Here, we present a case of anaplastic giant cell ependymoma (GCE) occurring in a 15-year-old woman. Squash smear slides for intraoperative frozen section diagnosis revealed oval to round cell clusters with a papillary structure in a fibrillary background. This was occasionally accompanied by the presence of bizarre pleomorphic giant cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent intranuclear inclusions. These intranuclear inclusions were a key clue to diagnosis of ependymoma. Histologic analysis revealed features of a high-grade tumor with perivascular pseudorosettes and bizarre pleomorphic giant cells, which established the diagnosis of GCE. We performed a review of literatures about the cytologic features of GCE, including our case, thus proposing that intraoperative frozen diagnosis of GCE would be established by squash smear preparations featuring the mitosis and necrosis, as well as the high cellularity, and the presence of giant cells showing hyperchromatic nuclei with eosinophilic cytoplasm and intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions.
Ependymoma; Intranuclear inclusion bodies; Giant cells
We aimed to evaluate the histologic and radiologic findings of vascular lesions after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) categorized as radiation-induced cavernous hemangioma (RICH).
Materials and Methods
Among 89 patients who underwent neurosurgery for cavernous hemangioma, eight RICHs from 7 patients and 10 de novo CHs from 10 patients were selected for histopathological and radiological comparison.
Histologically, RICHs showed hematoma-like gross appearance. Microscopically, RICH exhibited a hematoma-like area accompanied by proliferation of thin-walled vasculature with fibrin deposits and infiltrating foamy macrophages. In contrast, CHs demonstrated localized malformed vasculature containing fresh and old clotted blood on gross examination. Typically, CHs consisted of thick, ectatic hyalinized vessels lined by endothelium under a light microscope. Magnetic resonance imaging of RICHs revealed some overlapping but distinct features with CHs, including enhancing cystic and solid components with absence or incomplete popcorn-like appearance and partial hemosiderin rims.
Together with histologic and radiologic findings, RICH may result from blood-filled space after tissue destruction by SRS, accompanied with radiation-induced reactive changes rather than vascular malformation. Thus, the term "RICH" would be inappropriate, because it is more likely to be an inactive organizing hematoma rather than proliferation of malformed vasculature.
Brain; hemangioma; cavernous; central nervous system; radiosurgery
Surgical site infection (SSI) is the one of the most frequent complications in hospitalized patients, and it extends hospital stays and causes extra morbidities. To reduce SSI after spine surgery, we applied the gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge (Collatamp G) during the operation and analyzed the results retrospectively.
Between October 2012 and December 2015, we collected data who applied the Collatamp G in spine surgery at a single institution. Demographic data of patients and another possible risk factors of SSI were also included, and we assessed the correlation between the risk factors and the developing of SSI by reviewing electronic medical records retrospectively.
Three percent of all patients (10 of 280) developed the SSI and only 0.8% of patients who applied Collatamp G developed SSI (1 of 119). Otherwise, 5% of patients who did not apply Collatamp G developed SSI (9 of 161) (p=0.034). We also analyzed the correlation between SSI and other potential risk factors but nothings showed statistical correlation with SSI.
In this study, there were statistically significant results that SSI rate was decreased in the group of patients using Collatamp G in spine surgery generally. However, further studies are required to resolve some limitations in the future.
Gentamicin; Collagen; Surgical wound infection
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination can be used to verify the presence of primary malignancies as well as cases of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. Because of its importance, there have been several studies concerning the sensitivity of CSF cytology. To determine the practical use and reproducibility of diagnoses based on CSF cytology, we evaluated this test by analyzing cytology results from consecutive CSF samples.
Between July 2010 and June 2013, 385 CSF cytology samples from 42 patients were collected. The samples were gathered using a ventricular catheter and reservoir. CSF cytology of all patients was examined more than two times with immunocytochemistry for cytokeratin.
Primary neoplastic sites and histologic types of patients' metastatic cancer were diverse. The overall sensitivity for detecting malignancy was 41.3%. Even within short-term intervals, diagnoses frequently changed.
Our results were inconsistent, with low sensitivity, when compared to the results of previous studies. However, CSF evaluation can still provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information because adjuvant treatments are now routinely performed in patients with CNS metastasis. Negative CSF cytology results should not be ignored, and continuous CSF follow-up is essential for following the clinical course of patients with metastatic cancer involving the CNS.
Central nervous system; Neoplasm metastasis; Cerebrospinal fluid
Adequate hemostasis is important for postoperative outcomes of abdominal surgery. This study evaluated the hemostatic effects and accompanying histopathological changes of a novel oxidized regenerated cellulose, SurgiGuard®, during abdominal surgery.
Materials and Methods
Ten pigs underwent wedge resection of the spleen (1×1 cm) and liver (1.5×1.5 cm). The resected surface was covered with Surgicel® fabric or fibril type (Group A) or SurgiGuard® fabric or fibril type (Group B). Surgicel® and SurgiGuard® were randomized for attachment to the resected surface by fabric type (n=5) or fibril type (n=5). Blood loss was measured 5, 7, and 9 min after resection. Pigs were necropsied 6 weeks postoperatively to evaluate gross and histopathological changes.
There was no significant difference in total blood loss between groups [spleen fabric: Group A vs. Group B, 4.38 g (2.74–6.43) vs. 3.41 g (2.46–4.65), p=0.436; spleen fibril: Group A vs. Group B, 3.44 g (2.82–6.07) vs. 3.60 g (2.03–6.09), p=0.971; liver fabric: Group A vs. Group B, 4.51 g (2.67–10.61) vs. 6.93 g (3.09–9.95), p=0.796; liver fibril: Group A vs. Group B, 3.32 g (2.50–8.78) vs. 3.70 g (2.32–5.84), p=0.971]. Histopathological analysis revealed no significant difference in toxicities related to Surgicel® or SurgiGuard® [inflammation, fibrosis, foreign bodies, and hemorrhage (spleen: p=0.333, 0.127, 0.751, and 1.000; liver: p=0.155, 0.751, 1.000, and 1.000, respectively)].
SurgiGuard® is as effective and non-toxic as Surgicel® in achieving hemostasis after porcine abdominal surgery.
Animal model; blood loss; hemostatics; histopathology; oxidized regenerated cellulose
Background and Purpose:
Malformation of cortical development (MCD) is a well-known cause of drug-resistant epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the most common neuropathological finding in surgical specimens from drug-resistant epilepsy patients. Palmini’s classification proposed in 2004 is now widely used to categorize FCD. Recently, however, Blumcke et al. recommended a new system for classifying FCD in 2011.
We applied the new classification system in practical diagnosis of a sample of 117 patients who underwent neurosurgical operations due to drug-resistant epilepsy at Severance Hospital in Seoul, Korea.
Among 117 cases, a total of 16 cases were shifted to other FCD subtypes under the new classification system. Five cases were reclassified to type IIIa and five cases were categorized as dual pathology. The other six cases were changed within the type I category.
The most remarkable changes in the new classification system are the advent of dual pathology and FCD type III. Thus, it will be very important for pathologists and clinicians to discriminate between these new categories. More large-scale research needs to be conducted to elucidate the clinical influence of the alterations within the classification of type I disease. Although the new FCD classification system has several advantages compared to the former, the correlation with clinical characteristics is not yet clear.
Epilepsy; Focal cortical dysplasia; Malformations of cortical development
This study aimed to analyze prognostic factors affecting surgical outcomes of expansive laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).
Using the Frankel scale and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale, we retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 45 consecutive patients who underwent modified unilateral open-door laminoplasty using hydroxyapatite spacers and malleable titanium miniplates between June 2008 and May 2014. The patients were assigned to the good and poor clinical outcome groups, with good outcome defined as a JOA recovery rate >75%.
The mean preoperative JOA scale was significantly higher in the good outcome group (14.95±3.21 vs. 10.78±6.07, p<0.001), whereas the preoperative cervical range of motion (ROM) in this group was significantly lower (29.89°±10.11 vs. 44.35°± 8.88, p<0.001). In univariate analysis, a high preoperative JOA scale (odds ratio (OR) 1.271, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.005-1.607) and low preoperative cervical ROM(OR 0.858, 95% CI 0.786-0.936) were statistically correlated with good outcomes. Furthermore, these factors demonstrated an independent association with clinical outcomes (preoperative JOA scale: OR 1.344, 95% CI 1.019-1.774, p=0.036; preoperative cervical ROM: OR 0.860, 95% CI 0.788-0.940, p=0.001).
In this study, a high preoperative JOA scale was associated with good clinical outcome after laminoplasty, whereas a higher preoperative cervical spine ROM was associated with poor clinical outcome. This may suggests that cervical mobility and preoperative neurological status affect clinical outcomes of laminoplasty.
Myelopathy; Cervical spondylosis; Ossification; Posterior longitudinal ligament; Laminoplasty; Prognosis
Gross total resection (GTR) of glioma is critical for improving the survival rate of glioma patients. One of the greatest challenges for achieving GTR is the difficulty in discriminating low grade tumor or peritumor regions that have an intact blood brain barrier (BBB) from normal brain tissues and delineating glioma margins during surgery. Here we present a highly sensitive, label-free terahertz reflectometry imaging (TRI) that overcomes current key limitations for intraoperative detection of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), and grade III and IV (high grade) gliomas. We demonstrate that TRI provides tumor discrimination and delineation of tumor margins in brain tissues with high sensitivity on the basis of Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained image. TRI may help neurosurgeons to remove gliomas completely by providing visualization of tumor margins in WHO grade II, III, and IV gliomas without contrast agents, and hence, improve patient outcomes.
Schwannomas are the most common benign nerve sheath tumors originating in Schwann cells. With special conditions like neurofibromatosis type 2 or entity called schwannomatosis, patients develop multiple schwannomas. But in clinical setting, distinguishing schwannomatosis from neurofibromatosis type 2 is challengeable. We describe 58-year-old male who presented with severe neuropathic pain, from schwannomatosis featuring multiple schwannomas of spine and trunk, and underwent surgical treatment. We demonstrate his radiologic and clinical findings, and discuss about important clinical features of this condition. To confirm schwannomatosis, we performed brain magnetic resonance imaging, and took his familial history. Staged surgery was done for pathological confirmation and relief of the pain. Schwannomatosis and neurofibromatosis type 2 are similar but different disease. There are diagnostic hallmarks of these conditions, including familial history, pathology, and brain imaging. Because of different prognosis, the two diseases must be distinguished, so diagnostic tests that are mentioned above should be performed in caution.
Neurofibromatosis type 2; Schwannoma; Schwannomatosis; Spine
A trend of stage-by-stage increase in tumorsphere (TS) formation from glioma samples has been reported. Despite this trend, not all surgical specimens give rise to TSs, even World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV gliomas. Furthermore, it has been reported that differences in overall survival of primary glioblastoma patients depends on the propensity of their tumors to form TSs. However, the weights of fresh specimens vary from one surgical isolate to the next.
Accordingly, we evaluated the relationship between the weights of surgical specimens in WHO grade IV gliomas with the capacity to isolate TSs. Thirty-five fresh WHO grade IV glioma specimens were separated into two groups, based on whether they were positive or negative for TS isolation, and the relationship between TS isolation and weight of surgical specimens was assessed.
We observed no significant difference in the weights of surgical samples in the two groups, and found that the optimal weight of specimens for TSs isolation was 500 mg.
Thus, contrary to our expectations, the ability to isolate TSs from WHO grade IV glioma specimens was not related to the weight of fresh specimens.
WHO grade IV glioma; Isolation; Tumorsphere; Weight; Fresh specimen
Vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) are rare and many debates are present about treatment options. We review types and efficacy of our endovascular treatments and establish a safe endovascular therapeutic strategy regard to the angio-architecture of VADAs.
Materials and Methods
Between July 2008 and October 2015, we treated 22 patients with symptomatic VADAs. Fifteen patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from the ruptured VADAs, digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance image confirmed the diagnosis and endovascular treatments were followed as their angio-architecture.
Clinical results were good in 13 patients (86.7%), and there were no technical problems during endovascular procedures. The other 2 patients with poor prognosis showed severe neurological deficits at the initial evaluation. Among the three different endovascular treatments, there were no radiologic cure in one patient with stent insertion alone, but the patient had no significant clinical symptoms either.
Endovascular treatments are safe and effective treatment option for managing VADAs and can be the first treatment of choice for most patients. To select proper endovascular treatment according to the angio-architecture of VADAs can reduce the risk of the treatment.
Vertebral artery; Dissecting aneurysms; Embolization
Pure subdural hematomas caused by a ruptured intracranial aneurysm are extremely rare. We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman who presented with headache without evidence of head trauma. Magnetic resonance angiography and conventional cerebral angiography revealed a ruptured aneurysm at the right middle cerebral artery bifurcation. The patient underwent surgical treatment and had a good outcome without any neurological deficit. The mechanisms and clinical characteristics of this condition are discussed.
Cerebral aneurysm; Subdural hematoma; Middle cerebral artery
Cervical laminoplasty has been widely accepted as one of the major treatments for cervical myelopathy and various modifications and supplementary procedures have been devised to achieve both proper decompression and stability of the cervical spine. We present the retrospectively analyzed results of a modified unilateral open-door laminoplasty using hydroxyapatite (HA) spacers and malleable titanium miniplates.
From June 2008 to May 2012, among patients diagnosed with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, the patients who received laminoplasty were reviewed. Clinical outcome was assessed using Frankel grade and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. The radiologic parameters were obtained from plain films, 3-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance images.
A total of 125 cervical laminae were operated in 38 patients. 11 patients received 4-level laminoplasty and 27 patients received 3-level laminoplasty. Postoperatively, the mean Frankel grade and JOA score were significantly improved from 3.97 to 4.55 and from 12.76 to 14.63, respectively (p<0.001). Radiologically, cervical curvature was worsened from 19.09 to 15.60 (p=0.025). The percentage of range of motion preservation was 73.32±22.39%. The axial dimension of the operated spinal canal was increased from 1.75 to 2.70 cm2 (p<0.001).
In the presenting study, unilateral open-door laminoplasty using HA spacers and miniplates appears to be a safe, rapid and easy procedure to obtain an immediate and rigid stabilization of the posterior elements of the cervical spine. This modified laminoplasty method showed effective expansion of the spinal canal and favorable clinical outcomes.
Cervical vertebrae; Spinal cord compression; Ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament; Hydroxyapatites; Bone plates
Spinal tuberculosis-associated symptoms are not so unique as to immediately indicate the proper diagnosis in most cases. Distinguishing spinal tuberculosis (Pott's disease) from pyogenic spondylitis is often difficult, and lesions metastatic from systemic malignancy are the other major entity from which spinal tuberculosis must be distinguished.
A 27-year-old male patient presented with a history of back pain after a minor trauma 1 month ago. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed multiple osteolytic bone lesions at the bodies of T9, T10 and T11 vertebrae and the spinous processes of T12 and L1. Other noncontiguous osteolytic lesions were noted at S2 body and right sacro-iliac joint.
To confirm the pathologic diagnosis, the patient underwent an open biopsy for the T12 and L1 spinous process lesions and a percutaneous transpedicular biopsy on T9, T10, T11 lesions. Frozen biopsy was reported as compatible with chronic granulomatous caseating necrosis without malignant cells. The final diagnosis was an atypical presentation of multiple spinal tuberculosis. The patient received an appropriate enteral anti-tuberculosis therapy and recovered without any complications. Follow-up MRI taken after a year of medical treatment revealed marked resolution of the lesions.
Current research indicates the incidence of multi-level noncontiguous, remote vertebral tuberculosis is 1.1% to 16%. Because tuberculous spondylitis could represent variant and atypical pattern, the disease should be considered in differential diagnosis along with other diseases such as metastatic neoplasm, pyogenic spondylitis, especially when the radiologic studies are revealing multiple spinal lesions.
Spondylitis; Spinal tuberculosis; Pott's disease
Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has been performed for degenerative and traumatic cervical diseases to improve pain and neurologic symptoms including sensory change and motor weakness. Infection, however, is a rare complication of ACDF, and late infection is even much rarer. We present a case of late Infection from ACDF C4-5 using Biocompatible Osteoconductive Polymer (BOP) after twenty years in the absence of an esophageal perforation, Zenker's diverticulum, or recent surgery or bacteremia. Late infection from ACDF after 20 years is extremely rare in the literature. However, possibility of such a late complication should be appreciated during the follow-up period and surgical resection will be required for proper treatment.
Infection; Late complication; Late infection
A 55-year-old woman presented with frequent episodes of syncope due to sinus pauses. During ambulatory Holter monitoring, atrial fibrillation and first-degree atrioventricular nodal block were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT scans showed a tumor-like mass from the superior vena cava to the right atrial septum. Open chest cardiac biopsy was performed. The tumor was composed of proliferating IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes with surrounding sclerosis. The patient was diagnosed with IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Because of frequent sinus pauses and syncope, a permanent pacemaker was implanted. The cardiac mass was inoperable, but it did not progress during the one-year follow-up.
IgG4-related sclerosing disease; sinoatrial node dysfunction; pacemaker
Generally, among the extradural spinal tumors, metastatic spinal tumor is much more common than primary spinal tumors. Thus, in the case of a spinal tumor patient with cancer history (such as lung cancer, breast cancer, etc.), we used to infer that the spinal lesion is the metastasis from, primary malignancy. We introduce an experience of a case of triple primary origin tumor in a 57-year-old man. When the spinal lesion was found on the abdominal computed tomography scan, he already had a history of colon cancer and liver cancer. Initially, it was thought that the lesion would probably be a metastatic tumor from the liver or colon cancers, and the operation was performed accordingly. In the pathologic final report, however, the mass was proven to plasmacytoma - the third primary lesion. The patient underwent chemotherapy after surgery. Globally, the triple primary origin tumor has been reported very rarely. With this report, we wish to emphasize the necessity of pathologic confirmation and adequate treatment even in a patient with known malignancies.
Triple primary origin tumor; Spinal metastasis; Primary spinal tumor; Pathologic diagnosis
With the continuing development of new anti-cancer drugs comes a need for preclinical experimental models capable of predicting the clinical activity of these novel agents in cancer patients. However existing models have a limited ability to recapitulate the clinical characteristics and associated drug sensitivity of tumors. Among the more promising approaches for improving preclinical models is direct implantation of patient-derived tumor tissue into immunocompromised mice, such as athymic nude or non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. In the current study, we attempted to develop patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models using tissue fragments from surgical samples of brain tumors.
In this approach, tiny tissue fragments of tumors were biopsied from eight brain tumor patients—seven glioblastoma patients and one primitive neuroectodermal tumor patient. Two administration methods—a cut-down syringe and a pipette—were used to implant tissue fragments from each patient into the brains of athymic nude mice.
In contrast to previous reports, and contrary to our expectations, we found that none of these fragments from brain tumor biopsies resulted in the successful establishment of xenograft tumors.
These results suggest that fragments of surgical specimens from brain tumor patients are unsuitable for implementation of brain tumor PDX models, and instead recommend other in vivo testing platforms for brain tumors, such as cell-based brain tumor models.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12935-016-0319-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Glioblastoma; Model failure; Patient-derived xenograft; Primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor; Tissue fragment
This study was designed to investigate the correlation between insertion depth of artificial disc and postoperative kyphotic deformity after Prodisc-C total disc replacement surgery, and the range of artificial disc insertion depth which is effective in preventing postoperative whole cervical or segmental kyphotic deformity.
A retrospective radiological analysis was performed in 50 patients who had undergone single level total disc replacement surgery. Records were reviewed to obtain demographic data. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were assessed to determine C2-7 Cobb's angle and segmental angle and to investigate postoperative kyphotic deformity. A formula was introduced to calculate insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc. Statistical analysis was performed to search the correlation between insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc and postoperative kyphotic deformity, and to estimate insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc to prevent postoperative kyphotic deformity.
In this study no significant statistical correlation was observed between insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc and postoperative kyphotic deformity regarding C2-7 Cobb's angle. Statistical correlation between insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc and postoperative kyphotic deformity was observed regarding segmental angle (p<0.05). It failed to estimate proper insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc effective in preventing postoperative kyphotic deformity.
Postoperative segmental kyphotic deformity is associated with insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc. Anterior located artificial disc leads to lordotic segmental angle and posterior located artificial disc leads to kyphotic segmental angle postoperatively. But C2-7 Cobb's angle is not affected by artificial disc location after the surgery.
Total disc replacement; Postoperative kyphotic deformity; Insertion depth; Prodisc-C artificial disc
Vascular smooth muscle cells can obtain a proliferative function in environments such as atherosclerosis in vivo or primary culture in vitro. Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells is accompanied by changes in ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In several studies, the cytosolic Ca2+ response to caffeine is decreased during smooth muscle cell culture. Although caffeine is commonly used to investigate RyR function because it is difficult to measure Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) directly, caffeine has additional off-target effects, including blocking inositol trisphosphate receptors and store-operated Ca2+ entry. Using freshly dissociated rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) and cultured RASMCs, we sought to provide direct evidence for the operation of RyRs through the Ca2+- induced Ca2+-release pathway by directly measuring Ca2+ release from SR in permeabilized cells. An additional goal was to elucidate alterations of RyRs that occurred during culture. Perfusion of permeabilized, freshly dissociated RASMCs with Ca2+ stimulated Ca2+ release from the SR. Caffeine and ryanodine also induced Ca2+ release from the SR in dissociated RASMCs. In contrast, ryanodine, caffeine and Ca2+ failed to trigger Ca2+ release in cultured RASMCs. These results are consistent with results obtained by immunocytochemistry, which showed that RyRs were expressed in dissociated RASMCs, but not in cultured RASMCs. This study is the first to demonstrate Ca2+ release from the SR by cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in vascular smooth muscle cells, and also supports previous studies on the alterations of RyRs in vascular smooth muscle cells associated with culture.
Cell culture; Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release; Ryanodine receptor; Rat aortic smooth muscle
To compare two testing protocols for evaluating range of motion (ROM) changes in the preloaded cadaveric spines implanted with a mobile core type Charité™ lumbar artificial disc.
Using five human cadaveric lumbosacral spines (L2-S2), baseline ROMs were measured with a bending moment of 8 Nm for all motion modes (flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) in intact spine. The ROM was tracked using a video-based motion-capturing system. After the Charité™ disc was implanted at the L4-L5 level, the measurement was repeated using two different methods : 1) loading up to 8 Nm with the compressive follower preload as in testing the intact spine (Load control protocol), 2) loading in displacement control until the total ROM of L2-S2 matches that when the intact spine was loaded under load control (Hybrid protocol). The comparison between the data of each protocol was performed.
The ROMs of the L4-L5 arthroplasty level were increased in all test modalities (p < 0.05 in bending and rotation) under both load and hybrid protocols. At the adjacent segments, the ROMs were increased in all modes except flexion under load control protocol. Under hybrid protocol, the adjacent segments demonstrated decreased ROMs in all modalities except extension at the inferior segment. Statistical significance between load and hybrid protocols was observed during bending and rotation at the operative and adjacent levels (p < 0.05).
In hybrid protocol, the Charité™ disc provided a relatively better restoration of ROM, than in the load control protocol, reproducing clinical observations in terms of motion following surgery.
Range of motion; Lumbar spinal arthroplasty; Charité™; Follower preload; Load control protocol; Hybrid protocol