniation group, preoperatively, 25 patients (37%) had sensory dysesthesia and among them, 21 patients (84%) showed improvement. The degree of improvement in sensory dysesthesia was statistically higher in paramedian herniation group (p<0.05). In the far lateral herniation group, preoperatively, 11 patients (55%) had motor deficit and among them, 10 patients (91%) showed improvement. In the paramedian herniations, preoperatively, 29 patients (43%) had motor deficit and among them, 25 patients (86%) showed improvement. The degree of improvement in motor deficit was not statistically significant between groups (p>0.05).
Preoperatively, the far lateral herniations had more severe radicular leg pain and frequent occurrence of sensory dysesthesia. Postoperatively, the sensory dysesthesia was less improved and back pain was more severe in the far lateral herniations.
PMCID: PMC3941755  PMID: 24757478
Far lateral disc herniation; Paramedian disc herniation; Clinical characteristics; Surgical outcomes
15.  Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Hyperextension Injury in Ankylosing Spondylitis 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(3):195-199.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic systemic and inflammatory rheumatic disease with a variable course of the axial skeleton. Spinal involvement may accompany ossification of the ligaments, intervertebral disc, end-plates and apophyseal structures, and seems to be "bamboo spine". Because of these natures of the spine in AS, a spinal fracture can be occurred with minor trauma or spontaneously. The fracture of the AS can cause neurological complications extremely high, so special attention to prevent neurological deterioration. Operative management of the injured spine with AS is difficult, and associated with a high complication rate. Extreme care must be taken for surgery to prevent secondary neurological deterioration.
PMCID: PMC3941756  PMID: 24757488
Ankylosing spondylitis; Lumbar fracture; Postoperative complication; Neurological deterioration
16.  Effect of Color of Light Emitting Diode on Development of Fruit Body in Hypsizygus marmoreus 
Mycobiology  2013;41(1):63-66.
This study was conducted to identify a suitable color of light for development of the fruit body in Hypsizygus marmoreus. To accomplish this, samples were irradiated with blue (475 nm), green (525 nm), yellow (590 nm), or red (660 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) to induce the formation of fruiting bodies after mycelia growth. The diameter and thickness of the pileus and length of stipes in samples subjected to blue LED treatment were similar to those of subjected to fluorescent light (control), and the lengths of the stipes were highest in response to treatment with the red LED and darkness. The commercial yields of plants subjected to blue and green LED treatment were similar to those of the control. In conclusion, cultivation of H. marmoreus coupled with exposure to blue LED is useful for inducing high quality fruit bodies as well as higher levels of ergosterol, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total polyphenol content and reducing power.
PMCID: PMC3627973  PMID: 23610542
Ergosterol; Light; Light emitting diodes; Mushroom
17.  Bariatric surgery versus conventional therapy in obese Korea patients: a multicenter retrospective cohort study 
In Korea, the results of bariatric surgery have not been compared with those of nonsurgical treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of bariatric surgery vs. conventional nonsurgical treatment in severely obese Koreans.
In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the medical charts of 261 consecutive subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 224 subjects who were treated with weight control medication and lifestyle modification therapy between January 2008 and February 2011. Measures of clinical effectiveness, including change in weight (%) and comorbid diseases, and occurrence of complications, were investigated for 18 months after bariatric surgery.
Body mass index (BMI) was higher in the surgery group than in the conventionally treated group (mean ± standard deviation, 39.0 ± 6.2 vs. 34.3 ± 3.8). Diabetes was more prevalent in the surgery group than in the conventionally treated group (39.1% vs. 12.9%). The change in weight (%) between baseline and 18 months posttreatment was significantly greater in the surgery group (22.6%) than in the conventional therapy group (6.7%). While 57%, 47%, and 84% of subjects recovered from diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, respectively, in the surgery group, 10%, 20%, and 24% of subjects recovered from these conditions in the conventional group. Fifty-one subjects (19.5%) in the surgery group reported 61 complications (23.4%).
Bariatric surgery in Korea was significantly more effective than conventional treatment for weight loss and recovery from comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, with a reasonable complication rate.
PMCID: PMC3514475  PMID: 23230551
Bariatric surgery; Korea; Morbid obesity; Cohort
18.  Meningeal Layers Around Anterior Clinoid Process as a Delicate Area in Extradural Anterior Clinoidectomy : Anatomical and Clinical Study 
Removal of the anterior clinoid process (ACP) is an essential process in the surgery of giant or complex aneurysms located near the proximal internal carotid artery or the distal basilar artery. An extradural clinoidectomy must be performed within the limits of the meningeal layers surrounding the ACP to prevent morbid complications. To identify the safest method of extradural exposure of the ACP, anatomical studies were done on cadaver heads.
Anatomical dissections for extradural exposure of the ACP were performed on both sides of seven cadavers. Before dividing the frontotemporal dural fold (FTDF), we measured its length from the superomedial apex attached to the periorbita to the posterolateral apex which connects to the anterosuperior end of the cavernous sinus.
The average length of the FTDF on cadaver dissections was 7 mm on the right side and 7.14 mm on the left side. Cranial nerves were usually exposed when cutting FTDF more than 7 mm of the FTDF.
The most delicate area in an extradural anterior clinoidectomy is the junction of the FTDF and the anterior triangular apex of the cavernous sinus. The FTDF must be cut from the anterior side of the triangle at the periorbital side rather than from the dural side. The length of the FTDF incision must not exceed 7 mm to avoid cranial nerve injury.
PMCID: PMC3488650  PMID: 23133730
Extradural clinoidectomy; Frontotemporal dural fold; Superior orbital fissure; Anatomical study
19.  Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Clinical Characteristics and Management Based on Location and Hemodynamics 
A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) generally refers to a vascular malformation of the wall of a major venous sinus. These lesions have diverse symptoms according to the location and venous drainage, and require multidisciplinary treatment. We report on our experience and analyze the treatment outcome of intracranial DAVFs for a nine-year period.
Between January 2000 and December 2008, 95 patients with intracranial DAVFs were enrolled in this study. A retrospective review of clinical records and imaging studies of all patients was conducted. Endovascular embolization, surgical interruption, gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKS), or combinations of these treatments were performed based on clinical symptoms, lesion location, and venous drainage pattern.
Borden type I, II, and III were 34, 48, and 13 patients, respectively. Aggressive presentation was reported in 6% of Borden type I, 31% of Borden type II, and 77% of Borden type III DAVFs, respectively, and DAVFs involving transverse, sigmoid, and superior sagittal sinus. Overall, the rate of complete obliteration was 68%. The complete occlusion rates with a combination treatment of endovascular embolization and surgery, surgery alone, and endovascular embolization were 89%, 86%, and 80%, respectively. When GKS was used with embolization, the obliteration rate was 83%, although it was only 54% in GKS alone. Spontaneous obliteration of the DAVF occurred in three patients. There were a few complications, including hemiparesis (in microsurgery), intracranial hemorrhage (in endovascular embolization), and facial palsy (in GKS).
The hemorrhagic risk of DAVFs is dependent on the location and hemodynamics of the lesions. Strategies for treatment of intracranial DAVFs should be decided according to the characteristic of the DAVFs, based on the location and drainage pattern. GKS can be used as an optional treatment for intracranial DAVFs.
PMCID: PMC3491214  PMID: 23210047
Dural arteriovenous fistula; Signs and symptoms; Therapeutics
20.  Effectiveness of Nicardipine for Blood Pressure Control in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness and safety of nicardipine infusion for controlling blood pressure in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
We prospectively evaluated 52 patients with SAH and treated with nicardipine infusion for blood pressure control in a 29 months period. The mean blood pressure of pre-injection, bolus injection and continuous injection period were compared. This study evaluated the effectiveness of nicardipine for each Fisher grade, for different dose of continuous nicardipine infusion, and for the subgroups of systolic blood pressure.
The blood pressure measurement showed that the mean systolic blood pressure / diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in continuous injection period (120.9/63.0 mmHg) was significantly lower than pre-injection period (145.6/80.3 mmHg) and bolus injection period (134.2/71.3 mmHg), and these were statistically significant (p < 0.001). In each subgroups of Fisher grade and different dose, SBP/DBP also decreased after the use of nicardipine. These were statistically significant (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in effectiveness between subgroups (p > 0.05). Furthermore, controlling blood pressure was more effective when injecting higher dose of nicardipine in higher SBP group rather than injecting lower dose in lower SBP group, and it also was statistically significant (p < 0.05). During the infusion, hypotension and cardiogenic problems were transiently combined in five cases. However, patients recovered without any complications.
Nicardipine is an effective and safe agent for controlling acutely elevated blood pressure after SAH. A more systemic study with larger patients population will provide significant results and will bring solid evidence on effectiveness of nicardipine in SAH.
PMCID: PMC3471255  PMID: 23210033
Nicardipine; Hypertension; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Aneurysm
21.  Imaging Findings of Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma of the Breast 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2012;15(1):57-64.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate imaging and histopathologic findings including the immunohistochemical characteristics of invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast.
Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with IMPC were included in the present study. Mammographic, sonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were analyzed retrospectively according to the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings were also evaluated. Microscopic slides of surgical specimens were reviewed in consensus by two pathologists with a specialty in breast pathology.
Most IMPCs presented as a high density irregular mass with a non-circumscribed margin associated with microcalcifications on mammography, as an irregular hypoechoic mass with a spiculated margin on ultrasound, and as irregular spiculated masses with washout patterns on MRI. PET-CT showed a high maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) (mean, 11.2). Axillary nodal metastases were identified in 65.5% of the patients. Immunohistochemical studies showed high positivities for estrogen receptor and c-erbB-2 (93.1% and 51.7µ, respectively).
Even though the imaging characteristics of IMPCs are not distinguishable from typical invasive ductal carcinomas, this tumor type frequently results in nodal metastases and high positivities for both estrogen receptor and c-erbB-2. The high SUVmax value that is apparent on PET-CT might be helpful in the diagnosis of IMPC.
PMCID: PMC3318175  PMID: 22493629
Breast; Carcinoma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Mammography; Ultrasound
22.  Home intravenous antibiotic treatment for intractable cholangitis in patients with biliary atresia following Kasai portoenterostomies 
Patients with biliary atresia (BA) treated with Kasai portoenterostomy may later develop intractable cholangitis (IC) that is unresponsive to routine conservative treatment. It may cause biliary cirrhosis and eventually hepatic failure with portal hypertension. Control of IC requires prolonged hospitalization for the administration of intravenous antibiotics. To reduce the hospitalization period, we designed a home intravenous antibiotic treatment (HIVA) which can be administered after initial inpatient treatment. In this study, we reviewed the effects of this treatment.
We reviewed medical records of 10 patients treated with HIVA for IC after successful Kasai portoenterostomies performed for BA between July 1997 and June 2009.
The duration of HIVA ranged from 8 to 39 months (median, 13.5 months). The median length of hospital stay was 5.7 days per month for conventional treatments to manage IC before HIVA and, 1.5 days per month (P = 0.012) after HIVA. The median amount of medical expenses per month was reduced by about one tenth with HIVA. One patient underwent liver transplantation due to uncontrolled esophageal variceal bleeding, but the other nine patients had acceptable hepatic function with native livers.
HIVA may be an effective primary treatment for IC after Kasai portoenterostomies for BA, and reduce length of hospital stay and medical expense.
PMCID: PMC3204694  PMID: 22066060
Biliary atresia; Intractable cholangitis; Home intravenous antibiotics treatment
23.  Surgery for a Case of Three-Compartment Trigeminal Schwannoma : Technical Aspects 
Complete removal of three-compartment trigeminal schwannomas is a challenge to neurosurgeons. To expand exposure of each compartment, the combination and modification of skull base approaches are necessary. The 61-year-old woman was admitted with chronic headache. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed 47×50×40 mm-sized tumor originating primarily in the middle cranial fossa extended to the posterior and the infratemporal fossa. We performed operation in five stage; 1. Zygomatic osteotomy, 2. Inferior temporal fossa plate removal and foramen ovale opening, 3. Cavernous sinus opening, 4. Tailored anterior petrosectomy, 5. Meckel's cave opening. Combination of skull base surgery should be concerned according to the patient. In this study, extradural basal extension with zygomatic osteotomy, interdural posterior extension with tailored anterior petrosectomy, and intracavernous exploration are reasonable options for remodeling three-compartment lesion into a single compartment. Tailoring of bone resection and exploring through natural pathway between meningeal layers accomplish single-stage operation for complete removal of tumors.
PMCID: PMC2982923  PMID: 21113372
Multiple compartment; Trigeminal Schwannoma; Technique
24.  Infantile Vulvar Abscess with a Normal Anus: A Suspicious Sign of Rectovestibular Fistula 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(5):717-721.
We investigated whether infantile vulvar abscesses are predictable features of rectovestibular fistula with a normal anus.
Materials and Methods
A retrospective analysis of five infants with vulvar abscesses and rectovestibular fistulae with normal anuses was performed.
Four cases had a left vulvar abscess, and in one case the vulvar abscess was on the right side. All caregivers reported passage of stool from the vagina. The fistulae were almost uniformly located from the vestibule to the rectum above the anal dentate line, observable by visual inspection and probing under anesthesia. The first two cases were treated with division and closure of the fistulae after a diverting loop colostomy, and the remaining three cases with fistulotomy and curettage. There was no recurrence during the median follow-up period of 38 months.
This unique rectovestibular fistula should be suspected in female infants with vulvar abscesses, especially when parents report passage of stool from the vagina. Fistulotomy and curettage may be an initial treatment and effective as a temporary diverting colostomy and delayed repair of the fistula.
PMCID: PMC2908879  PMID: 20635446
Vulvar abscess; anorectal malformation; H-type fistula; rectovestibular fistula
25.  The Avoidance of Microsurgical Complications in the Extradural Anterior Clinoidectomy to Paraclinoid Aneurysms 
Paraclinoid segment internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms have historically been a technical challenge for neurovascular surgeons. The development of microsurgical approach, advances in surgical techniques, and endovascular procedures have improved the outcome for paraclinoid aneurysms. However, many authors have reported high complication rates from microsurgical treatments. Therefore, the present study reviews the microsurgical complications of the extradural anterior clinoidectomy for treating paraclinoid aneurysms and investigates the prevention and management of observed complications.
Between January 2004 and April 2008, 22 patients with 24 paraclinoid aneurysms underwent microsurgical direct clipping by a cerebrovascular team at a regional neurosurgical center. Microsurgery was performed via an ipsilateral pterional approach with extradural anterior clinoidectomy. We retrospectively reviewed patients' medical charts, office records, radiographic studies, and operative records.
In our series, the clinical outcomes after an ipsilateral pterional approach with extradural anterior clinoidectomy for paraclinoid aneurysms were excellent or good (Glasgows Outcome Scale : GOS 5 or 4) in 87.5% of cases. The microsurgical complications related directly to the extradural anterior clinoidectomy included transient cranial nerve palsy (6), cerebrospinal fluid leak (1), worsened change in vision (1), unplanned ICA occlusion (1), and epidural hematoma (1). Only one of the complications resulted in permanent morbidity (4.2%), and none resulted in death.
Although surgical complications are still reported to occur more frequently for the treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms, the permanent morbidity and mortality resulting from a extradural anterior clinoidectomy in our series were lower than previously reported. Precise anatomical knowledge combined with several microsurgical tactics can help to achieve good outcomes with minimal complications.
PMCID: PMC2966719  PMID: 21082045
Extradural anterior clinoidectomy; Paraclinoid aneurysm; Clinical outcomes; Surgical complications

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