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author:("Kim, Han kynu")
1.  Two Indices Affecting the Directions of the Sylvian Fissure Dissection in Middle Cerebral Artery Bifurcation Aneurysms 
Objective
This study proposes more objective methods for deciding the appropriate direction of the sylvian fissure dissection during surgical clipping in middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysms.
Methods
We reviewed data of 36 consecutive patients with MCA bifurcation aneurysms. We measured 2 indices preoperatively on 3-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA). Analysis of the calculated data allowed us to select the appropriate direction of sylvian fissure dissection for ease of proximal control of M1. Statistically, Mann-Whitney test was used.
Results
We classified subjects into 2 groups based on the technical level of M1 exposure during surgical clipping. When it was difficult to expose M1, subjects were assigned to Group I, and Group II were subjects in whom M1 exposure was easy. The mean difference between the distances extending from the limbus sphenoidale (LS) line to the internal carotid artery bifurcation and extending from the LS line to the MCA bifurcation was 1.00 ± 0.42 mm in group I and 4.39 ± 2.14 mm in group II. The mean M1 angle was 9.36 ± 3.73° in the group I and 34.05 ± 16.71° in the group II (M1 slope gap p < 0.05, M1 angle p < 0.05).
Conclusion
We have found an objective method for preoperatively verifying ease of exposure of M1 artery during surgical clipping. Therefore, we suggest use of the preoperative M1 slope gap and M1 angle as indicators in 3D-CTA selecting the direction of sylvian fissure dissection for easy proximal control of M1.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2013.15.3.164
PMCID: PMC3804653  PMID: 24167795
Middle cerebral artery; Intracranial aneurysm; Dissecting; Three-dimensional cerebral angiography
2.  Endoscope-Assisted Microsurgical Removal of an Epidermoid Tumor within the Cavernous Sinus 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(6):1216-1219.
Epidermoid tumor of the cavernous sinus is rare. The aim of this case report is to discuss the role of neuroendoscopes in the removal of such lesions. A 21-year-old man presented with 6-year history of progressive headache, diplopia, and visual disturbance. Work-up revealed an epidermoid tumor located in the right cavernous sinus. An extradural transcavernous approach was utilized via a traditional frontotemporal craniotomy with endoscopic assistance. The postoperative course was uneventful with immediate improvement of the patient's headache. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete removal of the tumor. There were no signs of recurrence during a 2-year follow-up period. The endoscope is a useful tool for removing epidermoid tumors from the cavernous sinus and enhances visualization of areas that would otherwise be difficult to visualize with microscopes alone. Endoscopes also help minimize the retraction of neurovascular structures.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.6.1216
PMCID: PMC3481371  PMID: 23074125
Epidermoid tumor; cavernous sinus; endoscope-assisted microsurgery
3.  Meningeal Layers Around Anterior Clinoid Process as a Delicate Area in Extradural Anterior Clinoidectomy : Anatomical and Clinical Study 
Objective
Removal of the anterior clinoid process (ACP) is an essential process in the surgery of giant or complex aneurysms located near the proximal internal carotid artery or the distal basilar artery. An extradural clinoidectomy must be performed within the limits of the meningeal layers surrounding the ACP to prevent morbid complications. To identify the safest method of extradural exposure of the ACP, anatomical studies were done on cadaver heads.
Methods
Anatomical dissections for extradural exposure of the ACP were performed on both sides of seven cadavers. Before dividing the frontotemporal dural fold (FTDF), we measured its length from the superomedial apex attached to the periorbita to the posterolateral apex which connects to the anterosuperior end of the cavernous sinus.
Results
The average length of the FTDF on cadaver dissections was 7 mm on the right side and 7.14 mm on the left side. Cranial nerves were usually exposed when cutting FTDF more than 7 mm of the FTDF.
Conclusion
The most delicate area in an extradural anterior clinoidectomy is the junction of the FTDF and the anterior triangular apex of the cavernous sinus. The FTDF must be cut from the anterior side of the triangle at the periorbital side rather than from the dural side. The length of the FTDF incision must not exceed 7 mm to avoid cranial nerve injury.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.391
PMCID: PMC3488650  PMID: 23133730
Extradural clinoidectomy; Frontotemporal dural fold; Superior orbital fissure; Anatomical study
4.  Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Clinical Characteristics and Management Based on Location and Hemodynamics 
Objective
A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) generally refers to a vascular malformation of the wall of a major venous sinus. These lesions have diverse symptoms according to the location and venous drainage, and require multidisciplinary treatment. We report on our experience and analyze the treatment outcome of intracranial DAVFs for a nine-year period.
Methods
Between January 2000 and December 2008, 95 patients with intracranial DAVFs were enrolled in this study. A retrospective review of clinical records and imaging studies of all patients was conducted. Endovascular embolization, surgical interruption, gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKS), or combinations of these treatments were performed based on clinical symptoms, lesion location, and venous drainage pattern.
Results
Borden type I, II, and III were 34, 48, and 13 patients, respectively. Aggressive presentation was reported in 6% of Borden type I, 31% of Borden type II, and 77% of Borden type III DAVFs, respectively, and DAVFs involving transverse, sigmoid, and superior sagittal sinus. Overall, the rate of complete obliteration was 68%. The complete occlusion rates with a combination treatment of endovascular embolization and surgery, surgery alone, and endovascular embolization were 89%, 86%, and 80%, respectively. When GKS was used with embolization, the obliteration rate was 83%, although it was only 54% in GKS alone. Spontaneous obliteration of the DAVF occurred in three patients. There were a few complications, including hemiparesis (in microsurgery), intracranial hemorrhage (in endovascular embolization), and facial palsy (in GKS).
Conclusion
The hemorrhagic risk of DAVFs is dependent on the location and hemodynamics of the lesions. Strategies for treatment of intracranial DAVFs should be decided according to the characteristic of the DAVFs, based on the location and drainage pattern. GKS can be used as an optional treatment for intracranial DAVFs.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2012.14.3.192
PMCID: PMC3491214  PMID: 23210047
Dural arteriovenous fistula; Signs and symptoms; Therapeutics
5.  Effectiveness of Nicardipine for Blood Pressure Control in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Objective
The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness and safety of nicardipine infusion for controlling blood pressure in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
Methods
We prospectively evaluated 52 patients with SAH and treated with nicardipine infusion for blood pressure control in a 29 months period. The mean blood pressure of pre-injection, bolus injection and continuous injection period were compared. This study evaluated the effectiveness of nicardipine for each Fisher grade, for different dose of continuous nicardipine infusion, and for the subgroups of systolic blood pressure.
Results
The blood pressure measurement showed that the mean systolic blood pressure / diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in continuous injection period (120.9/63.0 mmHg) was significantly lower than pre-injection period (145.6/80.3 mmHg) and bolus injection period (134.2/71.3 mmHg), and these were statistically significant (p < 0.001). In each subgroups of Fisher grade and different dose, SBP/DBP also decreased after the use of nicardipine. These were statistically significant (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in effectiveness between subgroups (p > 0.05). Furthermore, controlling blood pressure was more effective when injecting higher dose of nicardipine in higher SBP group rather than injecting lower dose in lower SBP group, and it also was statistically significant (p < 0.05). During the infusion, hypotension and cardiogenic problems were transiently combined in five cases. However, patients recovered without any complications.
Conclusion
Nicardipine is an effective and safe agent for controlling acutely elevated blood pressure after SAH. A more systemic study with larger patients population will provide significant results and will bring solid evidence on effectiveness of nicardipine in SAH.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2012.14.2.84
PMCID: PMC3471255  PMID: 23210033
Nicardipine; Hypertension; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Aneurysm
6.  Anatomo-Radiological Evaluation of Lateral Approaches to the Skull Base 
Skull base surgery  1998;8(3):105-117.
Our objective is to correlate the anatomical exposure provided by complex skull base approaches to the lateral skull base with their CT and MRI scans counterparts and to introduce a modular concept emphasizing the derivation of complex skull base approaches from simpler ones.
We executed 10 lateral approaches to the skull base in 20 embalmed cadaveric heads (40 sides). Each approach was executed a minimum of three times on each specimen. These approaches were the pterional and its modifications, the subtemporal and its modifications, and the suboccipital and its modifications. We correlated the approaches and the areas of the skull base exposed by scanning the surgical cavity filled with material imageable by CT and MRI and throughly surveying the operative field.
Visualization of the area of the skull base exposed was excellent using our CT-MRI imageable cadaveric preparation. The topographic areas of the skull base exposed correlated well with their radiological counterparts.
The areas of the skull base exposed by each of the complex surgical approaches to the skull base were clearly delineated by using our anatomo-radiological correlation. Complex approaches to the skull base are formed by simple neurosurgical approaches (building blocks) to which different modules are added.
Images
PMCID: PMC1656675  PMID: 17171045

Results 1-6 (6)