This report is about the case of gastritis associated with capillariasis. The patient was a 52-yr-old Korean woman who occasionally ate raw fish and chicken. She complained of mild abdominal pain and nausea, but not diarrhea. An endoscopic examination revealed an exudative flat erosive change on the gastric mucosa of the antrum. She was microscopically diagnosed as chronic gastritis with numerous eosinophil infiltrations. The sectioned worms and eggs in mucosa were morphologically regarded as belonging to the genus Capillaria. This is the first case of gastric capillariasis reported in the Republic of Korea.
Capillaria; Stomach; Biopsy; Endoscopy
This paper presents a new pattern recognition approach for enhancing the selectivity of gas sensor arrays for clustering intelligent odor detection. The aim of this approach was to accurately classify an odor using pattern recognition in order to enhance the selectivity of gas sensor arrays. This was achieved using an odor monitoring system with a newly developed neural-genetic classification algorithm (NGCA). The system shows the enhancement in the sensitivity of the detected gas. Experiments showed that the proposed NGCA delivered better performance than the previous genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) methods. We also used PCA for data visualization. Our proposed system can enhance the reproducibility, reliability, and selectivity of odor sensor output, so it is expected to be applicable to diverse environmental problems including air pollution, and monitor the air quality of clean-air required buildings such as a kindergartens and hospitals.
gas sensor array; odor monitoring; pattern recognition; artificial neural networks (ANN); genetic algorithm (GA); neural-genetic classification algorithm (NGCA)
Neural progenitor cells must be maintained during development in order to produce the full complement of neuronal and glial derivatives. While molecular pathways have been identified that inhibit progenitor differentiation, it is unclear whether the progenitor state itself is actively maintained. In this study we have investigated the role of Tcf7l1 (formerly named Tcf3) in maintaining spinal progenitor characteristics and allowing the continued production of neurons and glia following primary neurogenesis. We find that spinal cord progenitor markers are progressively lost in embryos lacking Tcf7l1, and that the number of proliferative progenitors decreases accordingly. Furthermore, we show that the production of both neuronal and glial secondary derivatives of the pMN progenitor pool requires Tcf7l1. Together, these results indicate that Tcf7l1 plays an important role in spinal cord progenitor maintenance, indicating that this core function is conserved throughout multiple epithelial cell populations.
zebrafish; Tcf7l1; spinal cord; neurogenesis
Background: To evaluate the prognostic implication of cancer stem cell markers in pancreac ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the expression of CD133 and nestin were investigated in a series of PDAC patients in relation to the survival rate. Methods: This series included 42 cases of PDAC patients and evaluated the stem cell markers CD133 and nestin expression detected by immunohistochemistry. The presence of immunopositive tumor cells considering intensity and area was evaluated and interpreted in comparison to the patients’ clinicopathological and survival data. Results: Twenty eight cases (66.7%) showed high CD133 expression. The CD133 expression was mainly identified in the apical border of the tumor cell, but aberrant expression in the cytoplasmic or perinuclear location was also noted. High nestin expression in tumor cells were found in only 2 cases, but high nestin expression along perinuerial or stromal region was found in 15 cases (35.7%). There was no correlation between CD133, nestin expression and gemcitabine resistance. Statistically significant difference was found in patient survival in N stage (p=0.007), and CD133 expression (p= 0.014) in univariate analysis. Nestin expression wan not statistically significant, but it was helpful to identify the perineurial invasion. In Cox-regression hazard model stratified by age and sex for multivariable analysis, AJCC stage and CD133 were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Conclusions: CD133 expression is upregulated in PDAC that is related to poor prognosis, and treatment targeted the CD133 positive cancer/cancer stem cells might be a promising therapeutic strategy for this patients.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; cancer stem cell; CD133; nestin; prognosis
We compared the survival time between patients with multiple gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and patients with a single GKRS plus whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), in patients with multiple metachronous brain metastases from lung cancer.
From May 2006 to July 2010, we analyzed 31 patients out of 112 patients who showed multiple metachronous brain metastases. 20 out of 31 patients underwent multiple GKRS (group A) and 11 patients underwent a single GKRS plus WBRT (group B). We compared the survival time between group A and B. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards were used to analyze relationship between survival and 1) the number of lesions in each patient, 2) the average volume of lesions in each patient, 3) the number of repeated GKRS, and 4) the interval of development of new lesions, respectively.
Median survival time was 18 months (range 6-50 months) in group A and 6 months (range 3-18 months) in group B. Only the average volume of individual lesion (over 10 cc) was negatively related with survival time according to Kaplan-Meier method. Cox-proportional hazard ratio of each variable was 1.1559 for the number of lesions, 1.0005 for the average volume of lesions, 0.0894 for the numbers of repeated GKRS, and 0.5970 for the interval of development of new lesions.
This study showed extended survival time in group A compared with group B. Our result supports that multiple GKRS is of value in extending the survival time in patients with multiple metachronous brain metastases, and that the number of the lesions and the frequency of development of new lesions are not an obstacle in treating patients with GKRS.
Survival time; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Whole brain radiation therapy; Metastases; Lung cancer
We report here one case of rapid and aggressive course of cerebral metastatic angiosarcoma from the heart. A 36-year-old man presented with 10-days history of headache. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated subacute hemorrhage with a small region of enhancement in right parietal region and the pathological diagnosis was angiosarcoma. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated 3.2×3 cm sized mass on right atrial wall. Newly developed lesion was reoperated, three and four weeks later respectively, and whole brain radiotherapy of total 30 Gy was done. With the interval of two months, gamma knife surgery was done for new lesions two times, which were well controlled. Newly developed lesions rapidly happened even in the adjuvant treatment. He died 9 months after the diagnosis because of the aggravation of primary cancer. The cerebral metastatic angiosarcoma from the heart showed the rapid aggressive behavior and the closed follow-up could be needed for the adjuvant treatment.
Angiosarcoma; Cerebral; Heart; Metastasis
We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.
electronic nose; machine olfaction; pattern classification
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox in children and shingles in older people. Currently, live attenuated vaccines based on the Oka strain are available worldwide. In Korea, an attenuated VZV vaccine has been developed from a Korean isolate and has been commercially available since 1994. Despite this long history of use, the mechanism for the attenuation of the vaccine strain is still elusive. We attempted to understand the molecular basis of attenuation mechanism by full genome sequencing and comparative genomic analyses of the Korean vaccine strain SuduVax.
SuduVax was found to contain a genome that was 124,759 bp and possessed 74 open reading frames (ORFs). SuduVax was genetically most close to Oka strains and these Korean-Japanese strains formed a strong clade in phylogenetic trees. SuduVax, similar to the Oka vaccine strains, underwent T- > C substitution at the stop codon of ORF0, resulting in a read-through mutation to code for an extended form of ORF0 protein. SuduVax also shared certain deletion and insertion mutations in ORFs 17, 29, 56 and 60 with Oka vaccine strains and some clinical strains.
The Korean VZV vaccine strain SuduVax is genetically similar to the Oka vaccine strains. Further comparative genomic and bioinformatics analyses will help to elucidate the molecular basis of the attenuation of the VZV vaccine strains.
Varicella-zoster virus; SuduVax; Genome; Phylogeny
Apoptosis after global or focal cerebral ischemia plays a crucial role in mediating cell death. In this study, we observed the time point expression of physiologic events involving apoptosis regulatory proteins after photochemically-induced focal cerebral ischemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. Protein expression was evaluated at days 1, 3, and 7 by Western blot. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) activity markedly increased in the ischemic hemisphere in a time-dependent manner, not affected. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 was dramatically changed around day 3, whereas changes in pAkt expression occurred at day 1. Differential elevation of these apoptosis regulatory proteins at various time points indicates that different modes of cell death occur in photochemically-induced focal cerebral ischemia in a rat brain.
Brain ischemia; Apoptosis; Rose bengal
We investigated the migration of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) toward an infarct lesion in a photo-thrombotic stroke model. The lesions produced by using rose bengal dye (20 mg/kg) with cold light in the motor cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats were also evaluated with sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 30 minutes through 8 weeks. Migration of NSCs was identified by immunohistochemistry for nestin monoclonal antibody in the lesion cortex, subventricular zone (SVZ), and corpus callosum (CC). The contrast to noncontrast ratio (CNR) on MRI was greatest at 12 hours in DWI and decreased over time. By contrast, T1-weighted and T2-weighted images showed a constant CNR from the beginning through 8 weeks. MRI of the lesional cortex correlated with histopathologic findings, which could be divided into three stages: acute (edema and necrosis) within 24 hours, subacute (acute and chronic inflammatory cell infiltration) at 2 to 7 days, and chronic (gliofibrosis) at 2 to 4 weeks. The volume of the infarct was significantly reduced by reparative gliofibrosis. The number of nestin+ NSCs in the contralateral SVZ was similar to that of the ipsilateral SVZ in each group. However, the number of nestin+ NSCs in the ipsilateral cortex and CC increased at 12 hours to 3 days compared with the contralateral side (p<0.01) and was reduced significantly by 7 days (p<0.01). Active emigration of internal NSCs from the SVZ toward the infarct lesion may also contribute to decreased volume of the infarct lesion, but the self-repair mechanism by endogenous NSCs is insufficient to treat stroke causing extensive neuronal death. Further studies should be focused on amplification technologies of NSCs to enhance the collection of endogenous or transplanted NSCs for the treatment of stroke.
Stroke; MRI; Neural stem cell; Dynamics
A 51-year-old man presented with a pulsatile scalp mass over the right occipital region, which had increased in size over the previous 1 month. He had no previous history of head trauma. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) angiography of the brain revealed a 3.0 × 1.5 cm occipital artery aneurysm arising from the occipital artery. The occipital artery aneurysm was removed following the ligation of the proximal and distal portion of the occipital artery aneurysm. The histological diagnosis was true aneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature.
True aneurysm; Occipital artery; Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have mainly been applied to neurodegeneration in some medically intractable neurologic diseases. In this study, we established a novel NSC line and investigated the cytotoxic responses of NSCs to exogenous neurotoxicants, glutamates and reactive oxygen species (ROS). A multipotent NSC line, B2A1 cells, was established from long-term primary cultures of oligodendrocyte-enriched cells from an adult BALB/c mouse brain. B2A1 cells could be differentiated into neuronal, astrocytic and oligodendroglial lineages. The cells also expressed genotypic mRNA messages for both neural progenitor cells and differentiated neuronoglial cells. B2A1 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide and L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine underwent 30-40% cell death, while B2A1 cells treated with glutamate and kainate showed 25-35% cell death. Cytopathologic changes consisting of swollen cell bodies, loss of cytoplasmic processes, and nuclear chromatin disintegration, developed after exposure to both ROS and excitotoxic chemicals. These results suggest that B2A1 cells may be useful in the study of NSC biology and may constitute an effective neurotoxicity screening system for ROS and excitotoxic chemicals.
Growth Factors; Brain; Nestin; Stem Cells; Culture
The Lef/Tcf factor Tcf3 is expressed throughout the developing vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), but its function and transcriptional targets are uncharacterized. Tcf3 is thought to mediate canonical Wnt signaling, which functions in CNS patterning, proliferation, and neurogenesis. In this study, we examine Tcf3 function in the zebrafish spinal cord, and find that this factor does not play a general role in patterning, but is required for the proper expression of Dbx genes in intermediate progenitors. In addition, we show that Tcf3 is required to inhibit premature neurogenesis in spinal progenitors by repressing sox4a, a known mediator of spinal neurogenesis. Both of these functions are mediated by Tcf3 independently from canonical Wnt signaling. Together, our data indicate a novel mechanism for the regulation of neurogenesis by Tcf3-mediated repression.
zebrafish; Tcf3; spinal progenitors; Wnt
Although very rare, a few cases of intradural extramedullary (IDEM) spinal tumor migration have been reported since Tomimatsu first reported a mobile schwannoma of the cervical cord in 1974. Schwannoma is a neurogenic tumor which originates from nerve sheath that it is relatively well-marginated tumor with little attachment or adhesion to surrounding tissue. Mobility of tumor in spinal canal sometimes can result in negative exploration at the expected area. We found three interesting cases in which different tumor locations observed in repeated magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings. All tumors were intradural and extramedullary schwannoma. We reviewed the literature about moving tumor in the spine through PUBMED search.
Intradural extramedullary; Schwannoma; Mobility
A mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI) could further increase our basic understanding of the mechanisms involved in injury and repair of the nervous system. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether methods used to produce and evaluate photochemical graded ischemic SCI in rats, could be successfully adapted to mice, in a reliable and reproducible manner.
Thirty female imprinting control region mice (weighting 25-30 g, 8 weeks of age) were used in this study. Following intraperitoneal injection of Rose bengal, the translucent dorsal surface of the T8-T9 vertebral laminae of the mice were illuminated with a fiber optic bundle of a cold light source. The mice were divided into three groups; Group 1 (20 mg/kg Rose bengal, 5 minutes illumination), Group 2 (20 mg/kg Rose bengal, 10 minutes illumination), and Group 3 (40 mg/kg Rose bengal, 10 minutes illumination). The locomotor function, according to the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale, was assessed at three days after the injury and then once per week for four weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 28 days after the injury, and the histopathology of the lesions was assessed.
The mice in group 1 had no hindlimb movement until seven days after the injury. Most mice had later recovery with movement in more than two joints at 28 days after injury. There was limited recovery of one joint, with only slight movement, for the mice in groups 2 and 3. The histopathology showed that the mice in group 1 had a cystic cavity involving the dorsal and partial involvement of the dorsolateral funiculi. A larger cavity, involving the dorsal, dorsolateral funiculi and the gray matter of the dorsal and ventral horns was found in group 2. In group 3, most of the spinal cord was destroyed and only a thin rim of tissue remained.
The results of this study show that the photochemical graded ischemic SCI model, described in rats, can be successfully adapted to mice, in a reliable and reproducible manner. The functional deficits are correlated an increase in the irradiation time and, therefore, to the severity of the injury. The photothrombotic model of SCI, in mice with 20 mg/kg Rose bengal for 5 minutes illumination, provides an effective model that could be used in future research. This photochemical model can be used for investigating secondary responses associated with traumatic SCI.
Photochemical; Spinal cord Injury; Mouse
Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L): 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L): 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT].
mine tailings; abandoned mines; arsenic (As); heavy metals; sequential extraction; EPA method 6010; Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)
This study was carried out to identify the conditions of formation of calcium sulphoaluminate (3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4) by the sintering of a limestone (CaCO3) and alunite [K2SO4·Al2(SO4)3·4Al(OH)3] mixture with the following reagents: K2SO4, CaCO3, Al(OH)3, CaSO4·2H2O, and SiO2. When K2SO4, CaCO3, Al(OH)3, CaSO4·2H2O were mixed in molar ratios of 1:3:6:3 and sintered at 1,200∼1,300 °C, only 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 and calcium langbeinite (2CaSO4·K2SO4) were generated. With an amount of CaO that is less than the stoichiometric molar ratio, 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 was formed and anhydrite (CaSO4) did not react and remained behind. With the amount of CaSO4 that is less than the stoichiometric molar ratio, the amounts of 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 and 2CaSO4·K2SO4 decreased, and that of CaO·Al2O3 increased. In the K2SO4-CaO-Al2O3-CaSO4-SiO2 system, to stabilize the formation of 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4, 2CaSO4·K2SO4, and β-2CaO·SiO2, the molar ratios of CaO: Al2O3: CaSO4 must be kept at 3:3:1 and that of CaO/SiO2, over 2.0; otherwise, the generated amount of 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 decreased and that of gehlenite (2CaO·Al2O3·SiO2) with no hydration increased quantitatively. Therefore, if all SO3(g) generated by the thermal decomposition of alunite reacts with CaCO3 (or CaO, the thermal decomposition product of limestone) to form CaSO4 in an alunite- limestone system, 1 mol of pure alunite reacts with 6 mol of limestone to form 1 mol of 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 and 1 mol of 2CaSO4·K2SO4.
alunite; limestone; calcium sulphoaluminate; calcium langbeinite
X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIM) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder, caused by mutations of the gene encoding CD40 ligand (CD40L; CD154). We report the clinical manifestations and mutational analysis of the CD40L gene observed in a male patient from a XHIM family. Having hypogammaglobulinemia and elevated IgM, the 3-yr-old boy exhibited the characteristic clinical features of XHIM. The patient suffered from frequent respiratory infections, and chronic enteritis caused by Cryptosporidium parvum. In addition, a lymph node biopsy and a culture from this sample revealed C. neoformans infection. Activated lymphocytes from the patient failed to express CD40L on their surface as assessed by flow cytometry and a missence mutation (W140R) was found at the XHIM hotspot in his CD40L cDNA to confirm the diagnosis. Genetic analysis of the mother and sister showed a heterozygote pattern, indicating carrier status. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular diagnosis of an XHIM patient in Korea.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of MR urography (MRU) with that of ultrasonography (US) in the evaluation of urinary tract when this failed to opacify during excretory urography (EXU).
Materials and Methods
Twelve urinary tracts in 11 patients were studied. In each case, during EXU, the urinary system failed to opacify within one hour of the injection of contrast media, and US revealed dilatation of the pelvocalyceal system. Patients underwent MRU, using a HASTE sequence with the breath-hold technique; multi-slice acquisition was then performed, and the images were reconstructed using maximal intensity projection. Each set of images was evaluated by three radiologists to determine the presence, level, and cause of urinary tract obstruction.
Obstruction was present in all twelve cases, and in all of these, MRU accurately demonstrated its level. In this respect, however, US was successful in only ten. The cause of obstruction was determined by MRU in eight cases, but by US in only six. In all of these six, MRU also successfully demonstrated the cause.
MRU is an effective modality for evaluation of the urinary tract when this fails to opacify during EXU, and appears to be superior to US in demonstrating the level and cause of obstruction.
Kidney, obstruction; Kidney, MR; Kidney, US; Urography; Magnetic resonance (MR), comparative studies