A sphenoid mucocele often presents late due to its deep seated anatomical site. And it has varied presentation due to its loose relationship to the cavernous sinus and the base of the skull. We describe a case of large sphenoid sinus mucocele. A middle aged old man suddenly developed third cranial nerve palsy. Brain imaging study revealed an isolated sphenoid sinus mucocele, compressing right cavernous sinus. Endoscopic marsupialization of the mucocele via transnasal approach led to complete resolution of the third cranial nerve palsy. Involvement of the third cranial nerve in isolated mucocele is rare but important neurosurgical implications which must be excluded. In addition, proper and timely treatment must be performed to avoid permanent neurologic deficit.
Sphenoid sinus mucocele; Third nerve palsy; Transnasal approach
We investigated the locations of compressing vessels in hemifacial spasm. To approach compression sites, we described and evaluated the efficacy of the infranuchal infrafloccular (INIF) approach.
A retrospective review of 31 consecutive patients who underwent microvascular decompression (MVD) through INIF with a minimum follow-up of 1 year was performed. Along the intracranial facial nerve, we classified the compression sites into the transitional zone (TRZ), the central nervous system (CNS) segment and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) segment. The INIF approach was used to inspect the CNS segment and the TRZ. Subdural patch graft technique was used in order to achieve watertight dural closure. The cranioplasty was performed using polymethylmethacrylate. The outcome and procedure-related morbidities were evaluated.
Twenty-nine patients (93%) showed complete disappearance of spasm. In two patients, the spasm was resolved gradually in 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Late recurrence was noted in one patient (3%). The TRZ has been identified as the only compression site in 19 cases (61.3%), both the TRZ and CNS segment in 11 (35.5%) and the CNS segment only in 1 (3.2%). There was no patient having a compressing vessel in the PNS segment. Infection as a result of cerebrospinal fluid leak occurred in one patient (3%). Delayed transient facial weakness occurred in one patient.
The TRZ and the CNS segment were more vulnerable area to the compression of vessels. We suggest that surgical avenue with the INIF approach provides early identification of this area.c
Hemifacial spasm; Microvascular decompression; Root exit zone
Conventional pterional approach is a commonly used neurosurgical technique for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. However, this technique requires more extensive brain exposure than other key hole approaches and is sometimes associated with surgical traumatization or cosmetic problems. The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative outcome between pterional and supraorbital keyhole approaches in the patients with anterior circulation aneurysms.
The authors reviewed patients with anterior circulation aneurysms who underwent aneurysm clipping via pterional or supraorbital keyhole approach at a single institute over a period of 2 years. Ninety-eight patients harboring 108 aneurysms were included in this study. Various outcomes were recorded, which included clinical grade, cosmetic problems, patients' satisfaction and complications such as chewing discomfort, frontal muscle weakness, hyposmia, infection.
The supraorbital approach exhibited a shorter operation time compared with the pterional approach. Complications such as chewing discomfort occurred less frequently in the supraorbital approach group. Moreover, the cosmetic outcome was significantly better in the supraorbital group than in the pterional group.
The supraorbital keyhole approach reduced intra- and postoperative complications, including chewing discomfort and cosmetic disturbances, compared with the conventional pterional approach.
Pterional approach; Supraorbital approach; Aneurysm; Clipping; Cosmetic outcome
This study was deigned to evaluate the technique and clinical efficacy of the use of percutaneous transportal sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for patients with gastric varices.
Materials and Methods
Seven patients were treated by transportal sclerotherapy with the use of NBCA. For transportal sclerotherapy, portal vein catheterization was performed with a 6-Fr sheath by the transhepatic approach. A 5-Fr catheter was introduced into the afferent gastric vein and a microcatheter was advanced through the 5-Fr catheter into the varices. NBCA was injected through the microcatheter in the varices by use of the continuous single-column injection technique. After the procedure, postcontrast computed tomography (CT) was performed on the next day and then every six months. Gastroendoscopy was performed at one week, three months, and then every six months after the procedure.
The technical success rate of the procedure was 88%. In six patients, gastric varices were successfully obliterated with 1-8 mL (mean, 5.4 mL) of a NBCA-Lipiodol mixture injected via a microcatheter. No complications related to the procedure were encountered. As seen on the follow-up endoscopy and CT imaging performed after six months, the presence of gastric varcies was not seen in any of the patients after treatment with the NBCA-Lipiodol mixture and the use of microcoils. Recurrence of gastric varices was not observed during the follow-up period. Worsening of esophageal varices occurred in four patients after transportal sclerotherapy. The serum albumin level increased, the ammonia level decreased and the prothrombin time increased at six months after the procedure (p < 0.05).
Percutaneous transportal sclerotherapy with NBCA is useful to obliterate gastric varices if it is not possible to perform balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration.
Interventional procedures, technology; Stomach, varices; Stomach, bleeding; Veins, therapeutic blockade
In order to relieve mechanical obstruction caused by rectal carcinoma, a bare rectal stent was inserted in the sigmoid colon of a 70-year-old female. The procedure was successful, and for one month the patient made good progress. She then complained of abdominal pain, however, and plain radiographs of the chest and abdomen revealed the presence of free gas in the subdiaphragmatic area. Surgical findings showed that a spur at the proximal end of the bare rectal stent had penetrated the rectal mucosal wall. After placing a bare rectal stent for the palliative treatment of colorectal carcinoma, close follow-up to detect possible perforation of the bowel wall is necessary.
Rectum, interventional procedure; Rectum, stenosis, obstruction; Stents, prosthesis
Sudden major cerebral artery occlusion often resists recanalization with currently available techniques or can results in massive symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) after thrombolytic therapy. The purpose of this study was to examine mechanical recanalization with a retrievable self-expanding stent and balloon in acute intracranial artery occlusions.
Twenty-eight consecutive patients with acute intracranial artery occlusions were treated with a Solitaire retrievable stent. Balloon angioplasty was added if successful recanalization was not achieved after stent retrieval. The angiographic outcome was assessed by Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) and the clinical outcomes were assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).
At baseline, mean age was 69.4 years and mean initial NIHSS score was 12.5. A recanalization to TICI 2 or 3 was achieved in 24 patients (85%) after stent retrieval. Successful recanalization was achieved after additional balloon angioplasty in 4 patients. At 90-day follow-up, 24 patients (85%) had a NIHSS improvement of ≥4 and 17 patients (60%) had a good outcome (mRS ≤2). Although there was sICH, there was one death associated with the procedure.
Mechanical thromboembolectomy with a retrievable stent followed by additional balloon angioplasty is a safe and effective first-line therapy for acute intracranial artery occlusions especially in case of unsuccessful recanalization after stent thrombectomy.
Acute cerebral artery occlusion; Mechanical recanalization; Retrievable stent; Balloon angioplasty
Acupuncture regulates inflammation process and growth factors by increasing blood circulation in affected areas. In this study, we examined whether acupuncture has an effect on wound healing in injured rat. Rats were assigned randomly into two groups: control group and acupuncture group. Acupuncture treatment was carried out at 8 sites around the wounded area. We analyzed the wound area, inflammatory cytokines, proliferation of resident cells, and angiogenesis and induction of extracelluar matrix remodeling. At 7 days after-wounding the wound size in acupuncture-treat group was decreased more significantly compared to control group. In addition, the protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly decreased compared to the control at 2 and 7 days post-wounding. Also, we analyzed newly generated cells by performing immunostaining for PCNA and using several phenotype markers such as CD-31, α-SMA, and collagen type I. In acupuncture-treated group, PCNA-positive cell was increased and PCNA labeled CD-31-positive vessels, α-SMA- and collagen type I-positive fibroblastic cells, were increased compared to the control group at 7 days post-wounding. These results suggest that acupuncture may improve wound healing through decreasing pro-inflammatory response, increasing cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and inducing extracellular matrix remodeling.
Proton pump is an integral membrane protein that is ubiquitous ATP binding cassette (ABC) involved in many transport processes in all living organisms, among which a specialized form of pump, so called p-type proton pump, exists in the parietal cells of stomach. Though proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are frequently prescribed to prevent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced gastric damage, the acid suppressive actions do not suffice to explain.
In order to document the effects of pantoprazole, one of PPIs, on the NSAIDs-induced gastric damage, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. Immunocytochemistry, Western blot analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and RT-PCR were conducted to evaluate the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through Nrf2 activation in normal gastric mucosal RGM-1 cells or in vivo stomach tissues from rats treated with indomethacin and/or pantoprazole.
Pantoprazole activated Nrf2 through inactivation of Keap1, after which the expression of HO-1 was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner in RGM-1 cells. Increased ARE-DNA binding activity was observed maximally at 1 h with 300 μM of pantoprazole. The expression of HO-1 induced by pantoprazole was significantly associated with the increased in vitro tube formation (P < 0.05) and angiogenic factors including VEGF, bFGF, and HIF-1α. Indomethacin markedly increased the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-8, NOX-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM, whereas pantoprazole significantly decreased the expressions of indomethacin-induced these inflammatory mediators in accord with pantoprazole-induced HO-1 (P < 0.05) as documented with HO-1 inhibitor. In vivo model of indomethacin-induced gastric damage could validate in vitro-drawn results that pantoprazole remarkably protected against indomethacin-induced gastric damage, in which zinc protoporphyrin (5 mg/kg, ip) significantly abolished the protective efficacy of pantoprazole.
These results demonstrate that Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction of PPIs afforded a significant protective effect against NSAIDs-induced gastric damage beyond acid suppressive actions.
Heme oxygenase-1; Proton pump inhibitor; NSAIDs-induced gastropathy; Nrf2
The predictors of cranioplasty infection after decompressive craniectomy have not yet been fully characterized. The objective of the current study was to compare the long-term incidences of surgical site infection according to the graft material and cranioplasty timing after craniectomy, and to determine the associated factors of cranioplasty infection.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess graft infection in patients who underwent cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy between 2001 and 2011 at a single-center. From a total of 197 eligible patients, 131 patients undergoing 134 cranioplasties were assessed for event-free survival according to graft material and cranioplasty timing after craniectomy. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression methods were employed, with cranioplasty infection identified as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were also evaluated, including autogenous bone resorption, epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma and brain contusion.
The median follow-up duration was 454 days (range 10 to 3900 days), during which 14 (10.7%) patients suffered cranioplasty infection. There was no significant difference between the two groups for event-free survival rate for cranioplasty infection with either a cryopreserved or artificial bone graft (p=0.074). Intergroup differences according to cranioplasty time after craniectomy were also not observed (p=0.083). Poor neurologic outcome at cranioplasty significantly affected the development of cranioplasty infection (hazard ratio 5.203, 95% CI 1.075 to 25.193, p=0.04).
Neurologic status may influence cranioplasty infection after decompressive craniectomy. A further prospective study about predictors of cranioplasty infection including graft material and cranioplasty timing is necessary.
Decompressive craniectomy; Cranioplasty infection; Neurologic outcome; Graft material; Cranioplasty timing
Even in the patients with neurologically good outcome after intracranial aneurysm surgery, their perception of health is an important outcome issue. This study aimed to investigate the quality of life (QOL) and its predictors of patients who had a good outcome following anterior circulation aneurysm surgery as using the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Korean version.
We treated 280 patients with 290 intracranial aneurysms for 2 years. This questionnaire was taken and validated by 99 patients whose Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 4 and more and Global deterioration scale 3 and less at 6 months after the operation, and 85 normal persons. Each domain and facet was compared between the two groups, and a subgroup analysis was performed on the QOL values and hospital expenses of the aneurysm patients according to the type of craniotomy, approach, bleeding of the aneurysm and brain injury.
Aneurysm patients showed a lower quality of life compared with control patients in level of independence, psychological, environmental, and spiritual domains. In the environmental domain, there were significant intergroup differences according to the type of craniotomy and the surgical approach used on the patients (p<0.05). The hospital charges were also significantly different according to the type of craniotomy (p<0.05).
Despite good neurological status, patients surgically treated for anterior circulation aneurysm have a low quality of life. The craniotomy size may affect the QOL of patients who underwent an anterior circulation aneurysm surgery and exhibited a good outcome.
Anterior circulation aneurysm; Quality of life; Craniotomy size; Surgical approach
Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbene) has received considerable attention recently for the potential neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative disorders where heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) represent promising therapeutic targets. Resveratrol has been known to increase HO-1 expression and SIRT1 activity. In this study, the effects of resveratrol and trans-3,5,4’-trimethoxystilbene (TMS), a resveratrol derivative, on cytotoxicity caused by glutamate-induced oxidative stress, HO-1 expression, and SIRT1 activation have been investigated by using murine hippocampal HT22 cells, which have been widely used as an in vitro model for investigating glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Resveratrol protected HT22 neuronal cells from glutamateinduced cytotoxicity and increased HO-1 expression as well as SIRT1 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Cytoprotec-tion afforded by resveratrol was partially reversed by the specific inhibition of HO-1 expression by HO-1 small interfering RNA and the nonspecific blockage of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX, but not by SIRT1 inhibitors. Surprisingly, TMS, a resveratrol derivative with methoxyl groups in lieu of the hydroxyl groups, and trans-stilbene, a non-hydroxylated analog, failed to protect HT22 cells from glutamate-induced cytotoxicity and to increase HO-1 expression and SIRT1 activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that the cytoprotective effect of resveratrol was at least in part associated with HO-1 expression but not with SIRT1 activation and, importantly, that the presence of hydroxyl groups on the benzene rings of resveratrol appears to be necessary for cytoprotection against glutamate-induced oxidative stress, HO-1 expression, and SIRT1 activation in HT22 neuronal cells.
Resveratrol; trans-3; 5; 4'-Trimethoxystilbene; Heme oxygenase-1; Sirtuin 1; Oxidative stress; Neuroprotection
Previously, we reported that Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and gastric cancer are closely associated with increased levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and that Korean red ginseng significantly reduced the severity of H. pylori-associated gastric diseases by attenuating H2S generation. Because the incubation of endothelial cells with H2S has been known to enhance their angiogenic activities, we hypothesized that the amelioration of H2S-induced gastric inflammation or angiogenesis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) might explain the preventive effect of Korean red ginseng on H. pylori-associated carcinogenesis. The expression of inflammatory mediators, angiogenic growth factors, and angiogenic activities in the absence or presence of Korean red ginseng extracts (KRGE) were evaluated in HUVECs stimulated with the H2S generator sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS). KRGE efficiently decreased the expression of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, enzymes that are essential for H2S synthesis. Concomitantly, a significant decrease in the expression of inflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and several angiogenic factors, including interleukin (IL)-8, hypoxia inducible factor-1a, vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-6, and matrix metalloproteinases, was observed; all of these factors are normally induced after NaHS. An in vitro angiogenesis assay demonstrated that NaHS significantly increased tube formation in endothelial cells, whereas KRGE pretreatment significantly attenuated tube formation. NaHS activated p38 and Akt, increasing the expression of angiogenic factors and the proliferation of HUVECs, whereas KRGE effectively abrogated this H2S-activated angiogenesis and the increase in inflammatory mediators in vascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, KRGE was able to mitigate H2S-induced angiogenesis, implying that antagonistic action against H2S-induced angiogenesis may be the mechanism underlying the gastric cancer preventive effects of KRGE in H. pylori infection.
Panax ginseng; Hydrogen sulfide; Helicobacter pylori; Korean red ginseng; Angiogenesis; Cancer prevention
To evaluate the usefulness of percutaneous aspiration thromboembolectomy (PAT) via a transbrachial approach in patients with acute upper limb ischemia.
Materials and Methods
From July 2004 to March 2008, eleven patients with acute upper limb ischemia were enrolled in this study. They were initially treated with thrombolysis (n = 1), PAT (n = 6), or both (n = 4) via a femoral artery approach. However, all of the patients had residual thrombus in the brachial artery, which was subsequently managed by PAT via the transbrachial approach for removal of residual emboli.
Successful re-canalization after PAT via a transbrachial approach was achieved in all patients. Two patients experienced early complications: one experienced a massive hematoma of the upper arm due to incomplete compression and was treated by stent deployment. The other patient experienced a re-occlusion of the brachial artery the day after the procedure due to excessive manual compression of the puncture site, but did not show recurrence of ischemic symptoms in the artery of the upper arm. Clinical success with complete resolution of ischemic symptoms was achieved in all patients.
PAT via a transbrachial approach is a safe and effective treatment for patients with acute upper limb ischemia.
Acute limb ischemia; Artery; Endovascular treatment
This study investigated the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the motor pathway in the transient ischemic rat brain that were transplanted through the carotid artery, measuring motor-evoked potential (MEP) in the four limbs muscle and the atlantooccipital membrane, which was elicited after monopolar and bipolar transcortical stimulation. After monopolar stimulation, the latency of MEP was significantly prolonged, and the amplitude was less reduced in the BMSC group in comparison with the control group (P < .05). MEPs induced by bipolar stimulation in the left forelimb could be measured in 40% of the BMSC group and the I wave that was not detected in the control group was also detected in 40% of the BMSC group. Our preliminary results imply that BMSCs transplanted to the ischemic rat brain mediate effects on the functional recovery of the cerebral motor cortex and the motor pathway.
Sodium ozagrel (SO) prevents platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction in the cerebral ischemia. It plays an important role in the prevention of brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Recently, many animal studies have suggested that the Panax ginseng (PG) has neuroprotective effects in the ischemic brain. In this study, we assessed the neuroprotective effects that come from a combination therapy of SO and PG in rat models with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Animals with MCAO were assigned randomly to one of the following four groups: (1) control (Con) group, (2) SO group (3 mg/kg, intravenously), (3) PG group (200 mg/kg, oral feeding), and (4) SO + PG group. The rats were subjected to a neurobehavior test including adhesive removal test and rotarod test at 1, 3, 7, 10, and 15 days after MCAO. The cerebral ischemic volume was quantified by Metamorph imaging software after 2-3-5-triphenyltetrazolium (TTC) staining. The neuronal cell survival and astrocytes expansion were assessed by immunohistofluorescence staining. In the adhesive removal test, the rats of PG or SO + PG group showed significantly better performance than those of the control group (Con: 88.1 ± 24.8, PG: 43.6 ± 11, SO + PG: 11.8 ± 7, P < .05). Notably, the combination therapy group (SO + PG) showed better performance than the SO group alone (SO: 56 ± 12, SO + PG: 11.8 ± 7, P < .05). In TTC staining for infarct volume, cerebral ischemic areas were also significantly reduced in the PG group and SO + PG group (Con: 219 ± 32, PG: 117 ± 8, SO + PG: 99 ± 11, P < .05). Immunohistofluorescence staining results showed that the group which received SO + PG group therapy had neuron cells in the normal range. They also had a low number of astrocytes and apoptotic cells compared with the control or SO group in the peri-infarction area. During astrocytes staining, compared to the SO + PG group, the PG group showed only minor differences in the number of NeuN-positive cells and quantitative analysis of infarct volume. In conclusion, these studies showed that in MCAO rat models, the combination therapy with SO and PG may provide better neuroprotective effects such as higher neuronal cell survival and inhibition of astrocytes expansion than monotherapy with SO alone.
To assess the clinical outcomes of the transcatheter microcoil embolization in patients with active lower gastrointestinal (LGI) bleeding in the small bowel, as well as to compare the mortality rates between the two groups based on the visualization or non-visualization of the bleeding focus determined by an angiography.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively evaluated all of the consecutive patients who underwent an angiography for treatment of acute LGI bleeding between January 2003 and October 2007. In total, the study included 36 patients who underwent a colonoscopy and were diagnosed to have an active bleeding in the LGI tracts. Based on the visualization or non-visualization of the bleeding focus, determined by an angiography, the patients were classified into two groups. The clinical outcomes included technical success, clinical success (no rebleeding within 30 days), delayed rebleeding (> 30 days), as well as the major and minor complication rates.
Of the 36 patients, 17 had angiography-proven bleeding that was distal to the marginal artery. The remaining 19 patients did not have a bleeding focus based on the angiography results. The technical and clinical success rates of performing transcatheter microcoil embolizations in patients with active bleeding were 100% and 88%, respectively (15 of 17). One patient died from continued LGI bleeding and one patient received surgery to treat the continued bleeding. There was no note made on the delayed bleeding or on the major or minor complications. Of the 19 patients without active bleeding, 16 (84%) did not have recurrent bleeding. One patient died due to continuous bleeding and multi-organ failure.
The superselective microcoil embolization can help successfully treat patients with active LGI bleeding in the small bowel, identified by the results of an angiography. The mortality rate is not significantly different between the patients of the visualization and non-visualization groups on angiography.
Gastrointestinal bleeding; Selective embolization; Angiography, microcoils
To determine if a combination of ferucarbotran-enhanced T2*weighted-gradient echo (T2*W-GRE) and T2-weighted turbo spin echo (T2W-TSE) images in gadolinium- and ferucarbotran-enhanced MRI has additive efficacy compared to each image alone for detecting small (≤ 2.0 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions in a group of cirrhotic patients and metastases in a group of non-cirrhotic patients.
Materials and Methods
Two readers retrospectively analyzed gadolinium- and ferucarbotran-enhanced T2*W-GRE, T2W-TSE, and combined T2*W-GRE/T2W-TSE images of 119 patients with 157 HCCs and 32 patients with 98 metastases. The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for each image set and the combined set were evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operating characteristic method.
The mean area under the curve value of the combined set (0.966) tended to be better than that for each individual image set (T2W-TSE [0.910], T2*W-GRE [0.892]). Sensitivities in the combined set were higher than those in each individual image set for detecting HCC (mean, 93.0% versus 81.6% and 86.7%, respectively, p < 0.01). Sensitivities in the combined set and the T2W-TSE set were the same for detecting metastases, and both were higher than the sensitivity seen in the T2*W-GRE set (mean, 97.5% versus 85.2%, p < 0.01).
Combining ferucarbotran-enhanced T2*W-GRE and T2W-TSE has additive efficacy for detecting HCC in cirrhotic patients, but T2W-TSE is preferred for detecting metastases in non-cirrhotic patients.
Liver, neoplasm; Liver, MR; Liver, cirrhosis; Magnetic resonance (MR), contrast media
We wanted to investigate the usefulness of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system in assisting radiologists to diagnosis malignant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs), as compared with diagnosing SPNs with using direct personal drawing.
Materials and Methods
Forty patients with SPNs were analyzed. After the pre-contrast scan was performed, an additional ten series of post-contrast images were obtained at 20-second intervals. Two investigators measured the attenuation values of the SPNs: a radiologist who drew the regions of interest (ROIs), and a technician who used a CAD system. The Bland and Altman plots were used to compare the net enhancement between a CAD system and direct personal drawing. The diagnostic characteristics of the malignant SPNs were calculated by considering the CAD and direct personal drawing and with using Fisher's exact test.
On the Bland and Altman plot, the net enhancement difference between the CAD system and direct personal drawing was not significant (within ± 2 standard deriation). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of diagnosing malignant SPNs using CAD was 92%, 85%, 75%, 96% and 88%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of diagnosing malignant SPNs using direct drawing was 92%, 89%, 79%, 92% and 88%, respectively.
The CAD system was a useful tool for diagnosing malignant SPNs.
Computers, diagnosis aid; Lung neoplasms, diagnosis; Lung neoplasms, nodule
To evaluate the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of the patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy associated with athetoid cerebral palsy.
The authors reviewed the clinical and neurodiagnostic findings, surgical managements and outcomes in six consecutive patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy associated with athetoid cerebral palsy who had been treated with surgical decompression and fusion procedures between January 1999 and December 2005. The mean age of the 6 patients (four women and two men) at the time of surgery was 42.8 years (range, 31-55 years). The mean follow-up period was 56.5 months (range, 17-112 months). The neurological outcome was evaluated before and after operations (immediately, 6 months after and final follow-up) using grading systems of the walking ability, brachialgia and deltoid power.
At immediate postoperative period, after 6 months, and at final follow-up, all patients showed apparent clinical improvements in walking ability, upper extremity pain and deltoid muscle strength. Late neurological deterioration was not seen during follow-up periods. There were no serious complications related to surgery.
Surgical decompression and stabilization in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy associated with athetoid cerebral palsy have been challenging procedure up to now. Our results indicate that early diagnosis and appropriate surgical procedure can effectively improve the clinical symptoms and neurological function in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and athetoid cerebral palsy, even in those with severe involuntary movements.
Cerebral Palsy; Spinal Cord Compression; Decompression; Instrumentation
To assess the technical feasibility and complications of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a monopolar wet electrode for the treatment of inoperable non-small cell lung malignancies.
Materials and Methods
Sixteen patients with a non-small cell lung malignancy underwent RFA under CT guidance. All the patients were non-surgical candidates, with mean maximum tumor diameters ranging from 3 to 6 cm (mean: 4.6 ± 1.1 cm). A single 16-gauge open-perfused electrode with a 2 cm exposed tip was used for the procedure. A 0.9% NaCl saline solution was used as the perfusion liquid with the flow adjusted to 30 mL/h. The radiofrequency energy was applied for 10-40 minutes. The response to RFA was evaluated by performing contrast-enhanced CT immediately after RFA, one month after treatment and then every three months thereafter.
Technical failure was observed in six (37.5%) of 16 patients: intractable pain (n = 2) and non-stop coughing (n = 4). The mean follow-up interval was 15 ± 8 months (range: 9-31 months). The mean maximum ablated diameter in the technically successful group of patients ranged from 3.5 to 7.5 cm (mean 5.1 ± 1.3 cm). Complete necrosis was attained for eight (80%) of 10 lesions, and partial necrosis was achieved for two lesions. There were two major complications (2/10, 20%) encountered: a hemothorax (n = 1) and a bronchopleural fistula (n = 1).
Although RFA using a monopolar wet electrode can create a large ablation zone, it is associated with a high rate of technical failure when used to treat inoperable non-small cell lung malignancies.
Radiofrequency (RF) ablation; Lung neoplasm; Lung, interventional procedure; Lung, CT
We wanted to determine the technical and clinical efficacy of using a PTFE-covered self-expandable nitinol stent for the palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction.
Materials and Methods
Thirty-seven patients with common bile duct strictures caused by malignant disease were treated by placing a total of 37 nitinol PTFE stents. These stents were covered with PTFE with the exception of the last 5 mm at each end; the stent had an unconstrained diameter of 10 mm and a total length of 50-80 mm. The patient survival rate and stent patency rate were calculated by performing Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The bilirubin, serum amylase and lipase levels before and after stent placement were measured and then compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The average follow-up duration was 27.9 weeks (range: 2-81 weeks).
Placement was successful in all cases. Seventy-six percent of the patients (28/37) experienced adequate palliative drainage for the remainder of their lives. There were no immediate complications. Three patients demonstrated stent sludge occlusion that required PTBD (percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage) irrigation. Two patients experienced delayed stent migration with stone formation at 7 and 27 weeks of follow-up, respectively. Stent insertion resulted in acute elevations of the amylase and lipase levels one day after stent insertion in 11 patients in spite of performing endoscopic sphincterotomy (4/6). The bilirubin levels were significantly reduced one week after stent insertion (p < 0.01). The 30-day mortality rate was 8% (3/37), and the survival rates were 49% and 27% at 20 and 50 weeks, respectively. The primary stent patency rates were 85%, and 78% at 20 and 50 weeks, respectively.
The PTFE-covered self-expandable nitinol stent is safe to use with acceptable complication rates. This study is similar to the previous studies with regard to comparing the patency rates and survival rates.
Biliary tract, malignant obstruction; Biliary tract, interventional procedures; Prosthesis, stent
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the ultrasonographic (US) findings of rupture and the healing process of the medial head of the gastrocnemius ("Tennis Leg").
Materials and Methods
Twenty-two patients (age range: 30 to 45 years) with clinically suspected ruptures of the medial head of the gastrocnemius were referred to us for US examination. All the patients underwent US of the affected limb and the contralateral asymptomatic limb. Follow-up clinical evaluation and US imaging of all patients were performed at two-week intervals during the month after injury and at one-month intervals during the following six months.
Of the 22 patients who had an initial US examination after their injury, partial rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle was identified in seven patients (31.8%); the remaining 15 patients were diagnosed with complete rupture. Fluid collection between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle was identified in 20 patients (90.9%). The thickness of the fluid collection, including the hematoma in the patients with complete rupture (mean: 9.7 mm), was significantly greater than that seen in the patients with partial tear (mean: 6.8 mm) (p < 0.01). The primary union of the medial head of the gastrocnemius with the soleus muscle in all the patients with muscle rupture and fluid collection was recognized via the hypoechoic tissue after four weeks.
Ultrasonography is a useful imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up examination for the patients suffering with rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius.
Muscles; Muscle, injuries; Muscle, gastrocnemius; Athletic injuries; Ultrasound (US)
To compare the effect of radio frequency ablation (RFA) on the dimensions of radio frequency coagulation necrosis in a rabbit lung using a wet electrode in monopolar mode with that in dual electrode bipolar mode at different infusion rates (15 mm/hr versus 30 ml/hr) and saline concentrations (0.9% normal versus 5.8% hypertonic saline).
Materials and Methods
Fifty ablation zones (one ablation zone in each rabbit) were produced in 50 rabbits using one or two 16-guage wet electrodes with a 1-cm active tip. The RFA system used in the monopolar and dual electrode wet bipolar RFA consisted of a 375-kHz generator (Elektrotom HiTT 106, Berchtold, Medizinelektronik, Germany). The power used was 30 watts and the exposure time was 5 minutes. The rabbits were assigned to one of five groups. Group A (n = 10) was infused with 0.9% NaCl used at a rate of 30 ml/hr in a monopolar mode. Groups B (n = 10) and C (n = 10) were infused with 0.9% NaCl at a rate of 15 and 30 ml/hr, respectively in dual electrode bipolar mode; groups D (n = 10) and E (n = 10) were infused with 5.8% NaCl at a rate of 15 and 30 ml/hr, respectively in a dual electrode bipolar mode. The dimensions of the ablation zones in the gross specimens from the groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance by means of the Scheffe test (post-hoc testing).
The mean largest diameter of the ablation zones was larger in dual electrode bipolar mode (30.9±4.4 mm) than in monopolar mode (22.5±3.5 mm). The mean smallest diameter of the ablation zones was larger in dual electrode bipolar mode (22.3±2.5 mm) than in monopolar mode (19.5±3.5 mm). There were significant differences in the largest and smallest dimension between the monopolar (group A) and dual electrode wet bipolar mode (groups B-E). In dual electrode bipolar mode, the mean largest diameter of the ablation zones was larger at an infusion rate of 15 ml/hr (34.2±4.0 mm) than at 30 ml/hr (27.6±0.1 mm), and the mean smallest diameter of the ablation zones was larger at an infusion rate of 15 ml/hr (27.2±7.5 mm) than at an infusion rate of 30 ml/hr (24±2.9 mm).
Using a wet electrode, dual electrode bipolar RFA can create a larger ablation zone more efficiently than monopolar RFA.
Lung, interventional procedures; Radio-frequency ablation; Experimental study
We present a case of a 55-year-old woman with pontine infarction and fenestration of the basilar artery that was demonstrated using virtual endoscopy. The patient had motor weakness of the right side with sudden onset. Diffusion- and T2-weighted MR images revealed high signal intensities in the left pontine regions, and an MR angiographic examination showed the double-lumen sign of the basilar artery. An extensive duplication-type, nonseparated fenestration of the basilar artery was diagnosed by virtual endoscopy and craniocaudal communications with discrete openings were observed. We report a case of a patient with basilar artery fenestration and associated brainstem infarction.
Fenestration; Basilar artery; Brainstem infarction; Virtual arterial endoscopy
This study was undertaken to compare renal damage, as determined by serum creatinine and degree of apoptosis, caused by iodinated contrast or gadolinium in an acute renal failure (ARF) rat model. Rats were divided into three groups; controls (n=3), a CT contrast medium group (n=9), and an MR contrast medium group (n=9). The CT and MR groups were further subdivided into three groups, namely, low, standard, and high dose subgroups. Renal function was evaluated by determining serum creatinine levels; before ARF, and 48 hr after ARF and contrast administration. Apoptosis was assayed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). No significant creatinine level differences were observed between the CT and MR groups (p=0.116). Degrees of apoptosis in the renal cortex and medulla were more severe in the CT contrast medium group than in the control or MR contrast medium group (p<0.05). The study shows that CT contrast medium did not aggravate renal function more so than MR contrast medium in this ARF rat model. However, apoptosis examination in the renal cortex and medulla indicated that CT contrast medium induced more severe apoptosis than MR contrast medium (p<0.05). We conclude that CT contrast medium can be used for renal imaging studies when subjects are well hydrated and preventive medication is administered.
Renal Function; Contrast Media; Kidney Failure, Acute; Animal Experimentation, Apoptosis; Iodopyridones; Gadolinium