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1.  Comparison of Cell-Labeling Methods with 124I-FIAU and 64Cu-PTSM for Cell Tracking Using Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Cells Expressing HSV1-tk and Firefly Luciferase 
Cell-tracking methods with molecular-imaging modality can monitor the biodistribution of cells. In this study, the direct-labeling method with 64Cu-pyruvaldehyde-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (64Cu-PTSM), indirect cell-labeling methods with herpes simplex virus type 1-thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk)-mediated 124I-2′-fluoro-2′-deoxy-1-β-d-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil (124I-FIAU) were comparatively investigated in vitro and in vivo for tracking of human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. K562-TL was established by retroviral transduction of the HSV1-tk and firefly luciferase gene in the K562 cell. K562-TL cells were labeled with 64Cu-PTSM or 124I-FIAU. Cell labeling efficiency, viability, and radiolabels retention were compared in vitro. The biodistribution of radiolabeled K562-TL cells with each radiolabel and small-animal positron emission tomography imaging were performed. Additionally, in vivo and ex vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and tissue reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis were used for confirming those results. K562-TL cells were efficiently labeled with both radiolabels. The radiolabel retention (%) of 124I-FIAU (95.2%±1.1%) was fourfold higher than 64Cu-PTSM (23.6%±0.7%) at 24 hours postlabeling. Viability of radiolabeled cells was statistically nonsignificant between 124I-FIAU and 64Cu-PTSM. The radioactivity of each radiolabeled cells was predominantly accumulated in the lungs and liver at 2 hours. Both the radioactivity of 64Cu-PTSM- and 124I-FIAU-labeled cells was highly accumulated in the liver at 24 hours. However, the radioactivity of 124I-FIAU-labeled cells was markedly decreased from the body at 24 hours. The K562-TL cells were dominantly localized in the lungs and liver, which also verified by BLI and RT-PCR analysis at 2 and 24 hours postinjection. The 64Cu-PTSM-labeled cell-tracking method is more efficient than 124I-FIAU-labeled cell tracking, because of markedly decrease of radioactivity and fast efflux of 124I-FIAU in vivo. In spite of a high labeling yield and radiolabel retention of 124I-FIAU in vitro, the in vivo cell-tracking method using 64Cu-PTSM could be a useful method to evaluate the distribution and targeting of various cell types, especially, stem cells and immune cells.
PMCID: PMC3516418  PMID: 23009582
gene transfer; molecular imaging; PET
2.  Anatomical Morphometric Study of the Cervical Uncinate Process and Surrounding Structures 
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the anatomic relationships between the uncinate process and surrounding neurovascular structures to prevent possible complications in anterior cervical surgery.
Twenty-eight formalin-fixed cervical spines were removed from adult cadavers and were studied. The authors investigated the morphometric relationships between the uncinate process, vertebral artery and adjacent nerve roots.
The height of the uncinate process was 5.6-7.5 mm and the width was 5.8-8.0 mm. The angle between the posterior tip of the uncinate process and vertebral artery was 32.2-42.4°. The distance from the upper tip of the uncinate process to the vertebral body immediately above was 2.1-3.3 mm, and this distance was narrowest at the fifth cervical vertebrae. The distance from the posterior tip of the uncinate process to the nerve root was 1.3-2.0 mm. The distance from the uncinate process to the vertebral artery was measured at three different points of the uncinate process : upper-posterior tip, lateral wall and the most antero-medial point of the uncinate process, and the distances were 3.6-6.1 mm, 1.7-2.8 mm, and 4.2-5.7 mm, respectively. The distance from the uncinate process tip to the vertebral artery and the angle between the uncinate process tip and vertebral artery were significantly different between the right and left side.
These data provide guidelines for anterior cervical surgery, and will aid in reducing neurovascular injury during anterior cervical surgery, especially in anterior microforaminotomy.
PMCID: PMC3488636  PMID: 23133716
Anterior cervical surgery; Foraminotomy; Uncinate process, Vertebral artery; Nerve root
3.  Morphometric Relationship between the Cervicothoracic Cord Segments and Vertebral Bodies 
The objective of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics between the vertebral body and the regions of the cervical and thoracic spinal cords where each rootlets branch out.
Sixteen adult cadavers (12 males and 4 females) with a mean age of 57.9 (range of 33 to 70 years old) were used in this study. The anatomical relationship between the exit points of the nerve roots from the posterior root entry zone at each spinal cord segment and their corresponding relevant vertebral bodies were also analyzed.
Vertical span of the posterior root entry zone between the upper and lower rootlet originating from each spinal segment ranged from 10-12 mm. The lengths of the rootlets from their point of origin at the spinal cord to their entrance into the intervertebral foramen were 5.9 mm at the third cervical nerve root and increased to 14.5 mm at the eighth cervical nerve root. At the lower segments of the nerve roots (T3 to T12), the posterior root entry zone of the relevant nerve roots had a corresponding anatomical relationship with the vertebral body that is two segments above. The posterior root entry zones of the sixth (94%) and seventh (81%) cervical nerve roots were located at a vertebral body a segment above from relevant segment.
Through these investigations, a more accurate diagnosis, the establishment of a better therapeutic plan, and a decrease in surgical complications can be expected when pathologic lesions occur in the spinal cord or vertebral body.
PMCID: PMC3488649  PMID: 23133729
Spinal; Cord; Nerve root; Cervical spine; Thoracic spine; Cadaveric study
4.  The Changes in Range of Motion after a Lumbar Spinal Arthroplasty with Charité™ in the Human Cadaveric Spine under Physiologic Compressive Follower Preload : A Comparative Study between Load Control Protocol and Hybrid Protocol 
To compare two testing protocols for evaluating range of motion (ROM) changes in the preloaded cadaveric spines implanted with a mobile core type Charité™ lumbar artificial disc.
Using five human cadaveric lumbosacral spines (L2-S2), baseline ROMs were measured with a bending moment of 8 Nm for all motion modes (flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) in intact spine. The ROM was tracked using a video-based motion-capturing system. After the Charité™ disc was implanted at the L4-L5 level, the measurement was repeated using two different methods : 1) loading up to 8 Nm with the compressive follower preload as in testing the intact spine (Load control protocol), 2) loading in displacement control until the total ROM of L2-S2 matches that when the intact spine was loaded under load control (Hybrid protocol). The comparison between the data of each protocol was performed.
The ROMs of the L4-L5 arthroplasty level were increased in all test modalities (p < 0.05 in bending and rotation) under both load and hybrid protocols. At the adjacent segments, the ROMs were increased in all modes except flexion under load control protocol. Under hybrid protocol, the adjacent segments demonstrated decreased ROMs in all modalities except extension at the inferior segment. Statistical significance between load and hybrid protocols was observed during bending and rotation at the operative and adjacent levels (p < 0.05).
In hybrid protocol, the Charité™ disc provided a relatively better restoration of ROM, than in the load control protocol, reproducing clinical observations in terms of motion following surgery.
PMCID: PMC2744024  PMID: 19763217
Range of motion; Lumbar spinal arthroplasty; Charité™; Follower preload; Load control protocol; Hybrid protocol

Results 1-4 (4)