Most model analyses examining the role of primary HIV infection in the HIV epidemic ignore the fact that HIV is often transmitted through long-term, concurrent sexual partnerships. We sought to understand how duration and concurrency of sexual partnerships affect the role of transmissions during primary HIV infection.
We constructed a stochastic individual-based model of HIV transmission in a homogeneous population where partnerships form and dissolve. Using observed contagiousness by stage of HIV infection, the fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection at equilibrium was examined across varying partnership durations and concurrencies.
The fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection has a U-shaped relationship with partnership duration. The fraction drops with increasing partnership duration for partnerships with shorter average duration but rises for partnerships with longer average duration. Partnership concurrency modifies this relationship. The fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection increases with increasing partnership concurrency for partnerships with shorter average duration, but decreases for partnerships with longer average duration.
Partnership patterns strongly influence the transmission of HIV and do so differentially by stage of infection. Dynamic partnerships need to be taken into account to make a robust inference on the role of different stages of HIV infection.
To evaluate the usefulness of Bonfils intubation fiberscope assisted by direct laryngoscopy (BIF-DL) and flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope assisted by direct laryngoscopy (FOB-DL) using video recording in cases of unanticipated difficult intubation with respect to the time required to visualize the vocal cords and place the endotracheal tube. We compared two fiberscopes in patients with authentic difficult airways.
In this randomized, controlled clinical trial, 40 patients (grade 3 according to grades of difficulty in laryngoscopy), scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to BIF-DL group or FOB-DL group. Number of attempts, time required for visualization of the vocal cord (T1) and placement of the endotracheal tube (T2) from insertion of instrument during the last successful attempt, and duration of scope manipulation during all attempts (Ttotal) were recorded. If intubation failed with one method, the other method was tried; these cases were then excluded. The incidence of sore throat and hoarseness was assessed.
T1, T2, and Ttotal were significantly shorter in BIF-DL group (T1: 21.9 ± 8.2 sec vs. 80.4 ± 29.9 sec, P < 0.001, Ttotal: 77.9 ± 41.2 sec vs. 145.5 ± 83.9 sec, P = 0.003). In two cases, it was impossible to intubate with BIF-DL, but the procedure was subsequently successful using fibreoptic bronchoscope.
Intubation of difficult airways can be performed more rapidly with BIF-DL, but sometimes it may not be possible to intubate with the scope.
Bronchoscopes; Fiberoptics; Intubation; Laryngoscopy; Video recording
AIM: To evaluate the effects of ethanol on the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system involved in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) and alcoholdehydrogenase (ADH) activity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.
METHODS: Hepatocytes isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated with various concentrations of ethanol for different durations of time. The cells were pretreated with SP600125 (10 μmol/L) and 4-MP (200 μmol/L), and then treated with ethanol (200 mmol/L). We then measured IGF-Isecretion, IGF-I mRNA expression, cell viability and JNK1/2 activity by radioimmunoassay, RT-PCR, MTT assay and Western blot, respectively (n = 6).
RESULTS: Ethanol induced the activity of phospho (p)-JNK1/2, reaching a maximum at 60 min and then decreasing at 180 min. The effects of ethanol on the IGF-I system were increased at 60 min (secretion: 7.11 ± 0.59 ng/mg protein vs 4.91 ± 0.51 ng/mg, mRNA expression: 150.2% ± 10.2% vs 101.5% ± 11.3%, P = 0.045) and then decreased at 180 min (secretion: 3.89 ± 0.25 ng/mg vs 5.4 ± 0.54 ng/mg protein; mRNA expression: 41.5% ± 10.4% vs 84.7% ± 12.1%, P = 0.04), however cell viability was decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. SP600125 blocked the ethanol-induced changes (at 60 min). Additionally, 4-methylpyrazole prevented the ethanol-induced decreases in the IGF-I system, cell viability and p-JNK1/2 activity (at 180 min).
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that ethanol-induced p-JNK1/2 activation is associated with the IGF-I system and cell viability in hepatocytes. Furthermore, alcohol dehydrogenase is involved in the relationship between ethanol-induced inactivation of p-JNK1/2 and the changes of the IGF-I system and cell viability.
Insulin-like growth factor-I; Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor; C-Jun N-terminal kinase; Hepatocyte; Ethanol
To evaluated the patterns of failure, survival rate, treatment-related toxicity and prognostic factors in postoperative radiotherapy of patients with ependymoma.
Materials and Methods
Thirty patients who underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy for ependymoma between the period of June 1994 and June 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The age of patients ranged from 21 months to 66 years (median, 19 years). Seventeen patients had grade II ependymoma, and 13 had grade III anaplastic ependymoma according to the World Health Organization grading system. The postoperative irradiation was performed with 4 or 6 MV photon beam with median dose of 52.8 Gy (range, 45 to 63 Gy), and radiation field including 2 cm beyond the preoperative tumor volume. Median follow-up period was 51 months (range, 12 to 172 months).
Fourteen out of 30 (46.7%) patients experienced recurrence, and 12 of those died. Among those 14 patients who experienced recurrence, 11 were in-field and 3 were out-of-field recurrence. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 66.7% and 56.1%, respectively. On univariate analysis, tumor grade was a statistically significant prognostic factor for OS and PFS. There were two complications after surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, including short stature and facial palsy on the left side.
We observed good survival rates, and histologic grade was a prognostic factor affecting the OS and PFS. Almost all recurrence occurred in primary tumor site, thus we suggest further evaluation on intensity-modulated radiotherapy or stereotatic radiosurgery for high-risk patients such as who have anaplastic ependymoma.
Ependymoma; Anaplastic ependymoma; Radiotherapy; Histologic grade; Stereotatic radiosurgery
To evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative neck lymph node (LN) assessment with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients with pathologically positive LN.
Materials and Methods
In total, 47 OSCC patients with pathologically positive LN were retrospectively reviewed with preoperative 18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI. All patients underwent surgical resection, neck dissection and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy between March 2002 and October 2010. Histologic correlation was performed for findings of 18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI.
Thirty-six (76.6%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed with neck LN metastasis by 18F-FDG PET and 32 (68.1%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed by CT/MRI. Follow-up ranged from 20 to 114 months (median, 56 months). Clinically negative nodal status evaluated by 18F-FDG PET or CT/MRI revealed a trend toward better clinical outcomes in terms of overall survival, disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, regional nodal recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates even though the trends were not statistically significant. However, there was no impact of neck node standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on clinical outcomes. Notably, SUVmax showed significant correlation with tumor size in LN (p < 0.01, R2 = 0.62). PET and CT/MRI status of LN also had significant correlation with the size of intranodal tumor deposit (p < 0.05, R2 = 0.37 and p < 0.01, R2 = 0.48, respectively).
18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI at the neck LNs might improve risk stratification in OSCC patients with pathologically positive neck LN in this study, even without significant prognostic value of SUVmax.
Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma; Neck lymph node; Magnetic resonance imaging; X-ray computed tomography; 18F-FDG PET; Prognostic value
Angiokeratoma is a rare vascular malformation of the upper dermis that presents clinically as deep red to blue-black in color and tends to take a diverse configuration without self-limiting. Here, we reported dermoscopic findings by two cases of angiokeratoma; solitary angiokeratoma and angiokeratoma circumscriptum. A 24-year-old male presented with a 2-months history of 5 mm sized black colored papule on the right buttock. A dermoscopic pattern characterized by red and dark lacunae, whitish veil covered with scale. A 26-year-old woman presented with multiple, 2~10 mm, dark colored papules on the anterior neck with zosteriform fashion since childhood. A dermoscopic pattern presented by red lacunae intermingled with whitish veil. As a previous report, our two cases was the most common dermoscopic pattern of angiokeratoma; red lacunae and whitish veil. Angiokeratoma is often diagnosed as melanocytic nevi, Spitz nevi, malignant melanomas, pigmented basal cell carcinomas, seborrheic keratoses, dermatofibromas and other vascular lesions including hemangiomas and pyogenic granulomas. However, in the dermoscopic view, these above lesions hardly show red lacunae with whitish veils. Therefore, the dermscopic view is a useful differential method of angiokeratoma.
A 38-year-old man fell from a chair with a chopstick in his hand. The chopstick penetrated his left eye. He noticed pain, swelling, and numbness around his left eye. On physical examination, a linear wound was noted at the medial aspect of the left eyelid. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) study showed a linear hypodense structure extending from the medial aspect of the left orbit to the occipital bone, suggesting a foreign body. This foreign body was hyperdense relative to normal parenchyma. From a CT scan with 3-dimensional reconstruction, the foreign body was found to be passing through the optic canal into the cranium. The clear plastic chopstick was withdrawn without difficulty. The patient was discharged home 3 weeks after his surgery. A treatment plan for a transorbital penetrating injury should be determined by a multidisciplinary team, with input from neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists.
Penetrating; Foreign body; Orbit; Craniocerebral trauma
This study focused on the characterization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the chorion of human full term placenta from 15 donors. Chorionic MSCs revealed homologous fibroblast-like morphology and expressed CD73, CD29, CD105, and CD90. The hematopoietic stem cell markers including HLA DR, CD11b, CD34, CD79a, and CD45 were not expressed. The growth kinetics of their serial passage was steady at the later passages (passage 10). The multilineage capability of chorionic MSCs was demonstrated by successful adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation and associated gene expression. Chorionic MSCs expressed genes associated with undifferentiated cells (NANOG, OCT4, REX1) and cardiogenic or neurogenic markers such as SOX2, FGF4, NES, MAP2, and NF. TERT was negative in all the samples. These findings suggest that chorionic MSCs undifferentiated stem cells and less likely to be transformed into cancer cells. A low HLA DR expression suggests that chorionic MSCs may serve as a great source of stem cells for transplantation because of their immune-privileged status and their immunosuppressive effect. Based on these unique properties, it is concluded that chorionic MSCs are pluripotent stem cells that are probably less differentiated than BM-MSCs, and they have considerable potential for use in cell-based therapies.
Chorion; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells; Human Placenta; Gene Expression
Background and purpose
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disorder involving synovial membranes, and patients with PVNS have a variable prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes after synovectomy plus low-dose external beam radiotherapy for diffuse PVNS of the knee.
We reviewed the medical records of 23 patients who underwent postoperative radiotherapy between 1998 and 2007. 19 patients had primary disease and 4 had recurrent disease with an average of 2.5 prior surgeries. After synovectomy (17 arthroscopic surgeries; 6 open), all 23 patients received 4-MV or 6-MV external beam radiotherapy with a median dose of 20 (12–34) Gy in 10 fractions.
At a median follow-up of 9 (0.8–12) years, 4 patients had recurrent disease, with a median disease-free interval of 5 years. Of these 4 patients, 3 received salvage synovectomy and regained local control. Univariate analysis showed that age, sex, history of trauma, and total dose of radiation were not predictive of local control. 22 patients reported excellent or good joint function, and 1 who refused salvage synovectomy had poor joint function. None of the patients experienced grade 3 or higher radiation-related toxicity or radiation-induced secondary malignancies.
Postoperative external beam radiotherapy is an effective and acceptable modality to prevent local recurrence and preserve joint function in patients with diffuse PVNS of the knee. Low-dose (20 Gy) radiotherapy appears to be as effective as moderate-dose treatment (around 35 Gy).
Natural killer (NK) cells provide one of the initial barriers of cellular host defense against pathogens, in particular intracellular pathogens. Because bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), lymphoid protenitors, can give rise to NK cells, NK ontogeny has been considered to be exclusively lymphoid. Here, we show that porcine c-kit+ bone marrow cells (c-kit+ BM cells) develop into NK cells in vitro in the presence of various cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-15, IL-21, stem cell factor (SCF), and fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand (FLT3L)]. Adding hydrocortisone (HDC) and stromal cells greatly increases the frequency of c-kit+ BM cells that give rise to CD2+CD8+ NK cells. Also, intracellular levels of perforin, granzyme B, and NKG2D were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. It was found that of perforin, granzyme B, and NKG2D levels significantly were increased in cytokine-stimulated c-kit+ BM cells than those of controls. And, we compared the ability of the cytotoxicity of CD2+CD8+ NK cells differentiated by cytokines from c-kit+ BM cells against K562 target cells for 28 days. Cytokines-induced NK cells as effector cells were incubated with K562 cells as target in a ratio of 100:1 for 4 h once a week. In results, CD2+CD8+ NK cells induced by cytokines and stromal cells showed a significantly increased cytotoxicity 21 days later. Whereas, our results indicated that c-kit+ BM cells not pretreated with cytokines have lower levels of cytotoxicity. Taken together, this study suggests that cytokines-induced NK cells from porcine c-kit+ BM cells may be used as adoptive transfer therapy if the known obstacles to xenografting (e.g. immune and non-immune problems) were overcome in the future.
Hematopoietic stem cells; Natural killer cells; Differentiation; Cytokines; Cytotoxicity
Although paraganglioma (PGL), an extra-adrenal retroperitoneal pheochromocytoma (PHEO), is a rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumor, it can cause severe hypertensive crisis during anesthesia or surgery if undiagnosed preoperatively. Extraluminal perigastric masses may be presumed to be gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) or soft tissue sarcomas even when histologic confirmation is not possible. Therefore, without a histologic diagnosis or symptoms of excessive catecholamine secretion, PGL may be mistaken for GIST. We report a case of preoperatively undiagnosed PGL which caused hypertensive crisis during anesthesia for retroperitoneal mass excision.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor; Hypertensive crisis; Paraganglioma; Pheochromocytoma
Various nanowire or nanotube-based devices have been demonstrated to fulfill the anticipated future demands on sensors. To fabricate such devices, electric field-based methods have demonstrated a great potential to integrate one-dimensional nanostructures into various forms. This review paper discusses theoretical and experimental aspects of the working principles, the assembled structures, and the unique functions associated with electric field-based assembly. The challenges and opportunities of the assembly methods are addressed in conjunction with future directions toward high performance sensors.
review; electric field; nanowire; nanotubes; assembly; sensors
To evaluate the treatment outcome and prognostic factor after postoperative radiotherapy in retroperitoneal sarcoma.
Materials and Methods
Forty patients were treated with surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy for retroperitoneal sarcoma from August 1990 to August 2008. Treatment volume was judged by the location of initial tumor and surgical field, and 45-50 Gy of radiation was basically delivered and additional dose was considered to the high-risk area.
The median follow-up period was 41.4 months (range, 3.9 to 140.6 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 51.8% and disease free survival was 31.5%. The 5-year locoregional recurrence free survival was 61.9% and distant metastasis free survival was 50.6%. In univariate analysis, histologic type (p = 0.006) was the strongest prognostic factor for the OS and histologic grade (p = 0.044) or resection margin (p = 0.032) had also effect on the OS. Histologic type (p = 0.004) was unique significant prognostic factor for the actuarial local control.
Retroperitoneal sarcoma still remains as a poor prognostic disease despite the combined modality treatment including surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Selective dose-escalation of radiotherapy or combination of effective chemotherapeutic agent must be considered to improve the treatment result especially for the histopathologic type showing poor prognosis.
Sarcoma; Retroperitoneal; Radiotherapy; Postoperative; Outcome
Previous studies estimating the fraction of transmissions from persons with primary HIV have not focused on the effects of switching sex role in male homosexual populations. Such behavioral fluctuations can increase the contribution of primary HIV in the overall population.
We modeled HIV transmission with 8 compartments defined by 4 behavioral groups, with different anal-insertive and anal-receptive combinations, and 2 stages of infection. We explored the effects of fluctuating behavioral categories on endemic prevalence and the fraction of transmissions from primary HIV. We varied transition rates to develop the theory on how behavioral fluctuation affects infection patterns, and we used the transition rates in a Netherlands cohort to assess overall effects in a real setting.
The dynamics of change in behavior-group status over time observed in the Netherlands cohort amplifies the prevalence of infection and the fraction of transmissions from primary HIV, resulting in the highest proportions of transmissions being from people with primary HIV. Fluctuation between dual- or receptive-role periods and no-anal-sex periods mainly determines this amplification. In terms of the total transmissions, the dual-role risk group is dominant. Fluctuation between insertive and receptive roles decreases the fraction of transmissions from primary HIV, but such fluctuation is infrequently observed.
The fraction of transmissions from primary HIV is considerably raised by fluctuations in insertive and receptive anal sex behaviors. This increase occurs even when primary HIV or later infection status does not influence risk behavior. Thus, it is not simply biology but also behavior patterns and social contexts that determine the fraction of transmissions from primary HIV. Moreover, each primary HIV transmission has a larger population effect than each later infection transmission because the men to whom one transmits from primary HIV carry on more chains of transmissions than the men to whom one transmits later in infection. Reducing transmissions from primary HIV should be a primary focus of HIV control efforts.
To evaluate the radiotherapy treatment outcome of patients in stage IE and IIE nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
Materials and Methods
From August 1999 to August 2009, 46 patients with stage IE and IIE nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma were treated by definitive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. 33 patients were treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (CT + RT) and they received 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. 13 patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and they received 40 Gy in 20 fractions.
The median follow-up period was 4.6-137.6 months (median, 50.2 months) for all patients. The 4-year overall survival was 68.6% and 4-year disease free survival (DFS) was 61.9%. The 4-year locoregional recurrence free survival was 65.0%, and 4-year distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) was 66.2%. For patients treated with CT + RT, 15 patients (45.5%) achieved complete response after chemotherapy, and 13 patients (39.4%) achieved partial response. 13 patients (81.8%) achieved complete response after radiotherapy, and 6 patients (18.2%) achieved partial response. For patients treated with CCRT, 11 patients (84.6%) achieved complete response, and one patient (7.7%) achieved partial response. In univariate analysis, presence of cervical lymph node metastasis was only significant prognostic factor for DFS and DMFS.
This study did not show satisfactory overall survival rate and disease free survival rate of definitive radiotherapy and chemotherapy for stage IE and IIE nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. For patients with cervical lymph node metastasis, further investigation of new chemotherapy regimens is necessary to reduce the distant metastasis.
Nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy
Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is an effective treatment for bladder and bowel dysfunction, and also has a role in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. We report two cases of intractable pain associated with cauda equina syndrome (CES) that were treated successfully by SNS. The first patient suffered from intractable pelvic pain with urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence after surgery for a herniated lumbar disc. The second patient underwent surgery for treatment of a burst fracture and developed intractable pelvic area pain, right leg pain, excessive urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, voiding difficulty and constipation one year after surgery. A SNS trial was performed on both patients. Both patients' pain was significantly improved and urinary symptoms were much relieved. Neuromodulation of the sacral nerves is an effective treatment for idiopathic urinary frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence. Sacral neuromodulation has also been used to control various forms of pelvic pain. Although the mechanism of action of neuromodulation remains unexplained, numerous clinical success reports suggest that it is a therapy with efficacy and durability. From the results of our research, we believe that SNS can be a safe and effective option for the treatment of intractable pelvic pain with incomplete CES.
Sacral Plexus; Neuromodulator; Pain; Cauda Equina
Selective neurotomy is generally a safe, effective, and long-lasting treatment for patients with spastic equinovarus foot deformity. We retrospectively analyzed the results of microsurgical selective tibial neurotomy (STN) for spastic feet in adults and children.
A neurosurgeon selected 32 patients with 45 spastic feet (adults : 13, children : 32) to undergo microsurgical STN between October 1998 and September 2007. A physician of rehabilitation assessed spasticity pre- and postoperatively, that was based on the Ashworth scale, ankle clonus, and the amplitude of ankle dorsiflexion. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 36.7 months in adults and 42.5 months in children.
Spastic components of the feet were corrected immediately after surgery in both the adult and child groups. The mean Ashworth's grade changed from 3.6 ± 0.40 to 1.6 ± 0.70 in adults and from 3.7 ± 0.69 to 1.4 ± 0.49 in children. Mean ankle clonus decreased markedly, from 1.6 ± 0.79 to 0.3 ± 0.42 in adults and from 1.7 ± 0.65 to 0.3 ± 0.56 in children. The mean amplitude of ankle dorsiflexion was improved, but eight (adults: 4, children: 4) contracted feet needed complementary orthopedic correction for acceptable results.
STN can be effective in the long-term for improving lower limb function and reduction of equinovarus deformity. Our results demonstrate that STN might be an effective procedure for treating localized harmful spastic feet in adults and children.
Foot; Spasticity; Surgical procedures; Children; Adults
The percentage of successive normal cardiac interbeat intervals greater than 50 msec (pNN50) is a widely used heart rate variability measure, which is useful in identifying the neuroautonomic dysfunction of psychiatric disorders. However, pNN50 is only one member of a larger family of pNNx statistics, where x is greater than 0 msec. The potential application of the general pNNx statistics has not yet been explored in the psychiatric field. The authors examined the pNNx statistics in clozapine-treated subjects and normal controls to evaluate the usefulness of the general pNNx statistics.
Sixty-one schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine and fifty-nine normal controls were evaluated. Probability values for the differences between the groups at each pNN value (range: pNN1-pNN100) were calculated using data obtained from a 30-minute electrocardiogram.
The conventional pNN50 and pNNx values with x<50 msec were all significantly lower in the patient group (p<0.05). The distinction between the two groups was more prominent at pNN values less than 50 msec than that observed at pNN50. The maximum separation between groups occurred at pNN5 (68.2±19.1 vs. 22.5±20.5, p<10-22).
The pNNx with x<50 msec provided more robust discrimination between the groups than the conventional pNN50, suggesting the importance of analyzing very small variations of interbeat interval in discriminating normal and pathological heart rate patterns. The results also suggest that the general pNNx statistics may be applied and useful in evaluating the neuroautonomic dysfunction in patients treated with clozapine, complementing the traditionally computed pNN50 value.
Heart rate variability; pNNx statistics; Schizophrenia; Clozapine; Neuroautonomic dysfunction
Deterioration of renal function in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a predictor for in-hospital mortality; however, the clinical significance of renal dysfunction during bacterial infection other than SBP is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of renal dysfunction due to bacterial infections other than SBP in patients with liver cirrhosis.
Retrospective data from inpatients with bacterial infections other than SBP were analyzed.
Eighty patients were recruited for the analysis. The types of infections included that of urinary tract (37.5%), pneumonia (23.8%), biliary tract (20%), cellulitis (12.5%), and bacteremia of unknown origin (6.3%). Renal dysfunction developed in 29 patients (36.3%), of which 11 patients had irreversible renal dysfunction. The initial MELD score, neutrophil count, albumin, and blood pressure were significant risk factors in the univariate analysis, whereas only the MELD score was an independent risk factor for the development of renal dysfunction (p<0.001) after multivariate analysis.
The prevalence of renal dysfunction during bacterial infection other than SBP in patients with liver cirrhosis was 36.3%, and its development was related to the severity of the liver disease. Occurrence of irreversible renal dysfunction seemed to affect the prognosis of these patients.
Liver cirrhosis; Bacterial infection; Renal dysfunction
Cerebral vasospasm leading to cerebral ischemic infarction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the patients who suffer with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Despite adequate treatment, some patients deteriorate and they develop symptomatic vasospasm. The objective of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and clinical outcome of intraarterial nimodipine infusion on symptomatic vasospasm that is refractory to hemodynamic therapy.
We retrospectively reviewed the procedure reports, the clinical charts and the transcranial doppler, computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography results for the patients who underwent endovascular treatment for symptomatic cerebral vasospasm due to aneurysmal SAH. During the 36 months between Jan. 2005 and Dec. 2007, 19 patients were identified who had undergone a total of 53 procedures. We assessed the difference in the arterial vessel diameter, the blood flow velocity and the clinical outcome before and after these procedures.
Vascular dilatation was observed in 42 of 53 procedures. The velocities of the affected vessels before and after procedures were available in 33 of 53 procedures. Twenty-nine procedures exhibited a mean decrease of 84.1 cm/s. We observed clinical improvement and an improved level of consciousness with an improved GCS score after 23 procedures.
Based on our results, the use of intraarterial nimodipine is effective and safe in selected cases of vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH. Prospective, randomized studies are needed to confirm these results.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vasospasm; Intraarterial nimodipine infusion
Dilutional hyponatremia associated with liver cirrhosis is caused by impaired free water clearance. Several studies have shown that serum sodium levels correlate with survival in cirrhotic patients. Little is known, however, regarding the relationship between the degree of dilutional hyponatremia and development of cirrhotic complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the serum sodium level and the severity of complications in liver cirrhosis.
Data of inpatients with cirrhotic complications were collected retrospectively. The serum sodium levels and severity of complications of 188 inpatients were analyzed.
The prevalence of dilutional hyponatremia, classified as serum sodium concentrations of ≤135 mmol/L, ≤130 mmol/L, and ≤125 mmol/L, were 20.8%, 14.9%, and 12.2%, respectively. The serum sodium level was strongly associated with the severity of liver function impairment as assessed by Child-Pugh and MELD scores (p<0.0001). Even a mild hyponatremia with a serum sodium concentration of 131-135 mmol/L was associated with severe complications. Sodium levels less than 130 mmol/L indicated the existence of massive ascites (OR, 2.685; CI, 1.316-5.477; p=0.007), grade III or higher hepatic encephalopathy (OR, 5.891; CI, 1.490-23.300; p=0.011), spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (OR, 2.562; CI, 1.162-5.653; p=0.020), and hepatic hydrothorax (OR, 5.723; CI, 1.889-17.336; p=0.002).
Hyponatremia, especially serum levels ≤130 mmol/L, may indicate the existence of severe complications associated with liver cirrhosis.
Hyponatremia; Liver cirrhosis
Morganella morganii is a facultative gram-negative and anaerobic rod. It may be a cause of devastating infections in neonates and immunocompromised hosts. Some bacterial infections such as Clostridium and Vibrio are associated with hemolysis. However, massive hemolysis caused by M. morganii sepsis has not yet been reported. We observed a 59-yr-old man who had chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and was found to have massive hemolysis and metabolic acidosis due to sepsis. He died 6 hr after admission in spite of aggressive treatment. Two sets of blood cultures revealed the growth of M. morganii. We report here that M. morganii sepsis can cause fatal massive hemolysis leading to death.
Morganella Morganii; Sepsis; Hemolysis
Synaptotagmin is a Ca2+ sensing protein, which triggers a fusion of synaptic vesicles in neuronal transmission. Little is known regarding the expression of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmin isoforms and their contribution to the release of secretory vesicles in mouse and rat parotid acinar cells. We investigated a type of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmin and Ca2+ signaling in both rat and mouse parotid acinar cells using RT-PCR, microfluorometry, and amylase assay. Mouse parotid acinar cells exhibited much more sensitive amylase release in response to muscarinic stimulation than did rat parotid acinar cells. However, transient [Ca2+]i increases and Ca2+ influx in response to muscarinic stimulation in both cells were identical, suggesting that the expression or activity of the Ca2+ sensing proteins is different. Seven Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmins, from 1 to 7, were expressed in the mouse parotid acinar cells. However, in the rat parotid acinar cells, only synaptotagmins 1, 3, 4 and 7 were expressed. These results indicate that the expression of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmins may contribute to the release of secretory vesicles in parotid acinar cells.
Synaptotagmin; calcium signaling; exocytosis; parotid acinar cells
Capecitabine is an oral fluoropyrimidine carbamate and it is known as an effective radiosensitizer. Capecitabine and its metabolite reach their peak concentration in the plasma at 1~2 hours after a single oral administration of capecitabine and the levels fall rapidly thereafter. To verify the radiosensitizing effect of capecitabine that is based on such pharmacokinetic characteristics, we performed a retrospective analysis on the optimal timing of capecitabine administration with performing preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer.
Materials and Methods
Among 171 patients who were treated with preoperative radiotherapy and concurrent capecitabine administration for rectal cancer, 56 patients were administered capecitabine at 1~2 hours before radiotherapy (group A), and at other time in the other 115 patients (group B). Total mesorectal excision was done at 4 to 6 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. The radiosensitizing effect of capecitabine was evaluated on the basis of the pathological response.
Complete pathological regression of the primary tumor was observed in 12 patients (21.4%) for group A and in 11 patients (9.6%) for group B (p=0.031). Residual disease less than 0.5 cm (a good response) was observed in 19 patients (33.9%) for group A and in 23 patients (20.0%) for group B (p=0.038). On multivariate analysis, the capecitabine ingestion time showed marginal significance.
When performing preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer, the radiosensitizing effect of capecitabine was enhanced when it was administered 1 hour before radiotherapy.
Rectal neoplasms; Combined modality therapy; Capecitabine
To determine the superior chemotherapeutic regimen between monthly 5-FU plus cisplatin (FP) and weekly cisplatin alone in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer, the compliance of treatment, response, survival and toxicities were analyzed between the two arms.
Materials and Methods
Between March 1998 and December 2001, 61 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (stage IIB through IVA) and negative para-aortic lymph nodes were randomly assigned to either 'monthly FP' (arm I, n=34) or 'weekly cisplatin' (arm II, n=27) with concurrent radiotherapy. The patients of arm I received FP (5-FU 1,000 mg/m2/day + cisplatin 20 mg/m2/day, for 5 days, for 3 cycles at 4 week intervals) and those of arm II received cisplatin (30 mg/m2/day, for 6 cycles at 1 week intervals) with concurrent radiotherapy. The radiotherapy consisted of 41.4~50.4 Gy external beam irradiation in 23~28 fractions to the whole pelvis, with high dose rate brachytherapy delivering a dose of 30~35 Gy in 6~7 fractions to point A. During the brachytherapy, a parametrial boost was delivered. The median follow-up period for survivors was 44 months.
The compliance of treatment in monthly FP weekly cisplatin arms were 62 and 81%, respectively. The complete response rates at 3 months were 96 and 88% in arms I and II, respectively. The 4-year overall survival and disease free survival rates were 64 and 54% in the arm I and 77 and 66% in the arm II, respectively. The incidence of hematologic toxicity more than grade 2 was 29% in the arm I and 15% in the arm II. Only one patient in arm I experienced grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. No severe genitourinary toxicity was observed.
No significant difference was observed in the compliance, responses, survival rates and acute toxicities between the two treatment arms. More patients and further follow up will be required.
Randomized trials; Cervical neoplasm; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy