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1.  Anaplastic Ganglioglioma in a Middle-aged Woman: A Case Report with a Review of the Literature 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(Suppl):S139-S144.
We report a case of anaplastic ganglioglioma. A 45-yr-old woman was admitted with a 5-month history of headache and dizziness, both of which progressed slowly. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed a strong enhancing mass in the left frontal lobe extending to the cingulate gyrus. Adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy were given after gross total resection of the tumor. Histological and immunohistochemical studies showed an anaplastic ganglioglioma. Gangliogliomas of the central nervous system are rather uncommon tumors, and anaplastic ones are extremely rare. The pertinent literature regarding gangliogliomas is reviewed.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.S.S139
PMCID: PMC2694381  PMID: 17923741
Ganglioglioma; Anaplasia
2.  Flavonoids from Orostachys japonicus A. Berger Inhibit the Invasion of LnCaP Prostate Carcinoma Cells by Inactivating Akt and Modulating Tight Junctions 
Tight junctions (TJs) are a mode of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial or endothelial cells, and serve as a physical barrier to maintenance of homeostasis in body by controlling paracellular transport. Claudins are the most important molecules of the TJs, but paradoxically these proteins are frequently over-expressed in cancers and their overexpression is implicated in the invasive potential of cancer. Hence, we investigated the effects of flavonoids extracted from Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (FEOJ) on TJs and the expression of claudins as well as cancer invasion along with in LnCaP human prostate cancer. FEOJ suppressed cancer cell motility and invasiveness at the concentrations where FEOJ did not show anti-proliferative activity. FEOJ increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) associated with tightening TJs, and suppressed expression of claudin proteins. Furthermore, FEOJ suppressed the activities of MMP-2 and -9 in a dose-dependent manner, which came from the activation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) by FEOJ. FEOJ suppressed migration and invasion by suppressing PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, this study suggest that FEOJ suppresses cancer migration and invasion by tightening TJs through the suppression of claudin expression, and by suppressing MMPs in LnCaP human prostate cancer cells, which at least in part results from the suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
doi:10.3390/ijms140918407
PMCID: PMC3794786  PMID: 24018886
Orostachys japonicus; flavonoids; LnCaP cells; tight junctions; Akt
3.  Tophaceous Gout of the Spine Causing Neural Compression 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(3):185-188.
Gout is a common metabolic disease in which monosodium urate crystals called tophi develop. Spinal involvement in gout resulting in neural compression is unusual. We describe a case of a 64-year-old man with a history of gouty arthritis of the knee. The patient presented with thoracic myelopathy and radiculopathy. Imaging of the spine revealed an extradural mass lesion with bony erosion of the thoracic spine. A decompressive operation was performed, and a chalky white material was found. Histopathological examination confirmed a gouty tophus. The symptoms of spinal gout vary and its radiological features are not sufficiently specific to provide a definite diagnosis. Therefore, in patients with a history of gouty arthritis who present with neural compressive symptoms of the spine, spinal gout should be strongly suspected.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2013.10.3.185
PMCID: PMC3941767  PMID: 24757485
Gout; Spine; Myelopathy; Radiculopathy
4.  The Analysis of Patterns and Risk Factors of Newly Developed Vertebral Compression Fractures after Percutaneous Vertebroplasty 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and the risk factors of newly developed vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) after percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP).
Methods
We performed a retrospective review of the 244 patients treated with PVP from September 2006 to February 2011. Among these patients, we selected 49 patients with newly developed VCFs following PVP as the new VCFs group, and the remaining 195 patients as the no VCFs group. The new VCFs group was further divided into 2 groups : an adjacent fractures group and a nonadjacent fractures group. The following data were collected from the groups : age, gender, body weight/height, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD) score of the spine and femur, level of initial fracture, restoration rate of anterior/middle vertebral height, and intradiscal cement leakage, volume of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).
Results
Age, gender, mean body height/weight, mean BMI and volume of PMMA of each of the group are not statistically significantly associated with fractures. In comparison between the new VCFs group and the no VCFs group, lower BMD, intradiscal cement leakage and anterior vertebral height restoration were the significant predictive factors of the fracture. In addition, new VCFs occurrence at the adjacent spines was statistically significant, when the initial fracture levels were confined to the thoracolumbar junction, among the subgroups of new VCFs.
Conclusion
Lower spinal BMD, the greater anterior vertebral height restoration rate and intradiscal cement leakage were confirmed as risk factors for newly formed VCFs after PVP.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.339
PMCID: PMC3488642  PMID: 23133722
Compression fracture; Vertebroplasty; Risk factor; Osteoporosis; Pattern
5.  Inferolateral Entry Point for C2 Pedicle Screw Fixation in High Cervical Lesions 
Objective
The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of atlantoaxial stabilization using a new entry point for C2 pedicle screw fixation.
Methods
Data were collected from 44 patients undergoing posterior C1 lateral mass screw and C2 screw fixation. The 20 cases were approached by the Harms entry point, 21 by the inferolateral point, and three by pars screw. The new inferolateral entry point of the C2 pedicle was located about 3-5 mm medial to the lateral border of the C2 lateral mass and 5-7 mm superior to the inferior border of the C2-3 facet joint. The screw was inserted at an angle 30° to 45° toward the midline in the transverse plane and 40° to 50° cephalad in the sagittal plane. Patients received followed-up with clinical examinations, radiographs and/or CT scans.
Results
There were 28 males and 16 females. No neurological deterioration or vertebral artery injuries were observed. Five cases showed malpositioned screws (2.84%), with four of the screws showing cortical breaches of the transverse foramen. There were no clinical consequences for these five patients. One screw in the C1 lateral mass had a medial cortical breach. None of the screws were malpositioned in patients treated using the new entry point. There was a significant relationship between two group (p=0.036).
Conclusion
Posterior C1-2 screw fixation can be performed safely using the new inferolateral entry point for C2 pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of high cervical lesions.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.4.341
PMCID: PMC3243838  PMID: 22200017
Atlantoaxial fixation; C2 pedicle screw; Entry point
6.  Tetraarsenic Hexoxide Induces Beclin-1-Induced Autophagic Cell Death as well as Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in U937 Human Leukemic Cells 
Tetraarsenic hexaoxide (As4O6) has been used in Korean folk remedy for the treatment of cancer since the late 1980s, and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is currently used as a chemotherapeutic agent. However, evidence suggests that As4O6-induced cell death pathway was different from that of As2O3. Besides, the anticancer effects and mechanisms of As4O6 are not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the anticancer activities of As4O6 on apoptosis and autophagy in U937 human leukemic cells. The growth of U937 cells was inhibited by As4O6 treatment in a dose- and a time-dependent manner, and IC50 for As4O6 was less than 2 μM. As4O6 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis and Beclin-1-induced autophagy, both of which were significantly attenuated by Bcl-2 augmentation and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. This study suggests that As4O6 should induce Beclin-1-induced autophagic cell death as well as caspase-dependent apoptosis and that it might be a promising agent for the treatment of leukemia.
doi:10.1155/2012/201414
PMCID: PMC3170805  PMID: 21912568
7.  Agaricus blazei Extract Induces Apoptosis through ROS-Dependent JNK Activation Involving the Mitochondrial Pathway and Suppression of Constitutive NF-κB in THP-1 Cells 
Agaricus blazei is widely accepted as a traditional medicinal mushroom, and it has been known to exhibit immunostimulatory and anti-cancer activity. However, the apoptotic mechanism in cancer cells is poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated whether A. blazei extract (ABE) exerts antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in human leukemic THP-1 cells. We observed that ABE-induced apoptosis is associated with the mitochondrial pathway, which is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and prolonged c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. In addition, the ABE treatment resulted in the accumulation of cytochrome c in the cytoplasm, an increase in caspase activity, and an upregulation of Bax and Bad. With those results in mind, we found that ABE decreases constitutive NF-κB activation and NF-κB-regulated gene products such as IAP-1 and -2. We concluded that ABE induces apoptosis with ROS-dependent JNK activation and constitutive activated NF-κB inhibition in THP-1 cells.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nep176
PMCID: PMC3137680  PMID: 19861509
8.  Spontaneous Rapid Reduction of a Large Acute Subdural Hematoma 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(6):1224-1226.
The majority of acute post-traumatic subdural hematomas (ASDH) require urgent surgical evacuation. Spontaneous resolution of ASDH has been reported in some cases. We report here on a case of a patient with a large amount of ASDH that was rapidly reduced. A 61-yr-old man was found unconscious following a high speed motor vehicle accident. On initial examination, his Glasgow Coma Score scale was 4/15. His pupils were fully dilated and non-reactive to bright light. Brain computed tomography (CT) showed a massive right-sided ASDH. The decision was made to treat him conservatively because of his poor clinical condition. Another brain CT approximately 14 hr after the initial scan demonstrated a remarkable reduction of the previous ASDH and there was the new appearance of high density in the subdural space adjacent to the falx and the tentorium. Thirty days after his admission, brain CT revealed chronic SDH and the patient underwent surgery. The patient is currently able to obey simple commands. In conclusion, spontaneous rapid resolution/reduction of ASDH may occur in some patients. The mechanisms are most likely the result of dilution by cerebrospinal fluid and the redistribution of hematoma especially in patients with brain atrophy.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.6.1224
PMCID: PMC2775881  PMID: 19949689
Hematoma, Subdural, Acute; Spontaneous Reduction; Brain Atrophy
9.  Stereotactic Multiplanar Reformatted Computed Tomography-Guided Catheter Placement and Thrombolysis of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hematomas 
Objective
The authors present their experiences with stereotactic multiplanar reformatted (MPR) computed tomography (CT)-guided catheter placement for thrombolysis of spontaneous intracerebral hematoma (sICH) and their clinical results.
Methods
In 23 patients with sICH, MPR CT-guided catheter placement was used to select the trajectory and target point of hematoma drainage. This group was comprised of 11 men and 12 women, and the mean age was 57.5 years (range, 31-79 years). The patients' initial Glasgow Coma Scale scores ranged from 7 to 15 with a median of 11. The volume of the hematoma ranged from 24 mL to 86 mL (mean 44.5 mL). A trajectory along the main axis of the hematoma was considered to be optimal for thrombolytic therapy. The trajectory was calculated from the point of entry through the target point of the hematoma using reformatted images.
Results
The hematoma catheter was left in place for a median duration of 48.9 hours (range 34 to 62 hours). In an average of two days, the average residual hematoma volume was 6.2 mL (range 1.4 mL to 10.2 mL) and was reduced by an average of 84.7% (range 71.6% to 96.3%). The residual hematoma at postoperative seven days was less than 5 mL in all patients. There was no treatment-related death during hospitalization.
Conclusion
The present study indicates that stereotactic MPR CT-guided catheter placement for thrombolysis is an accurate and safe procedure. We suggest that this procedure for stereotactic removal of sICH should be considered for the optimization of the trajectory selection in the future.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.4.185
PMCID: PMC2588315  PMID: 19096674
Intracerebral hematoma; Stereotactic aspiration; Surgical treatment; Thrombolysis
10.  Discal Cyst of the Lumbar Spine 
Discal cysts are rare lesions that can cause radiating leg pain. Because they are very rare, their natural history and the details of the therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of these cysts are still unknown. A 30-year-old male patient presented to our institute with radiating pain in his left leg and mild back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intraspinal extradural cystic mass with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images at the L5-S1 level. The partial hemilaminectomy and cyst resection were performed. We report a patient with low back pain and radiating leg pain caused by a lumbar discal cyst and discuss the treatment of this cyst.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.4.262
PMCID: PMC2588320  PMID: 19096689
Discal cyst; Intraspinal; Lumbar spine
11.  A Clinical Analysis of Surgical Treatment for Spontaneous Spinal Infection 
Objective
The purpose of the study was to determine the clinical effects of anterior radical debridement on a series of patients with spontaneous spinal infection.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of 32 patients who underwent surgical treatment from January 2000 to December 2005 in our department. The average follow-up Period was 33.4 months (range, 6 to 87 months). Thirty-two patients presented with the following : 23 cases with pyogenic spondylitis, eight with tuberculous spondylitis and one with fungal spondylitis. The indications for surgery were intractable pain, failure of medical management, neurological impairment with or without an associated abscess, vertebral destruction causing spinal instability and/or segmental kyphosis.
Results
The study included 15 (46.9%) males and 17 (53.1%) females ranging in age from 26 to 75 years (mean, 53.1 years). Diabetes mellitus (DM) and pulmonary Tbc were the most common predisposing factors for pyogenic spondylitis and tuberculous spondylitis. Staphylococcus aureus (13%) was the main organism isolated. The most prevalent location was the lumbar spine (75%). Changes in the pain score, Frankel's classification, and laboratory parameters demonstrated a significant clinical improvement in all patients. However, there were recurrent infections in two patients with tuberculous spondylitis and inappropriate debridement and intolerance of medication and noncompliance. Autologous rib, iliac bone and allograft (fibular) were performed in most patients. However, 10 patients were grafted using a titanium mesh cage after anterior radical debridement. There were no recurrent infections in the 10 cases using the mesh cage with radical debridement.
Conclusion
The findings of this study indicate that surgery based on appropriate surgical indications is effective for the control of spinal infection and prevention of recurrence with anterior radical debridement, proper drug use and abscess drainage.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2007.42.4.317
PMCID: PMC2588210  PMID: 19096563
Spinal infection; Spinal instrumentation; Surgical mesh
12.  Penetrating Retrobulbar Orbital Foreign Body: A Transcranial Approach 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(2):328-330.
We report the successful removal of a retrobulbar foreign body using a transcranial approach in a 63-year-old patient with a penetrating injury to the left eye. Initial ocular examination revealed a corneoscleral laceration, hyphema, a traumatic cataract, and vitreous hemorrhage. Visual acuity consisted only of the perception of hand motion. Computed tomography demonstrated an orbital foreign body in the retrobulbar area. Emergency corneoscleral suturing, phacoemulsification of the cataract, and vitrectomy with posterior vitreous detachment were performed. Fifteen days after the emergency operation, we successfully removed the orbital foreign body using a transcranial approach, although the foreign body was very close to the optic nerve. On fundus examination 6 months later, a white, fibrous lesion was seen inferior to the optic disc, and the corrected visual acuity was 20/30. These positive results may be due to the complete vitrectomy at the correct time performed by a retina specialist and the minimal pressure on the eyeball while removing the foreign body, which resulted from the use of a transcranial approach.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2007.48.2.328
PMCID: PMC2628137  PMID: 17461536
Retrobulbar foreign body; transcranial approach
13.  Perfusion MR Imaging in Gliomas: Comparison with Histologic Tumor Grade 
Objective
To determine the usefulness of perfusion MR imaging in assessing the histologic grade of cerebral gliomas.
Materials and Methods
In order to determine relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), 22 patients with pathologically proven gliomas (9 glioblastomas, 9 anaplastic gliomas and 4 low-grade gliomas) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted and conventional T1- and T2-weighted imaging. rCBV maps were obtained by fitting a gamma-variate function to the contrast material concentration versus time curve. rCBV ratios between tumor and normal white matter (maximum rCBV of tumor / rCBV of contralateral white matter) were calculated and compared between glioblastomas, anaplastic gliomas and low-grade gliomas.
Results
Mean rCBV ratios were 4.90°±1.01 for glioblastomas, 3.97°±0.56 for anaplastic gliomas and 1.75°±1.51 for low-grade gliomas, and were thus significantly different; p < .05 between glioblastomas and anaplastic gliomas, p < .05 between anaplastic gliomas and low-grade gliomas, p < .01 between glioblastomas and low-grade gliomas. The rCBV ratio cutoff value which permitted discrimination between high-grade (glioblastomas and anaplastic gliomas) and low-grade gliomas was 2.60, and the sensitivity and specificity of this value were 100% and 75%, respectively.
Conclusion
Perfusion MR imaging is a useful and reliable technique for estimating the histologic grade of gliomas.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2001.2.1.1
PMCID: PMC2718089  PMID: 11752962
Brain neoplasms, MR; Brain, blood flow; Cerebral blood vessels, flow dynamics; Magnetic resonance (MR), contrast enhancement

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