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1.  Semi-Quantitative Analyses of Hippocampal Heat Shock Protein-70 Expression Based on the Duration of Ischemia and the Volume of Cerebral Infarction in Mice 
Objective
We investigated the expression of hippocampal heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70) infarction volume after different durations of experimental ischemic stroke in mice.
Methods
Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in mice by occluding the middle cerebral artery with the modified intraluminal filament technique. Twenty-four hours after ischemia induction, both hippocampi were extracted for HSP-70 protein analyses. Slices from each hemisphere were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (2%), and infarction volumes were calculated. HSP-70 levels were evaluated using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HSP-70 subtype (hsp70.1, hspa1a, hspa1b) mRNA levels in the hippocampus were measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Results
Cerebral infarctions were found ipsilateral to the occlusion in 10 mice exposed to transient ischemia (5 each in the 30-min and 60-min occlusion groups), whereas no focal infarctions were noted in any of the sham mice. The average infarct volumes of the 2 ischemic groups were 22.28±7.31 mm3 [30-min group±standard deviation (SD)] and 38.06±9.53 mm3 (60-min group±SD). Western blot analyses and ELISA showed that HSP-70 in hippocampal tissues increased in the infarction groups than in the sham group. However, differences in HSP-70 levels between the 2 infarction groups were statistically insignificant. Moreover, RT-PCR results demonstrated no relationship between the mRNA expression of HSP-70 subtypes and occlusion time or infarction volume.
Conclusion
Our results indicated no significant difference in HSP-70 expression between the 30- and 60-min occlusion groups despite the statistical difference in infarction volumes. Furthermore, HSP-70 subtype mRNA expression was independent of both occlusion duration and cerebral infarction volume.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.6.307
PMCID: PMC4166325  PMID: 25237425
Cerebral infarction volume; Heat shock protein; Occlusion time
2.  The Role of Adiponectin in Secondary Inflammatory Reaction in Cerebral Ischemia 
Objective
In this study, we investigate the role of adiponectin in the interaction between leukocytes and endothelium in the secondary inflammatory reaction of cerebral ischemia.
Methods
Adiponectin knock-out mice group (APN-KO) (n = 8) and wild-type mice group (WT) (n = 8) were prepared. Each group was sub-divided into 2 groups by reperfusion time. One-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion were induced using the intraluminal filament technique. At 6 and 12 hours after the occlusion, the mice were placed on a stereotactic frame to perform craniotomy in the left parietal area. After craniotomy, a straight pial venule was selected as a target vessel. With the fluorescence intravital microscope, the number of rolling leukocytes and leukocytes that adhered to endothelium were counted and documented at 6 and 12 hours after the reperfusion.
Results
At 6 and 12 hours after the reperfusion, more rolling leukocyte and leukocyte adhesion were observed in the APN-KO mice than in the WT mice. The difference in leukocyte numbers between the APN-KO and WT mice was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.029) by Mann-Whitney U-test.
Conclusion
We found that adiponectin inhibits the interaction between the endothelium and leukocytes in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Therefore adiponectin might prevent the secondary insult caused by the inflammation reaction.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2013.15.3.171
PMCID: PMC3804654  PMID: 24167796
Adiponectin; Cerebral ischemia; Secondary inflammatory reaction; MCAO-R
3.  Modified Open-door Laminoplasty Using Hydroxyapatite Spacers and Miniplates 
Korean Journal of Spine  2014;11(3):188-194.
Objective
Cervical laminoplasty has been widely accepted as one of the major treatments for cervical myelopathy and various modifications and supplementary procedures have been devised to achieve both proper decompression and stability of the cervical spine. We present the retrospectively analyzed results of a modified unilateral open-door laminoplasty using hydroxyapatite (HA) spacers and malleable titanium miniplates.
Methods
From June 2008 to May 2012, among patients diagnosed with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, the patients who received laminoplasty were reviewed. Clinical outcome was assessed using Frankel grade and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. The radiologic parameters were obtained from plain films, 3-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance images.
Results
A total of 125 cervical laminae were operated in 38 patients. 11 patients received 4-level laminoplasty and 27 patients received 3-level laminoplasty. Postoperatively, the mean Frankel grade and JOA score were significantly improved from 3.97 to 4.55 and from 12.76 to 14.63, respectively (p<0.001). Radiologically, cervical curvature was worsened from 19.09 to 15.60 (p=0.025). The percentage of range of motion preservation was 73.32±22.39%. The axial dimension of the operated spinal canal was increased from 1.75 to 2.70 cm2 (p<0.001).
Conclusion
In the presenting study, unilateral open-door laminoplasty using HA spacers and miniplates appears to be a safe, rapid and easy procedure to obtain an immediate and rigid stabilization of the posterior elements of the cervical spine. This modified laminoplasty method showed effective expansion of the spinal canal and favorable clinical outcomes.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2014.11.3.188
PMCID: PMC4206973  PMID: 25346767
Cervical vertebrae; Spinal cord compression; Ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament; Hydroxyapatites; Bone plates
4.  Late Infection from Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion after Twenty Years 
Korean Journal of Spine  2014;11(1):22-24.
Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has been performed for degenerative and traumatic cervical diseases to improve pain and neurologic symptoms including sensory change and motor weakness. Infection, however, is a rare complication of ACDF, and late infection is even much rarer. We present a case of late Infection from ACDF C4-5 using Biocompatible Osteoconductive Polymer (BOP) after twenty years in the absence of an esophageal perforation, Zenker's diverticulum, or recent surgery or bacteremia. Late infection from ACDF after 20 years is extremely rare in the literature. However, possibility of such a late complication should be appreciated during the follow-up period and surgical resection will be required for proper treatment.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2014.11.1.22
PMCID: PMC4040633  PMID: 24891869
Infection; Late complication; Late infection
5.  Rupture of De Novo Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm 8 Days after the Clipping of Ruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm 
Rapidly developed de novo aneurysm is very rare. We present a rapidly developed and ruptured de novo anterior communicating aneurysm 8 days after the rupture of another aneurysm. This de novo aneurysm was not apparent in the initial 3-dimensional computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography. We reviewed the literature and discussed possible mechanisms for the development of this de novo aneurysm.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.3.236
PMCID: PMC3836932  PMID: 24278654
De novo aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Aneurysm formation; Computed tomography angiography; Digital subtraction angiography
6.  Triple Primary Origin Tumor: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(2):91-93.
Generally, among the extradural spinal tumors, metastatic spinal tumor is much more common than primary spinal tumors. Thus, in the case of a spinal tumor patient with cancer history (such as lung cancer, breast cancer, etc.), we used to infer that the spinal lesion is the metastasis from, primary malignancy. We introduce an experience of a case of triple primary origin tumor in a 57-year-old man. When the spinal lesion was found on the abdominal computed tomography scan, he already had a history of colon cancer and liver cancer. Initially, it was thought that the lesion would probably be a metastatic tumor from the liver or colon cancers, and the operation was performed accordingly. In the pathologic final report, however, the mass was proven to plasmacytoma - the third primary lesion. The patient underwent chemotherapy after surgery. Globally, the triple primary origin tumor has been reported very rarely. With this report, we wish to emphasize the necessity of pathologic confirmation and adequate treatment even in a patient with known malignancies.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2013.10.2.91
PMCID: PMC3941720  PMID: 24757467
Triple primary origin tumor; Spinal metastasis; Primary spinal tumor; Pathologic diagnosis
7.  Fatal Case of Cerebral Aspergillosis : A Case Report and Literature Review 
Cerebral aspergillosis is rare and usually misdiagnosed because its presentation is similar to that of a tumor. The correct diagnosis is usually made intra-operatively. Cerebral abscess with fungal infection is extremely rare and few cases have been reported, but it carries a poor prognosis.
A 73 year-old man presented with decreased visual acuity and paresis of the right cranial nerve III. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass in the right cavernous sinus, extened to the anterior crainial fossa and the superior orbital fissure. During surgery, a well encapsulated pus pocket was found, and histopathological examination of the mass resulted in the diagnosis of aspergillosis. Despite appropriate anti-fungal treatment, the patient eventually died from fatal cerebral ischemic change and severe brain swelling.
The correct diagnosis of cerebral aspergillosis can only be achieved by histopathological examination because clinical and radiological findings including MRI are not specific. Surgical intervention and antifungal therapy should be considered the optimal treatment. Early diagnosis and aggressive antifungal treatment provide good results.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.420
PMCID: PMC3488657  PMID: 23133737
Aspergillosis; Brain abscess; Neuroaspergillosis; Voriconazole
8.  Risk of Stroke with Temporary Arterial Occlusion in Patients Undergoing Craniotomy for Cerebral Aneurysm 
Objective
This study was performed to elucidate the technical and patient-specific risk factors for postoperative ischemia in patients undergoing temporary arterial occlusion (TAO) during the surgical repair of their aneurysms.
Methods
Eighty-nine consecutive patients in whom TAO was performed during surgical repair of an aneurysm were retrospectively analyzed. The demographics of the patients were analyzed with respect to age, Hunt and Hess grade on admission, Fisher grade of hemorrhage, aneurysm characteristics, timing of surgery, duration of temporary occlusion, and number of temporary occlusive episodes. Outcome was analyzed at the 3-month follow-up, along with the occurrence of symptomatic and radiological stroke.
Results
In overall, twenty-seven patients (29.3%) had radiologic ischemia attributable to TAO and fifteen patients (16.3%) had symptomatic ischemia attributable to TAO. Older age and poor clinical grade were associated with poor clinical outcome. There was a significantly higher rate of symptomatic ischemia in patients who underwent early surgery (p = 0.007). The incidence of ischemia was significantly higher in patients with TAO longer than 10 minutes (p = 0.01). In addition, patients who underwent repeated TAO, which allowed reperfusion, had a lower incidence of ischemia than those who underwent single TAO lasting for more than 10 minutes (p = 0.011).
Conclusion
Duration of occlusion is the only variable that needs to be considered when assessing the risk of postoperative ischemic complication in patients who undergo temporary vascular occlusion. Attention must be paid to the patient's age, grade of hemorrhage, and the timing of surgery. In addition, patients undergoing dissection when brief periods of temporary occlusion are performed may benefit more from intermittent reperfusion than continuous clip application. With careful planning, the use of TAO is a safe technique when used for periods of less than 10 minutes.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.1.31
PMCID: PMC2729821  PMID: 19707491
Temporary arterial occlusion; Intracranial aneurysm; Cerebral ischemia
9.  Biomechanical Study of Lumbar Spinal Arthroplasty with a Semi-Constrained Artificial Disc (Activ L) in the Human Cadaveric Spine 
Objective
The goal of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical features of human cadaveric spines implanted with the Activ L prosthesis.
Methods
Five cadaveric human lumbosacral spines (L2-S2) were tested for different motion modes, i.e. extension and flexion, right and left lateral bending and rotation. Baseline measurements of the range of motion (ROM), disc pressure (DP), and facet strain (FS) were performed in six modes of motion by applying loads up to 8 Nm, with a loading rate of 0.3 Nm/second. A constant 400 N axial follower preload was applied throughout the loading. After the Activ L was implanted at the L4-L5 disc space, measurements were repeated in the same manner.
Results
The Activ L arthroplasty showed statistically significant decrease of ROM during rotation, increase of ROM during flexion and lateral bending at the operative segment and increase of ROM at the inferior segment during flexion. The DP of the superior disc of the operative site was comparable to those of intact spine and the DP of the inferior disc decreased in all motion modes, but these were not statistically significant. For FS, statistically significant decrease was detected at the operative facet during flexion and at the inferior facet during rotation.
Conclusion
In vitro physiologic preload setting, the Activ L arthroplasty showed less restoration of ROM at the operative and adjacent levels as compared with intact spine. However, results of this study revealed that there are several possible theoretical useful results to reduce the incidence of adjacent segment disease.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.3.169
PMCID: PMC2666119  PMID: 19352479
Biomechanics; Lumbar spinal arthroplasty; Activ L; Range of motion; Disc pressure; Facet strain
10.  Radiologic Assessment of Subsidence in Stand-Alone Cervical Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Cage 
Objective
Aim of study was to find a proper method for assessing subsidence using a radiologic measurement following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK), Solis™ cage.
Methods
Forty-two patients who underwent ACDF with Solis™ cage were selected. With a minimum follow-up of 6 months, the retrospective investigation was conducted for 37 levels in 32 patients. Mean follow-up period was 18.9 months. Total intervertebral height (TIH) of two fused vertebral bodies was measured on digital radiographs with built-in software. Degree of subsidence (ΔTIH) was reflected by the difference between the immediate postoperative and follow-up TIH. Change of postoperative disc space height (CT-MRΔTIH) was reflected by the difference between TIH of the preoperative mid-sagittal 2D CT and that of the preoperative mid-sagittal T1-weighted MRI.
Results
Compared to preoperative findings, postoperative disc height was increased in all cases and subsidence was observed only in 3 cases. For comparison of subsidence and non-subsidence group, TIH and CT-MRΔTIH of each group were analyzed. There was no statistically significant difference in TIH and CT-MRΔTIH between each group at 4 and 8 weeks, but a difference was observed at the last follow-up TIH (p=0.0497).
Conclusion
ACDF with Solis™ cage was associated with relatively good radiologic long-term results. Fusion was achieved in 94.5% and subsidence occurred in 8.1% by the radiologic assessment. Statistical analysis reveals that the subsidence seen later than 8 weeks after surgery and the development of subsidence does not correlate statistically with the change of the postoperative disc space height.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.6.370
PMCID: PMC2615140  PMID: 19137081
Cervical PEEK cage; Radiologic assessment; subsidence; Fusion rate; Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

Results 1-10 (10)