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1.  The Patterns of Intraosseous Venography before Percutaneous Vertebroplasty for Osteoporotic Compression Fractures 
Objective
Bone cement leakage is a well-known potential complication of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in patients with osteoporotic compression fracture. Even though there has been a controversy in the efficacy of antecedent venography to prevent this complication, many authors have performed intraosseous venography before bone cement injection. The goal of this study was to classify the venous drainage patterns of spine before PVP, and compare their patterns at different vertebral levels.
Methods
The authors retrospectively reviewed 1,042 intraosseous venographic patterns in 321 patients with 574 osteoporotic compression fractures during six-year period in one institution. To classify venogram patterns, we selected simple lateral X-ray of spine taken immediately after injection of the contrast dye. We classified the venography patterns according to contrast leakage pattern and leakage direction as follows; trabecular (TR), trabecular anterior (TA), trabecular posterior (TP), trabecular anterior-posterior (TAP), trabecular lateral (TL), venous anterior(VA), venous posterior (VP), venous anterior-posterior (VAP), soft tissue (ST). Also, we compared venogram patterns according to different spinal levels.
Results
In overall, the most common pattern was TP type accounting for 37.4% (390/1042) of all intraosseous venograms. This is followed by TAP in 21.5%, TR 17.4%, TA 11.6%, TL 5.8%, ST 4.1%, VA 1.2%, VP 0.6%, and VAP 0.4% in descending order of frequency. According to the spinal level, TR and TAP types were most common in thoracic spine (T6-T10), TP type was most common in thoraco-lumbar spine (T11-L2), and TP and TAP types were most common in lumbo-sacral spine (L3-S1). Contrast dye leakage to soft tissue such as psoas muscle or disc were detected in 43 (4.1%) venograms. Direct venous drainage without staining of vertebral body was found in 23 (2.2%) venograms. The 8.3% of thoracic venogram showed direct venous drainage. Thoracic level showed a more tendency of direct venous drainage than other spine levels (p<0.01).
Conclusion
The authors propose a new classification system of intraosseous venography during PVP. The trabecular-posterior (TP) type is most common through all spine, and venous-filling (V) type was most frequent in thoracic spine. Further study would be necessary to elucidate the efficacy of this classification system to prevent bone cement leakage during PVP.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.6.288
PMCID: PMC2588255  PMID: 19096634
Percutaneous vertebroplasty; Bone cement leakage; Venography pattern; Osteoporosis; Compression fracture
2.  Multiple Densities of the Chronic Subdural Hematoma in CT Scans 
Objective
Density of the chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is variable. It often appears to be mixed density. Multiple densities of cSDH may result from multiple episodes of trauma. We investigated the frequency of mixed density and the causes of head injuries representing each density.
Methods
We could collect 242 cases of chronic SDH. The cSDHs were classified into four groups; hypodensity, homogeneous isodensity, layered type, and mixed type on the basis of CT scans.
Results
The density of cSDH was isodense in 115 patients, hypodense in 31 patients, mixed in 79 cases, and layered in 17 cases. The cSDH was on the left side in 115 patients, on the right side in 70 patients, and bilateral in 40 patients. The history of trauma was identifiable in 122 patients. The etiology could be identified in 67.7% of the hypodense hematomas, while it was obscure in 59.5% of the mixed hematomas.
Conclusion
Mixed density of cSDH results from multiple episodes of trauma, usually in the aged. It is hard to remember all the trivial traumas for the patients with the mixed density cSDHs. Although there were membranes within the mixed density hematomas, burr-holes were usually enough to drain the hematomas.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.1.38
PMCID: PMC3772285  PMID: 24044079
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis
3.  Anatomical Morphometric Study of the Cervical Uncinate Process and Surrounding Structures 
Objective
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the anatomic relationships between the uncinate process and surrounding neurovascular structures to prevent possible complications in anterior cervical surgery.
Methods
Twenty-eight formalin-fixed cervical spines were removed from adult cadavers and were studied. The authors investigated the morphometric relationships between the uncinate process, vertebral artery and adjacent nerve roots.
Results
The height of the uncinate process was 5.6-7.5 mm and the width was 5.8-8.0 mm. The angle between the posterior tip of the uncinate process and vertebral artery was 32.2-42.4┬░. The distance from the upper tip of the uncinate process to the vertebral body immediately above was 2.1-3.3 mm, and this distance was narrowest at the fifth cervical vertebrae. The distance from the posterior tip of the uncinate process to the nerve root was 1.3-2.0 mm. The distance from the uncinate process to the vertebral artery was measured at three different points of the uncinate process : upper-posterior tip, lateral wall and the most antero-medial point of the uncinate process, and the distances were 3.6-6.1 mm, 1.7-2.8 mm, and 4.2-5.7 mm, respectively. The distance from the uncinate process tip to the vertebral artery and the angle between the uncinate process tip and vertebral artery were significantly different between the right and left side.
Conclusion
These data provide guidelines for anterior cervical surgery, and will aid in reducing neurovascular injury during anterior cervical surgery, especially in anterior microforaminotomy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.300
PMCID: PMC3488636  PMID: 23133716
Anterior cervical surgery; Foraminotomy; Uncinate process, Vertebral artery; Nerve root
4.  Acute-on-Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Not Uncommon Events 
Objective
Patients with asymptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) are prone to fall or slip. Acute trauma on these patients may develop acute subdural bleeding over the chronic SDH. We recently experienced 9 patients with acute-on-chronic SDH. We report the clinical and radiological features of this lesion.
Methods
We retrospectively examined the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 107 consecutive patients who diagnosed as chronic SDH from January 2008 to December 2010. All cases of CSDH were diagnosed on CT with or without MRI scan.
Results
Acute-on-chronic SDH is not rare, being 8% of chronic SDH. The most common cause of trauma was a slip in drunken state. Alcoholism with multiple episodes of trauma was one of the prominent histories. Acute-on-chronic SDH appeared as a hyperdense layer of clot with irregular blurred margin or lumps in liquefied hematoma. Single or two burr holes was usually effective to remove the hematoma.
Conclusion
Repeated trauma may cause acute bleeding over the chronic SDH. It will be helpful to understand the role of repeated trauma as a mechanism of hematoma enlargement.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.512
PMCID: PMC3272512  PMID: 22323938
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis
5.  What Determines the Laterality of the Chronic Subdural Hematoma? 
Objective
Chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) are more common on the left hemisphere than on the right. We verified this left predilection of CSDH and tried to explain the reason for this discrepancy.
Methods
We investigated the laterality of CSDH in 182 patients who were treated from January 2005 to December 2009. We examined the symmetry of the cranium and the location of the lesion.
Results
CSDH was more common on the left-side. The cranium was symmetric in 63 patients, asymmetric in 119 patients. The asymmetric crania were flat on the right-side in 77 patients, on the left-side in 42 patients. The density of the CSDHs was hypodense in 29 patients, isodense 132 patients, and the others in 21 patients. Bilateral hematomas were more common in the hypodense group. In the right flat crania, the hematoma was more commonly located on the opposite side of the flat side. While in the left flat crania, the hematoma was more common on the same side.
Conclusion
CSDHs occurred more frequently on the left side. The anatomical asymmetry of the cranium influences the left predilection of CSDH.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.6.424
PMCID: PMC2899028  PMID: 20617086
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis; Laterality
6.  Disability Evaluation of the Pain : The Present and Prospect in Korea 
Objective
Pain has long been regarded as a subjective symptom. Recently, however, some regard a type of intractable chronic pain as a disease. Furthermore, chronic persistent pain becomes a cause of permanent impairment (PI). In 6th edition, the American Medical Association (AMA) Guides has rated the pain as a PI. In Korea, pain has been already been rated as a PI. Here, we examined the present status and the prospect of disability evaluation for the pain in Korea.
Methods
Pain can be rated as a PI by the Workmen's Compensation Insurance Act (WCIA) and Patriots and Veterans Welfare Corporation Act (PVWCA) in Korea. We examined the definition, diagnostic criteria and grades of the pain related disability (PRD) in these two acts. We also examined legal judgments, which were made in 2005 for patients with severe pain. We also compared the acts and the judgments to the criteria of the 6th AMA Guides.
Results
The PRD can be rated as one of the 4 grades according to the WCIA. The provisions of the law do not limit the pain only for the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The PRD can be rated as one of the 3 grades by the PVWCA. If there were objective signs such as osteoporosis, joint contracture and muscle atrophy corresponding to the CRPS, the grade is rated as 6. When the pain always interferes with one's job except easy work, the grade is rated as high as 5. In Korea, judicial precedents dealt the pain as a permanent disability in 2005.
Conclusion
Although there were no objective criteria for evaluation of the PRD, pain has been already rated as a PI by the laws or judicial precedents, in Korea. Thus, we should regulate the Korean criteria of PRD like the AMA 6th edition. We also should develop the objective tools for evaluation of the PRD near in future.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.5.293
PMCID: PMC2693789  PMID: 19516947
Pain; Disability evaluation; Treatment outcome; Craniocerebral trauma
7.  Transient Paraparesis After Laminectomy in a Patient with Multi-Level Ossification of the Spinal Ligament 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2004;19(4):624-626.
Acute neurologic deterioration is not a rare event in the surgical decompression for thoracic spinal stenosis. We report a case of transient paraparesis after decompressive laminectomy in a 50-yr-old male patient with multi-level thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum and cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Decompressive laminectomy from T9 to T11 was performed without gross neurological improvement. Two weeks after the first operation, laminoplasty from C4 to C6 and additional decompressive laminectomies of T3, T4, T6, and T8 were performed. Paraparesis developed 3 hr after the second operation, which recovered spontaneously 5 hr thereafter. CT and MRI were immediately performed, but there were no corresponding lesions. Vascular compromise of the borderlines of the arterial supply by microthrombi might be responsible for the paraparesis.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2004.19.4.624
PMCID: PMC2816904  PMID: 15308861
Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament; Ligamentum Flavum; Paraparesis; Laminectomy; Spinal Stenosis; Postoperative Complications

Results 1-7 (7)