This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in isolated guinea pig heart. KRG has been shown to possess various ginsenosides, which are the major components of Panax ginseng. These components are known naturally occurring compounds with beneficial effects and free radical scavenging activity. The heart was induced to ischemia for 60 min, followed by 120 min reperfusion. The hearts were randomly allocated into five groups (n=8 for each group): normal control (N/C), KRG control, I/R control, 250 mg/kg KRG group and 500 mg/kg KRG group. KRG significantly increased hemodynamics parameters such as aortic flow, coronary flow and cardiac output. Moreover, KRG significantly increased left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), the maximal rate of contraction (+dP/dtmax) and maximal rate of relaxation (-dP/dtmax). Also, treatment of KRG ameliorated electrocardiographic index such as the QRS, QT and RR intervals. Moreover, KRG significantly suppressed the lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-MB fraction and cardiac troponin I and ameliorated the oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde and glutathione. KRG was standardized through ultra performance liquid chromatograph analysis for its major ginsenosides. Taken together, KRG has been shown to prevent cardiac injury by normalizing the biochemical and oxidative stress.
Antioxidant; Cardioprotection; Hemodynamics; Ischemia and reperfusion injury; Korean red ginseng
Antipsychotic-induced subjective inner restlessness is one of the common and distressing adverse
effects associated with antipsychotics; however, its underlying neurobiological basis is not well
understood. We examined the relationship between antipsychotic-induced subjective inner restlessness
and autonomic neurocardiac function.
Twenty-two schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness, 28
schizophrenia patients without antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness, and 28 matched healthy
control subjects were evaluated. Assessments of the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of
heart rate dynamics were performed. Multivariate analysis of variance and correlation analysis were
The mean interbeat (RR) interval value was significantly higher in control subjects than in
patients with and without antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness (P
< 0.05). The low frequency/high frequency ratio was significantly higher in patients with
antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness than in control subjects and in patients without
antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness (P < 0.05), while the
approximate entropy value was significantly lower in patients with antipsychotic-induced subjective
restlessness than in control subjects and in patients without antipsychotic-induced subjective
restlessness (P < 0.05). Correlation analyses controlling for psychotic
symptom severity showed that the degree of antipsychotic-induced restlessness had a significant
negative correlation with the value of approximate entropy (P < 0.05).
The results indicate that antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness is associated with
altered heart rate dynamics parameters, particularly the nonlinear complexity measure, suggesting
that it might adversely affect autonomic neurocardiac integrity. Further prospective research is
necessary to elucidate the precise interrelationships and causality.
antipsychotics; subjective restlessness; heart rate dynamics
Most model analyses examining the role of primary HIV infection in the HIV epidemic ignore the fact that HIV is often transmitted through long-term, concurrent sexual partnerships. We sought to understand how duration and concurrency of sexual partnerships affect the role of transmissions during primary HIV infection.
We constructed a stochastic individual-based model of HIV transmission in a homogeneous population where partnerships form and dissolve. Using observed contagiousness by stage of HIV infection, the fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection at equilibrium was examined across varying partnership durations and concurrencies.
The fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection has a U-shaped relationship with partnership duration. The fraction drops with increasing partnership duration for partnerships with shorter average duration but rises for partnerships with longer average duration. Partnership concurrency modifies this relationship. The fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection increases with increasing partnership concurrency for partnerships with shorter average duration, but decreases for partnerships with longer average duration.
Partnership patterns strongly influence the transmission of HIV and do so differentially by stage of infection. Dynamic partnerships need to be taken into account to make a robust inference on the role of different stages of HIV infection.
To evaluate the usefulness of Bonfils intubation fiberscope assisted by direct laryngoscopy (BIF-DL) and flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope assisted by direct laryngoscopy (FOB-DL) using video recording in cases of unanticipated difficult intubation with respect to the time required to visualize the vocal cords and place the endotracheal tube. We compared two fiberscopes in patients with authentic difficult airways.
In this randomized, controlled clinical trial, 40 patients (grade 3 according to grades of difficulty in laryngoscopy), scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to BIF-DL group or FOB-DL group. Number of attempts, time required for visualization of the vocal cord (T1) and placement of the endotracheal tube (T2) from insertion of instrument during the last successful attempt, and duration of scope manipulation during all attempts (Ttotal) were recorded. If intubation failed with one method, the other method was tried; these cases were then excluded. The incidence of sore throat and hoarseness was assessed.
T1, T2, and Ttotal were significantly shorter in BIF-DL group (T1: 21.9 ± 8.2 sec vs. 80.4 ± 29.9 sec, P < 0.001, Ttotal: 77.9 ± 41.2 sec vs. 145.5 ± 83.9 sec, P = 0.003). In two cases, it was impossible to intubate with BIF-DL, but the procedure was subsequently successful using fibreoptic bronchoscope.
Intubation of difficult airways can be performed more rapidly with BIF-DL, but sometimes it may not be possible to intubate with the scope.
Bronchoscopes; Fiberoptics; Intubation; Laryngoscopy; Video recording
AIM: To evaluate the effects of ethanol on the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system involved in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) and alcoholdehydrogenase (ADH) activity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.
METHODS: Hepatocytes isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated with various concentrations of ethanol for different durations of time. The cells were pretreated with SP600125 (10 μmol/L) and 4-MP (200 μmol/L), and then treated with ethanol (200 mmol/L). We then measured IGF-Isecretion, IGF-I mRNA expression, cell viability and JNK1/2 activity by radioimmunoassay, RT-PCR, MTT assay and Western blot, respectively (n = 6).
RESULTS: Ethanol induced the activity of phospho (p)-JNK1/2, reaching a maximum at 60 min and then decreasing at 180 min. The effects of ethanol on the IGF-I system were increased at 60 min (secretion: 7.11 ± 0.59 ng/mg protein vs 4.91 ± 0.51 ng/mg, mRNA expression: 150.2% ± 10.2% vs 101.5% ± 11.3%, P = 0.045) and then decreased at 180 min (secretion: 3.89 ± 0.25 ng/mg vs 5.4 ± 0.54 ng/mg protein; mRNA expression: 41.5% ± 10.4% vs 84.7% ± 12.1%, P = 0.04), however cell viability was decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. SP600125 blocked the ethanol-induced changes (at 60 min). Additionally, 4-methylpyrazole prevented the ethanol-induced decreases in the IGF-I system, cell viability and p-JNK1/2 activity (at 180 min).
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that ethanol-induced p-JNK1/2 activation is associated with the IGF-I system and cell viability in hepatocytes. Furthermore, alcohol dehydrogenase is involved in the relationship between ethanol-induced inactivation of p-JNK1/2 and the changes of the IGF-I system and cell viability.
Insulin-like growth factor-I; Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor; C-Jun N-terminal kinase; Hepatocyte; Ethanol
The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRG) on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac injury in rats, particularly in regards to electrocardiographic changes, hemodynamics, cardiac function, serum cardiac enzymes, components of the myocardial antioxidant defense system, as well as inflammatory markers and histopathological changes in heart tissue. ISO (150 mg/kg, subcutaneous, two doses administered at 24-hour intervals) treatment induced significant decreases in P waves and QRS complexes (p<0.01), as well as a significant increase in ST segments. Moreover, ISO-treated rats exhibited decreases in left-ventricular systolic pressure, maximal rate of developed left ventricular pressure (+dP/dtmax) and minimal rate of developed left ventricular pressure (−dP/dtmax), in addition to significant increases in lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and creatine kinase activity. Heart rate, however, was not significantly altered. And the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased, whereas the activity of malondialdehyde was increased in the ISO-treated group. ISO-treated group also showed increased caspase-3 level, release of inflammatory markers and neutrophil infiltration in heart tissue. KRG pretreatment (250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively) significantly ameliorated almost all of the parameters of heart failure and myocardial injury induced by ISO. The protective effect of KRG on ISO-induced cardiac injury was further confirmed by histopathological study. In this regard, ISO treatment induced fewer morphological changes in rats pretreated with 250 or 500 mg/kg of KRG. Compared with the control group, all indexes in rats administered KRG (500 mg/kg) alone were unaltered (p>0.05). Our results suggest that KRG significantly protects against cardiac injury and ISO-induced cardiac infarction by bolstering antioxidant action in myocardial tissue.
Panax ginseng; Isoproterenol; Cardiac ischemia; Hemodynamics; Myocardial preservation
Ginsenosides are divided into two groups based on the types of the panaxadiol group (e.g., ginsenoside-Rb1 and -Rc) and the panaxatriol group (e.g., ginsenoside-Rg1 and -Re). Among them, ginsenoside-Re (G-Re) is one of the compounds with the highest content in Panax ginseng and is responsible for pharmacological effects. However, it is not yet well reported if G-Re increases the hemodynamics functions on ischemia (30 min)/reperfusion (120 min) (I/R) induction. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether treatment of G-Re facilitated the recovery of hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, perfusion pressure, aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output) and left ventricular developed pressure (±dp/dtmax). This research is designed to study the effects of G-Re by studying electrocardiographic changes such as QRS interval, QT interval and R-R interval, and inflammatory marker such as tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in heart tissue in I/R-induced heart. From the results, I/R induction gave a significant increase in QRS interval, QT interval and R-R interval, but showed decrease in all hemodynamic parameters. I/R induction resulted in increased TNF-α level. Treatment of G-Re at 30 and 100 μM doses before I/R induction significantly prevented the decrease in hemodynamic parameters, ameliorated the electrocardiographic abnormality, and inhibited TNF-α level. In this study, G-Re at 100 μM dose exerted more beneficial effects on cardiac function and preservation of myocardium in I/R injury than 30 μM. Collectively, these results indicate that G-Re has distinct cardioprotectective effects in I/R induced rat heart.
Panax ginseng; Ginsenoside-Re; Cardiac injury; Hemodynamics; Myocardial preservation
To evaluate the utility of the preoperative PET-CT using deformable image registration (DIR) in the treatment of patients with locally advanced breast cancer and to find appropriate radiotherapy technique for further adequate treatment of axillary nodal area.
Sixty-five breast cancer patients who had level II, III axillary or supraclavicular lymph node metastasis on 18F-FDG PET-CT and received postoperative radiotherapy after modified radical mastectomy were enrolled. One radiation oncologist contoured normal organs (axillary vessels, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head) and involved lymph nodes on PET-CT and simulation CT slices. After contouring, deformable image registration of PET-CT on simulation CT was carried out. To evaluate the performance of the DIR, Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Center of mass (COM) were used. We created two plans, one was the historically designed three field plan and the other was the modified plan based on the location of axillary lymph node, and we compared the doses that irradiated the axillary lymph nodes.
The DSCs for axillary artery, axillary vein, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head were 0.43 ± 0.15, 0.39 ± 0.20, 0.85 ± 0.10, 0.72 ± 0.20 and 0.77 ± 0.20, respectively. The distances between the COMs of axillary artery, axillary vein, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head in simulation CT and from PET-CT were 13.0 ±7.1, 20.2 ± 11.2, 4.4 ± 6.3, 3.7 ± 6.7, and 9.5 ± 25.0 mm, respectively. In the historically designed plan, only 57.7% of level II lymph nodes received more than 95% of prescribed dose and the coverage was improved to 70.0% with the modified plan (p < 0.01). For level III lymph nodes, the volumes received more than 95% of prescribed dose were similar in both plans (96.8 % vs 97.9%, p = 0.35).
Deformable image registration of PET-CT on simulation CT was helpful in the identification of the location of the preoperatively involved axillary lymph node. Historically designed three-field plan was not adequate to treat the axillary level II lymph node area. Novel treatment technique based on the location of axillary lymph node from PET-CT using DIR can result in more adequate coverage of nodal area.
Breast cancer; Deformable image registration (DIR); Radiotherapy; PET-CT
Most models assessing relative transmissions during different progressive stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection assume that infections are transmitted through instantaneous sexual contacts. In reality, however, HIV will often be transmitted through repeated sex acts during partnerships that form and dissolve at varying rates. We sought to understand how dynamic sexual partnerships would influence transmissions during different progression stages of HIV infection: primary HIV infection (PHI) and chronic stage. Using a system of ordinary differential equations with a pair approximation technique, we constructed a model of HIV transmission in a homogeneous population in which sexual partnerships form and dissolve. We derived analytical expressions for useful epidemiological quantities such as basic reproduction number and also did simulation runs of the model. Partnership dynamics strongly influence transmissions during progressive stages of HIV infection. The fraction of transmissions during PHI has a U-shaped relationship with respect to the rate of partnership change, where the minimum and maximum occur given partnerships of about 100 days and fixed partnerships, respectively. Models that assume instantaneous contacts may overestimate transmissions during PHI for real, dynamic sexual partnerships with varying (non-zero) durations.
primary HIV infection; transmission model; network; pair approximation
Castleman's disease or angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. Complete surgical resection was recommended in unicentric Castleman's disease. Radiotherapy was considered alternative therapeutic option. However, there have been consistent favorable responses to radiotherapy. We also experienced two cases of uncentric Castleman's disease salvaged successfully with radiotherapy. This paper described these cases and reviewed the literature about Castleman's disease treated with radiotherapy. Reviewed cases showed that radiotherapy is a successful treatment option in unicentric Castleman's disease. Furthermore, our report confirms the radiotherapy role in uncentric Castleman's disease.
Castleman's disease; Hyaline-vascular; Radiotherapy
To evaluated the patterns of failure, survival rate, treatment-related toxicity and prognostic factors in postoperative radiotherapy of patients with ependymoma.
Materials and Methods
Thirty patients who underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy for ependymoma between the period of June 1994 and June 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The age of patients ranged from 21 months to 66 years (median, 19 years). Seventeen patients had grade II ependymoma, and 13 had grade III anaplastic ependymoma according to the World Health Organization grading system. The postoperative irradiation was performed with 4 or 6 MV photon beam with median dose of 52.8 Gy (range, 45 to 63 Gy), and radiation field including 2 cm beyond the preoperative tumor volume. Median follow-up period was 51 months (range, 12 to 172 months).
Fourteen out of 30 (46.7%) patients experienced recurrence, and 12 of those died. Among those 14 patients who experienced recurrence, 11 were in-field and 3 were out-of-field recurrence. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 66.7% and 56.1%, respectively. On univariate analysis, tumor grade was a statistically significant prognostic factor for OS and PFS. There were two complications after surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, including short stature and facial palsy on the left side.
We observed good survival rates, and histologic grade was a prognostic factor affecting the OS and PFS. Almost all recurrence occurred in primary tumor site, thus we suggest further evaluation on intensity-modulated radiotherapy or stereotatic radiosurgery for high-risk patients such as who have anaplastic ependymoma.
Ependymoma; Anaplastic ependymoma; Radiotherapy; Histologic grade; Stereotatic radiosurgery
To evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative neck lymph node (LN) assessment with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients with pathologically positive LN.
Materials and Methods
In total, 47 OSCC patients with pathologically positive LN were retrospectively reviewed with preoperative 18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI. All patients underwent surgical resection, neck dissection and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy between March 2002 and October 2010. Histologic correlation was performed for findings of 18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI.
Thirty-six (76.6%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed with neck LN metastasis by 18F-FDG PET and 32 (68.1%) of 47 cases were correctly diagnosed by CT/MRI. Follow-up ranged from 20 to 114 months (median, 56 months). Clinically negative nodal status evaluated by 18F-FDG PET or CT/MRI revealed a trend toward better clinical outcomes in terms of overall survival, disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, regional nodal recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates even though the trends were not statistically significant. However, there was no impact of neck node standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on clinical outcomes. Notably, SUVmax showed significant correlation with tumor size in LN (p < 0.01, R2 = 0.62). PET and CT/MRI status of LN also had significant correlation with the size of intranodal tumor deposit (p < 0.05, R2 = 0.37 and p < 0.01, R2 = 0.48, respectively).
18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI at the neck LNs might improve risk stratification in OSCC patients with pathologically positive neck LN in this study, even without significant prognostic value of SUVmax.
Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma; Neck lymph node; Magnetic resonance imaging; X-ray computed tomography; 18F-FDG PET; Prognostic value
Angiokeratoma is a rare vascular malformation of the upper dermis that presents clinically as deep red to blue-black in color and tends to take a diverse configuration without self-limiting. Here, we reported dermoscopic findings by two cases of angiokeratoma; solitary angiokeratoma and angiokeratoma circumscriptum. A 24-year-old male presented with a 2-months history of 5 mm sized black colored papule on the right buttock. A dermoscopic pattern characterized by red and dark lacunae, whitish veil covered with scale. A 26-year-old woman presented with multiple, 2~10 mm, dark colored papules on the anterior neck with zosteriform fashion since childhood. A dermoscopic pattern presented by red lacunae intermingled with whitish veil. As a previous report, our two cases was the most common dermoscopic pattern of angiokeratoma; red lacunae and whitish veil. Angiokeratoma is often diagnosed as melanocytic nevi, Spitz nevi, malignant melanomas, pigmented basal cell carcinomas, seborrheic keratoses, dermatofibromas and other vascular lesions including hemangiomas and pyogenic granulomas. However, in the dermoscopic view, these above lesions hardly show red lacunae with whitish veils. Therefore, the dermscopic view is a useful differential method of angiokeratoma.
A 38-year-old man fell from a chair with a chopstick in his hand. The chopstick penetrated his left eye. He noticed pain, swelling, and numbness around his left eye. On physical examination, a linear wound was noted at the medial aspect of the left eyelid. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) study showed a linear hypodense structure extending from the medial aspect of the left orbit to the occipital bone, suggesting a foreign body. This foreign body was hyperdense relative to normal parenchyma. From a CT scan with 3-dimensional reconstruction, the foreign body was found to be passing through the optic canal into the cranium. The clear plastic chopstick was withdrawn without difficulty. The patient was discharged home 3 weeks after his surgery. A treatment plan for a transorbital penetrating injury should be determined by a multidisciplinary team, with input from neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists.
Penetrating; Foreign body; Orbit; Craniocerebral trauma
This study focused on the characterization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the chorion of human full term placenta from 15 donors. Chorionic MSCs revealed homologous fibroblast-like morphology and expressed CD73, CD29, CD105, and CD90. The hematopoietic stem cell markers including HLA DR, CD11b, CD34, CD79a, and CD45 were not expressed. The growth kinetics of their serial passage was steady at the later passages (passage 10). The multilineage capability of chorionic MSCs was demonstrated by successful adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation and associated gene expression. Chorionic MSCs expressed genes associated with undifferentiated cells (NANOG, OCT4, REX1) and cardiogenic or neurogenic markers such as SOX2, FGF4, NES, MAP2, and NF. TERT was negative in all the samples. These findings suggest that chorionic MSCs undifferentiated stem cells and less likely to be transformed into cancer cells. A low HLA DR expression suggests that chorionic MSCs may serve as a great source of stem cells for transplantation because of their immune-privileged status and their immunosuppressive effect. Based on these unique properties, it is concluded that chorionic MSCs are pluripotent stem cells that are probably less differentiated than BM-MSCs, and they have considerable potential for use in cell-based therapies.
Chorion; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells; Human Placenta; Gene Expression
Chondrocyte apoptosis has been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which produces reactive oxygen species, reportedly induces apoptosis in chondrocytes. The ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) is the principal component in ginseng and has been shown to have a variety of biological activities, such as anti-arthritis, anti-inflammation, and anti-tumor activities. In this study, we evaluated the effects of G-Rb1 on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and caspase-3 activity of chondrocyte apoptosis induced by H2O2. Cultured rat articular chondrocytes were exposed to H2O2 with or without G-Rb1 and assessed for viability, MPT, Bcl-xL/Bax expression, caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis. The co-treatment with G-Rb1 showed an inhibition of MPT, caspase-3 activity, and cell death. Additionally, the levels of the apoptotic protein Bax were significantly lower and the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL were higher compared with H2O2 treatment alone. The results of this study demonstrate that G-Rb1 protects chondrocytes against H2O2-induced apoptosis, at least in part via the inhibition of MPT and caspase-3 activity. These results demonstrate that G-Rb1 is a potentially useful drug for the treatment of OA patients.
Ginsenoside Rb1; Hydrogen peroxide; Chondrocytes; Apoptosis; Caspase-3
Background and purpose
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disorder involving synovial membranes, and patients with PVNS have a variable prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes after synovectomy plus low-dose external beam radiotherapy for diffuse PVNS of the knee.
We reviewed the medical records of 23 patients who underwent postoperative radiotherapy between 1998 and 2007. 19 patients had primary disease and 4 had recurrent disease with an average of 2.5 prior surgeries. After synovectomy (17 arthroscopic surgeries; 6 open), all 23 patients received 4-MV or 6-MV external beam radiotherapy with a median dose of 20 (12–34) Gy in 10 fractions.
At a median follow-up of 9 (0.8–12) years, 4 patients had recurrent disease, with a median disease-free interval of 5 years. Of these 4 patients, 3 received salvage synovectomy and regained local control. Univariate analysis showed that age, sex, history of trauma, and total dose of radiation were not predictive of local control. 22 patients reported excellent or good joint function, and 1 who refused salvage synovectomy had poor joint function. None of the patients experienced grade 3 or higher radiation-related toxicity or radiation-induced secondary malignancies.
Postoperative external beam radiotherapy is an effective and acceptable modality to prevent local recurrence and preserve joint function in patients with diffuse PVNS of the knee. Low-dose (20 Gy) radiotherapy appears to be as effective as moderate-dose treatment (around 35 Gy).
Natural killer (NK) cells provide one of the initial barriers of cellular host defense against pathogens, in particular intracellular pathogens. Because bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), lymphoid protenitors, can give rise to NK cells, NK ontogeny has been considered to be exclusively lymphoid. Here, we show that porcine c-kit+ bone marrow cells (c-kit+ BM cells) develop into NK cells in vitro in the presence of various cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-15, IL-21, stem cell factor (SCF), and fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand (FLT3L)]. Adding hydrocortisone (HDC) and stromal cells greatly increases the frequency of c-kit+ BM cells that give rise to CD2+CD8+ NK cells. Also, intracellular levels of perforin, granzyme B, and NKG2D were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. It was found that of perforin, granzyme B, and NKG2D levels significantly were increased in cytokine-stimulated c-kit+ BM cells than those of controls. And, we compared the ability of the cytotoxicity of CD2+CD8+ NK cells differentiated by cytokines from c-kit+ BM cells against K562 target cells for 28 days. Cytokines-induced NK cells as effector cells were incubated with K562 cells as target in a ratio of 100:1 for 4 h once a week. In results, CD2+CD8+ NK cells induced by cytokines and stromal cells showed a significantly increased cytotoxicity 21 days later. Whereas, our results indicated that c-kit+ BM cells not pretreated with cytokines have lower levels of cytotoxicity. Taken together, this study suggests that cytokines-induced NK cells from porcine c-kit+ BM cells may be used as adoptive transfer therapy if the known obstacles to xenografting (e.g. immune and non-immune problems) were overcome in the future.
Hematopoietic stem cells; Natural killer cells; Differentiation; Cytokines; Cytotoxicity
The abnormal maturation and ossification of articular chondrocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Inhibiting the enzymatic degradation of the extracellular matrix and maintaining the cellular phenotype are two of the major goals of interest in managing OA. Ginseng is frequently taken orally, as a crude substance, as a traditional medicine in Asian countries. Ginsenoside Rb1, a major component of ginseng that contains an aglycone with a dammarane skeleton, has been reported to exhibit various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, a chondroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 related to OA has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the chondroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on the regulation of pro-inflammatory factors and chondrogenic genes. Cultured rat articular chondrocytes were treated with 100 μM ginsenoside Rb1 and/or 500 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and assessed for viability, reactive oxygen species production, nitric oxide (NO) release, and chondrogenic gene expression. Ginsenoside Rb1 treatment resulted in reductions in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine and NO in H2O2-treated chondrocytes. The expression levels of chondrogenic genes, such as type II collagen and SOX9, were increased in the presence of ginsenoside Rb1, whereas the expression levels of inflammatory genes related to chondrocytes, such as MMP1 and MMP13, were reduced by approximately 50%. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 has potential for use as a therapeutic agent in OA patients.
Panax ginseng; Ginsenoside Rb1; Inflammation; Hydrogen peroxide; Chondrocytes; Osteoarthritis
Although paraganglioma (PGL), an extra-adrenal retroperitoneal pheochromocytoma (PHEO), is a rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumor, it can cause severe hypertensive crisis during anesthesia or surgery if undiagnosed preoperatively. Extraluminal perigastric masses may be presumed to be gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) or soft tissue sarcomas even when histologic confirmation is not possible. Therefore, without a histologic diagnosis or symptoms of excessive catecholamine secretion, PGL may be mistaken for GIST. We report a case of preoperatively undiagnosed PGL which caused hypertensive crisis during anesthesia for retroperitoneal mass excision.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor; Hypertensive crisis; Paraganglioma; Pheochromocytoma
Various nanowire or nanotube-based devices have been demonstrated to fulfill the anticipated future demands on sensors. To fabricate such devices, electric field-based methods have demonstrated a great potential to integrate one-dimensional nanostructures into various forms. This review paper discusses theoretical and experimental aspects of the working principles, the assembled structures, and the unique functions associated with electric field-based assembly. The challenges and opportunities of the assembly methods are addressed in conjunction with future directions toward high performance sensors.
review; electric field; nanowire; nanotubes; assembly; sensors
Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines and is reported to have a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Ginseng may also be potentially valuable in treating cardiovascular diseases. Research concerning cardiovascular disease is focusing on purified individual ginsenoside constituents of ginseng to reveal specific mechanisms instead of using whole ginseng extracts. The most commonly studied ginsenosides are Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Rh1, Re, and Rd. The molecular mechanisms and medical applications of ginsenosides in the treatment of cardiovascular disease have attracted much attention and been the subject of numerous publications. Here, we review the current literature on the myriad pharmacological functions and the potential benefits of ginseng in this area. In vitro investigations using cell cultures and in vivo animal models have indicated ginseng’s potential cardiovascular benefits through diverse mechanisms that include antioxidation, modifying vasomotor function, reducing platelet adhesion, influencing ion channels, altering autonomic neurotransmitters release, and improving lipid profiles. Some 40 ginsenosides have been identified. Each may have different effects in pharmacology and mechanisms due to their different chemical structures. This review also summarizes results of relevant clinical trials regarding the cardiovascular effects of ginseng, particularly in the management of hypertension and improving cardiovascular function.
Panax ginseng; Cardiovascular disease(CVD); Myocardial ischemia; Vasomotor tone; Lipid profile; Antioxidants
To evaluate the treatment outcome and prognostic factor after postoperative radiotherapy in retroperitoneal sarcoma.
Materials and Methods
Forty patients were treated with surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy for retroperitoneal sarcoma from August 1990 to August 2008. Treatment volume was judged by the location of initial tumor and surgical field, and 45-50 Gy of radiation was basically delivered and additional dose was considered to the high-risk area.
The median follow-up period was 41.4 months (range, 3.9 to 140.6 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 51.8% and disease free survival was 31.5%. The 5-year locoregional recurrence free survival was 61.9% and distant metastasis free survival was 50.6%. In univariate analysis, histologic type (p = 0.006) was the strongest prognostic factor for the OS and histologic grade (p = 0.044) or resection margin (p = 0.032) had also effect on the OS. Histologic type (p = 0.004) was unique significant prognostic factor for the actuarial local control.
Retroperitoneal sarcoma still remains as a poor prognostic disease despite the combined modality treatment including surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Selective dose-escalation of radiotherapy or combination of effective chemotherapeutic agent must be considered to improve the treatment result especially for the histopathologic type showing poor prognosis.
Sarcoma; Retroperitoneal; Radiotherapy; Postoperative; Outcome
Previous studies estimating the fraction of transmissions from persons with primary HIV have not focused on the effects of switching sex role in male homosexual populations. Such behavioral fluctuations can increase the contribution of primary HIV in the overall population.
We modeled HIV transmission with 8 compartments defined by 4 behavioral groups, with different anal-insertive and anal-receptive combinations, and 2 stages of infection. We explored the effects of fluctuating behavioral categories on endemic prevalence and the fraction of transmissions from primary HIV. We varied transition rates to develop the theory on how behavioral fluctuation affects infection patterns, and we used the transition rates in a Netherlands cohort to assess overall effects in a real setting.
The dynamics of change in behavior-group status over time observed in the Netherlands cohort amplifies the prevalence of infection and the fraction of transmissions from primary HIV, resulting in the highest proportions of transmissions being from people with primary HIV. Fluctuation between dual- or receptive-role periods and no-anal-sex periods mainly determines this amplification. In terms of the total transmissions, the dual-role risk group is dominant. Fluctuation between insertive and receptive roles decreases the fraction of transmissions from primary HIV, but such fluctuation is infrequently observed.
The fraction of transmissions from primary HIV is considerably raised by fluctuations in insertive and receptive anal sex behaviors. This increase occurs even when primary HIV or later infection status does not influence risk behavior. Thus, it is not simply biology but also behavior patterns and social contexts that determine the fraction of transmissions from primary HIV. Moreover, each primary HIV transmission has a larger population effect than each later infection transmission because the men to whom one transmits from primary HIV carry on more chains of transmissions than the men to whom one transmits later in infection. Reducing transmissions from primary HIV should be a primary focus of HIV control efforts.
To evaluate the radiotherapy treatment outcome of patients in stage IE and IIE nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
Materials and Methods
From August 1999 to August 2009, 46 patients with stage IE and IIE nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma were treated by definitive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. 33 patients were treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (CT + RT) and they received 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. 13 patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and they received 40 Gy in 20 fractions.
The median follow-up period was 4.6-137.6 months (median, 50.2 months) for all patients. The 4-year overall survival was 68.6% and 4-year disease free survival (DFS) was 61.9%. The 4-year locoregional recurrence free survival was 65.0%, and 4-year distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) was 66.2%. For patients treated with CT + RT, 15 patients (45.5%) achieved complete response after chemotherapy, and 13 patients (39.4%) achieved partial response. 13 patients (81.8%) achieved complete response after radiotherapy, and 6 patients (18.2%) achieved partial response. For patients treated with CCRT, 11 patients (84.6%) achieved complete response, and one patient (7.7%) achieved partial response. In univariate analysis, presence of cervical lymph node metastasis was only significant prognostic factor for DFS and DMFS.
This study did not show satisfactory overall survival rate and disease free survival rate of definitive radiotherapy and chemotherapy for stage IE and IIE nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. For patients with cervical lymph node metastasis, further investigation of new chemotherapy regimens is necessary to reduce the distant metastasis.
Nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy